Фразовые глаголы в английском языке 9785699776696

Цель предлагаемого учебного пособия – помочь получить, систематизировать и закрепить знания об английских фразовых глаго

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Фразовые глаголы в английском языке
 9785699776696

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УДК 811.111(075.4) ББК 81.2Англ-9 И 48

В оформлении обложки использована фотография: Elnur / Shutterstock.com и иллюстрации: Matthew Cole Используется по лицензии от Shutterstock.com; ayelet keshet, fredy sujono, blueringmedia / Istockphoto / Thinkstock / Fotobank.ru Книга издана при поддержке Агентства современных специалистов и авторов Оформление М. Левыкина

И 48

Ильченко, Валерия Витальевна. Фразовые глаголы в английском языке / В.В. Ильченко. – Москва : Эксмо, 2015. – 288 с. – (Язык без репетитора). ISBN 978-5-699-77669-6 Цель предлагаемого учебного пособия – помочь получить, систематизировать и закрепить знания об английских фразовых глаголах для практического применения в письменной и устной речи. Тематическая подача материала, списки фразовых глаголов с примерами и переводом, а также наличие упражнений с ключами дают возможность легко и быстро разобраться с материалом любой сложности, окажут существенную помощь при подготовке к тестам и экзаменам. Пособие предназначено для широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык в школах, вузах, на курсах, с преподавателем или самостоятельно. УДК 811.111(075.4) ББК 81.2Англ-9

ISBN 978-5-699-77669-6

© Ильченко В.В., 2014 © ООО «Издательство «Эксмо», 2015

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ʝʐʨʗʔ ʠʑʔʓʔʜʗʮ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 5 ͳǤ FOOD Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ12 ʹǤ TRAVEL Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ19 ͵Ǥ HEALTHǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ27 ͶǤ KEEPING FIT Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ34 ͷǤ TIMEǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ41 REVISION ͳȄͷǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ48 ͸Ǥ DESCRIBING PEOPLEǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ55 ͹Ǥ FEELINGSǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ62 ͺǤ RELATIONSHIPS  Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ69 ͻǤ STAGES THROUGH LIFE Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ76 ͳͲǤ DAILY ROUTINES Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ83 REVISION ͸ȄͳͲǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ90 ͳͳǤ STUDYING  Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ98 ͳʹǤ JOBS AND CAREERS Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 105 ͳ͵Ǥ BUSINESSǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 113 ͳͶǤ CHANGEǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 121 ͳͷǤ COMMUNICATION Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 129 REVISION ͳͳȄͳͷ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 136 ͳ͸Ǥ DRIVING Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 143 ͳ͹Ǥ TELEPHONING Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 150 ͳͺǤ TECHNOLOGY Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 157 ͳͻǤ COMPUTERS Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 165 ʹͲǤ MASS MEDIAǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 173 REVISION ͳ͸ȄʹͲ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 181 ʹͳǤ WEATHERǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 187 ʹʹǤ MEMORY Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 194 ʹ͵Ǥ DESCRIBING PLACES Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 201

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PHRASAL VERBS ʹͶǤ MONEY MATTERSǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 209 ʹͷǤ EXCLAMATIONS AND WARNINGSǤ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 216 REVISION ʹͳȄʹͷ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 223 ʹ͸Ǥ SIGNS Ƭ  HEADLINES Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 229 ʹ͹Ǥ PHRASAL NOUNS AND  ADJECTIVES Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 237 ʹͺǤ IDIOMS USING PHRASAL VERBS Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 245 ʹͻǤ NEW PHRASAL VERBS Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 252 ͵ͲǤ INFORMAL LANGUAGE Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 259 REVISION ʹ͸Ȅ͵Ͳ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 266 VOCABULARY Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ 273

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ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ

` Что такое фразовый глагол I. ʛːˑˉˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˔ˑ˅˓ˈˏˈːːˑˆˑ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˑˆˑ ˢˊ˞ˍ˃ ˏˈːˢˡ˕ ˑ˕˕ˈːˍˋ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˃ ˅ ˊ˃˅ˋ˔ˋˏˑ˔˕ˋ ˑ˕ ˕ˑˆˑǡ ˔ ˍ˃ˍˋˏˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ˑːˋ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˢˡ˕˔ˢǤ ʜˑ ˋːˑˆˇ˃ ˏ˞ ˋˏˈˈˏ ˇˈˎˑ ˔ ˕˃ˍˋˏˋ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢˏˋǡ ˅ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˔ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌ ˒˓ˋˑ˄˓ˈ˕˃ˈ˕ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˈǡ ˔ˑ˅ˈ˓˛ˈːːˑ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚ːˑˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˑ˕ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˃ ˔˃ˏˑˆˑ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃Ǥ ʡ˃ˍˋˈ ˖˔˕ˑˌ˚ˋ˅˞ˈ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ː˃ˊ˞˅˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǡ ˋˎˋ ˏːˑˆˑ˔ˎˑ˅ː˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ȋmulti-word verbsȌǤ 1. Tara looked up and saw a rainbow in the sky.— Тара посмотрела вверх и увидела в небе радугу.

ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˋ ːˈ˕ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ǣ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ looked up ˔ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˋˊ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ look ˋ  ː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢ upǤ 2. I always look new words up in the dictionary. — Я всегда ищу новые слова в словаре.

ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˋ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ look up ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǣ ˈˆˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ ːˈ ˔ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˋˊ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ look ˋ ː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢ upǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS II. ʠˑ˔˕˃˅ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˄˞˕˟ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˏǣ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎΪ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˈˋˎˋ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆȌ

или

ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎΪˇ˅ˈ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˞ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˈˋ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆȌǣ

t bring forward Ȅ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˈ t look after Ȅ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ t get through to Ȅ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˈ Ϊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ IIIǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ȋ˄˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ Ϊ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃Ȍ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˈˇˋː˞ˏ ˚ˎˈːˑˏ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǣ “Pulldz Ȅ Ǽ˕ˢː˖˕˟ǡ ˇˈ˓ˆ˃˕˟ǽ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏ ˋ “pull updz Ȅ Ǽ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ǽ ˕˃ˍˉˈ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǡ ˃ ˅ˑ˕ “pull updz Ȅ Ǽ˕ˢː˖˕˟ ˅˅ˈ˓˘ǽ ˑ˔˕˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏ ˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌǤ Roger pulled the curtain aside.  — Роджер отдёрнул штору. The car pulled up at the café.  — Машина затормозила у кафе. Anna pulled the flap up. — Анна потянула дверцу люка вверх.

` Значения фразовых глаголов и их синонимы I. ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˋˏˈ˕˟ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˌǤ ʜˑ ˅˔ˈ ˠ˕ˋ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡ ˢ˅ˎˢˡ˕˔ˢ ˒ˈ˓ˈːˑ˔ː˞ˏˋ ˍ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˡ ˄˃ˊˑ˅ˑˆˑ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃Ǥ pick a bag up off the floor  — поднять сумку с пола; pick up tickets from the box-office  — забрать билеты из кассы; pick up a language  — выучить язык; pick up a cold  — подцепить простуду; pick up a bargain  — купить (по случаю или недорого); pick up the trail — напасть на след; pick up a scent  — уловить запах; pick up a story  — продолжить рассказ.

II. ʓˑ˅ˑˎ˟ːˑ ˚˃˔˕ˑ Ȅ ːˑ ːˈ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃Ǩ Ȅ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˏˈˡ˕ ˔ˋːˑːˋˏ˞ǡ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːː˞ˈ ˑˇːˋˏ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑˏǤ ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˔ˎ˖˚˃ˈ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌˆˎ˃ˆˑˎǡˍ˃ˍ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˈ˕˔ˢ˅˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ːˑˌ ˓ˈ˚ˋǡ ˃ ˈˆˑ Ǽˑˇːˑ˔ˎˑ˅ː˞ˌǽ ˃ː˃ˎˑˆ Ȅ ˅ ˎˋ˕ˈ˓˃˕˖˓ːˑˌ ˋˎˋ ˑ˗ˋ˙ˋ˃ˎ˟ːˑǦˇˈˎˑ˅ˑˌ ˓ˈ˚ˋǤ

6

ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ give up  — renounce fall out  — quarrel pick up  — improve

` Видо-временные формы фразовых глаголов IǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ǡˍ˃ˍˋ˅˔ˈ˒˓ˑ˚ˋˈǡˏˑˆ˖˕˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˑ ˅˔ˈ˘ ˅ˋˇˑǦ˅˓ˈˏˈːː˞˘ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˘ǣ She loads up the washing machine every evening.  — Она загружает стиральную машинку каждый вечер. She is loading up the washing machine now.  — Она загружает стиральную машинку сейчас. She loaded up the washing machine yesterday.  — Она загрузила стиральную машинку вчера. She was loading up the washing machine when you came.  — Она загружала стиральную машинку, когда ты пришел. She has just loaded up the washing machine.  — Она только что загрузила стиральную машинку. She had already loaded up the washing machine when you came.  — Она уже загрузила стиральную машинку, когда ты пришел. She will load up the washing machine tomorrow.  — Она загрузит стиральную машинку завтра.

IIǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˄˞˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏˋ ȋˋˏˈ˕˟ ˒˓ˢˏˑˈ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈȌ ˋˎˋ ːˈ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏˋ ȋːˈ ˋˏˈ˕˟ ˒˓ˢˏˑˆˑ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˢȌǤ ʓˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˄˞˕˟ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˑ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏ ˋˎˋ ˏˈ˔˕ˑˋˏˈːˋˈˏǤ We kept off highways.  — переходный She lives on vegetables.  — переходный The road branched off to the bridge.  — непереходный The rain blew over.  — непереходный

ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˄˞˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏˋ ˅ ˑˇːˑˏ ˋˊ ˔˅ˑˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˌ ˋ ːˈ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏˋ ˅ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏǣ

!

Will you drop me off at the bus stop?  — переходный The film was boring and I soon dropped off.  — непереходный ʢˊː˃˕˟ǡ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏ ˋˎˋ ːˈ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˏǡ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˋˎˋ ˒ˑ ˍˑː˕ˈˍ˔˕˖Ǥ

7

PHRASAL VERBS IIIǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋːˑˆˇ˃ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˋˏˈ˕˟ ˇ˅˃ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˢǤ ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˔ˎ˖˚˃ˈ ˒ˈ˓˅ˑˈ ˋˊ ːˋ˘ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˔˓˃ˊ˖ ˉˈ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ǡ ˃ ˅˕ˑ˓ˑˈ Ȅ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˞ǣ A skilled goldsmith can easily tell a real diamond from a fake.  — Опытный ювелир может легко отличить подлинный брильянт от подделки. The government has been pouring money into the region.  — Правительство накачивает деньгами этот регион.

IVǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˑ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˋˏˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˕ˑ ˑːˑǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˞ǣ I stopped to pick up a young girl hitchhiking all over Europe. The accident cut off water and electricity supplies.

VǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˑ ˎˋ˚ː˞ˏ ˏˈ˔˕ˑˋˏˈːˋˈˏǡ ˕ˑ ˑːˑǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌǣ Jane put on a new dress.  — Jane put a new dress on.  — Jane put it on.

!

Jane put on itǤ

ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˏˈːˢˡ˕ ˔˅ˑˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˈ ˅ ˊ˃˅ˋ˔ˋˏˑ˔˕ˋˑ˕˕ˑˆˑǡˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢˎˋˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈˑˇ˖˛ˈ˅ˎˈːː˞ˏ ˋˎˋ ːˈˑˇ˖˛ˈ˅ˎˈːː˞ˏ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏǤ bring upǣ She has brought up five children.  — Она вырастила пятерых детей. (значение меняется) She has just brought up this issue.  — Она только что подняла этот вопрос. (значение меняется)

flag down The police office flagged me down.  — Полицейский остановил меня. (значение не меняется) The police office flagged down a car.  — Полицейский остановил машину. (значение не меняется)

` Разделяемые и неразделяемые фразовые глаголы IǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˄˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏˋ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌˏˑˉːˑ˒ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈǣ базовый глагол + дополнение + частица.

8

ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ ʟ˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏˋ ˢ˅ˎˢˡ˕˔ˢ ˏːˑˆˋˈ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ

!

ʓˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˔ ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˔˕ˑˢ˕˟ ˍ˃ˍ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌǡ ˕˃ˍ ˋ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ːˈˈǣ I’ve mucked up my English exam.  — I’ve mucked my English exam up. Plug in the kettle, please.  — Plug the kettle in, please.

IIǤ ʣ˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢːˈ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏǡˈ˔ˎˋˏˈˉˇ˖ ˄˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏ ˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙ˈˌ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˒ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ːˈˎ˟ˊˢǤ ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˔ˎ˖˚˃ˈ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈ ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˞ǣ

! ! !

базовый глагол + частица + дополнение. ʜˈ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏˋ ˢ˅ˎˢˡ˕˔ˢ ˅˔ˈ ːˈ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋ ːˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˘ˑˇː˞ˈǣ He ran through his report once more. (run through  — переходный глагол) He ran his report through once moreǤ He ran it through once moreǤ ʢˊː˃˕˟ǡ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏ ˋˎˋ ːˈ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏǡ ˏˑˉːˑ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢǤ

` Трехсловные фразовые глаголы ʡ˓ˈ˘˔ˎˑ˅ː˞ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˒˓ˈˇ˔˕˃˅ˎˢˡ˕ ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˈ Ϊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆǤ ʖ˃ ːˋˏˋ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˈ˕ ˒˓ˢˏˑˈ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˈːˋˈǤ ʑ˔ˈ ˑːˋǡ ˊ˃ ˓ˈˇˍˋˏ ˋ˔ˍˎˡ˚ˈːˋˈˏǡ ˢ˅ˎˢˡ˕˔ˢ ːˈ˓˃ˊˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏˋǤ Phil has failed to live up to his father’s expectations. Pat always shies away from strangers.

` Существительные и прилагательные, образованные от  фразовых глаголов IǤ ʝ˕ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˕ˋ˒˃ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈǡ ˒˓ˋ˚ˈˏ

9

PHRASAL VERBS ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ ˅ ːˑ˅ˑˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːːˑˏ ˔ˎˑ˅ˈ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˔˕ˑˢ˕˟ ˍ˃ˍ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˄˃ˊˑ˅ˑˆˑ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ǡ ˕˃ˍ ˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ːˋˏǣ to rip off  — a rip-off to set on  — an onset to stand out  — outstanding to break down  — broken-down

ʜˈ ˅˔ˈ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈǡ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːː˞ˈˑ˕˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ǡˋˏˈˡ˕ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˟ː˞ˈ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢǣ

!

a fallout  = to fall out, ongoing  = to go on an overkill  β to kill over overpriced  β to price over

II. ʞ˓˃˅ˋˎ˃ ˒˓˃˅ˑ˒ˋ˔˃ːˋˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞˘ǣ t ˈ˔ˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅ˑˈ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːˑ ˒ˑ ˏˑˇˈˎˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ Ϊ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎǡ ˕ˑ ˑːˑ ˒ˋ˛ˈ˕˔ˢ ˔ˎˋ˕ːˑǣ input, outbreak

t ˈ˔ˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅ˑˈ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːˑ ˒ˑ ˏˑˇˈˎˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ Ϊ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ǡ ˕ˑ ˑːˑǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡ ˒ˋ˛ˈ˕˔ˢ ˔ˎˋ˕ːˑǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˠ˕ˑ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˞ Ǧover ˋˎˋ Ǧoutǡ ˋˎˋ ˚ˈ˓ˈˊˇˈ˗ˋ˔ǡˍ˃ˍ˅˔ˎ˖˚˃ˈ˔˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǦinǡǦupˋˇ˓˖ˆˋˏˋ ˏˈːˈˈ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˋˏ˞ˏˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǣ a dropout, a hangover a lie-in, a run-through

III. ʞ˓ˋ ˒˓ˑˋˊːˑ˛ˈːˋˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞˘ ˖ˇ˃˓ˈːˋˈ ˒˃ˇ˃ˈ˕ ː˃ ˒ˈ˓˅˞ˌ ˔ˎˑˆǣ a university DROPout an awful RIP-off a DOWNturn in prices

ʞ˓ˋ ˒˓ˑˋˊːˑ˛ˈːˋˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞˘ǡ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːː˞˘ ˑ˕ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ǡ ː˖ˉːˑ ˒ˑˏːˋ˕˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˖ˇ˃˓ˈːˋˈ ˒˃ˇ˃ˈ˕ ˚˃˜ˈ ˅˔ˈˆˑǣ t ː˃ ˒ˈ˓˅˞ˌ ˠˎˈˏˈː˕ǡ ˑ˔ˑ˄ˈːːˑ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˄˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˅ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˒˓ˋ˚˃˔˕ˋˢ ː˃˔˕ˑˢ˜ˈˆˑ ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǣ This is an ONgoing problem.

10

ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ t ˈ˔ˎˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˢˈˏ˞ˏ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏǡ˕ˑ˖ˇ˃˓ˈːˋˈ˒˃ˇ˃ˈ˕ː˃˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈǣ worn-out TROUSERS

t ˈ˔ˎˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˅ ˍˑː˙ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˕ˑ ˖ˇ˃˓ː˞ˏ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˅˕ˑ˓ˑˌ ˠˎˈˏˈː˕ǣ The problem is onGOING.

t ː˃ ˅˕ˑ˓ˑˌ ˠˎˈˏˈː˕ǡ ˑ˔ˑ˄ˈːːˑ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˄˃ˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˔˕ˑˋ˕ ˅ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˒˓ˋ˚˃˔˕ˋˢ ˒˓ˑ˛ˈˇ˛ˈˆˑ ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǡ ˃  ˔˃ˏˑ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ ˅˘ˑˇˋ˕ ˅ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ ˔ˍ˃ˊ˖ˈˏˑˆˑǣ My trousers are worn OUT.

11

1. FOOD

I used to eat out1 a lot but after my doctor had advised me to loseweightIhadtocutdown2onfriedfoodǤThatwasparticularly hadasIusedtoliveon3well-donesteaksandFrenchfriesǤIalso had to cut all foods with a high sugarǡ salt or fat content out4 of my dietǤ Being a big eater I would get through5 all the food I was served up6 and even manage to rustle up7 something to eat between the mealsǤ I had to give up8 the habit as wellǤ So nowI’mreducedtoeatingin9asIcan’tstandthesightofhappy peopletuckingin10unhealthythoughdeliciousbaconandpastryǤ 1

eat out  ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅ːˈ ˇˑˏ˃ ȋ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ː) 2 cut down  ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ 3 live on ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ 4 cut out  ˋ˔ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ 5 get through ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˝ˈˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˑˏ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˈ) 6 serve up ˒ˑˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ȋˈˇ˖Ȍ 7 rustle up  ˓˃ˊˇˑ˄˞˕˟ǡ ː˃˔ˍ˓ˈ˔˕ˋ 8 give up ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ͻ eat in  ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃ 10 tuck in  ˉ˃ˇːˑ ˈ˔˕˟ǡ ˖˒ˎˈ˕˃˕˟

12

1. FOOD

EXTRA EXAMPLES cut down sthȀcut sth downȀcut down Cutdownonfattyfoodsifyou want to lose weightǤ

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˛˟ ˒ˑ˘˖ˇˈ˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍ˕ˑ˅ ˔ ˅˞˔ˑˍˋˏ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ːˋˈˏ ˉˋ˓˃Ǥ

cut out sthȀcut sth out Pregnant women are advised to cut out alcoholǤ

ʐˈ˓ˈˏˈːː˞ˏ ˉˈː˜ˋː˃ˏ ˓ˈˍˑˏˈːˇ˖ˈ˕˔ˢ ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˕ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˈːˋˢ ˃ˎˍˑˆˑˎˢǤ

eat in I prefer eating in on workday eveningsǤ

ʑ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋˈ ˇːˋ ˢ ˒˓ˈˇ˒ˑ˚ˋ˕˃ˡ ˒ˑ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓˃ˏ ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃Ǥ

eat out Nowadays people eat out more often than they used toǤ

ʠˈˆˑˇːˢ ˎˡˇˋ ˘ˑˇˢ˕ ˅ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ː ˚˃˜ˈǡ ˚ˈˏ ˓˃ː˟˛ˈǤ

get through sth You wouldn’t believe how muchfoodhecangetthrough at one goǨ

ʡ˞ːˈ˒ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˛˟ǡ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑˑː ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˔˝ˈ˔˕˟ ˊ˃ ˑˇˋː ˒˓ˋ˔ˈ˔˕Ǩ

give up sthȀgive sth up Jake has decided to give up footballǤ

ʓˉˈˌˍ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˗˖˕˄ˑˎǤ

live on sth My son practically lives on crispsǨ

ʛˑˌ ˔˞ː ˒ˋ˕˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˋ˔ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˚ˋ˒˔˃ˏˋǨ

rustle up sthȀrustle sth up Call the taxi and I’ll rustle up some breakfastǤ

ʑ˞ˊ˞˅˃ˌ ˕˃ˍ˔ˋǡ ˃ ˢ ˔ˑˑ˄˓˃ˉ˖ ˚˕ˑǦːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ː˃ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃ˍǤ

13

PHRASAL VERBS

serve up sthȀserve sth up ʖˇˈ˔˟˒ˑˇ˃ˡ˕˅˔ˢˍ˖ˡˇ˓ˢː˟Ǩ

They serve up crap hereǨ

tuck in The ice creams came and the girls tucked in happilyǤ

ʞ˓ˋːˈ˔ˎˋ ˏˑ˓ˑˉˈːˑˈǡ ˋ ˇˈ˅ˑ˚ˍˋ ˔ ˖ˇˑ˅ˑˎ˟˔˕˅ˋˈˏ ˈˆˑ ˔˝ˈˎˋǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ downǡ inǡ onǡ outǡ through ˋˎˋ upǤ ͳǤ Alcoholics Anonymous help people who want to give _______ drinkingǤ ʹǤ Auntie Mary always serves _______ a lovely shepherd’s pie for family dinnersǤ ͵Ǥ Ifyouareabudgettouristyouaremoreinterestedinfinding food you can eat _______ but it is always a temptation to eat _______Ǥ ͶǤ If you live _______ sweetmeats and want to lose weightǡ just eat more fruit and dry fruit and cut _______ dessertsǤ ͷǤ Whenthepieisreadyǡletitstandforhalfanhourandthen tuck _______ and enjoyǤ ͸Ǥ WhileIwatchedthemovieIgot_______threelargepackets of crispsǤ ͹Ǥ Whydon’twestayintonightǫIcanrustle_______apretty decent mealǡ you knowǤ ͺǤ YouknowthatI’mconcernedaboutyoursmokingandyou promised to cut _______Ǥ

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 14

1. FOOD ͳǤ After the injury Neil decided to stop playing  footballǤ  UP ʹǤ Grace doesn’t have time to cook so she has her meals in a restaurant almost every nightǤ  OUT ͵Ǥ HowdoyouconsumesomuchmeatǫDoesn’t THROUGH it raise your cholesterol levelǫ  ͶǤ I can’t stop smoking but I’ve reduced the number of cigarettes to five a dayǤ  DOWN ͷǤ Ireallydon’tfeellikehavingdinnerathome IN tonightǤ Let’s go to our local pubǤ  ͸Ǥ IfMaxandJillcomeI’llmakequicklyacouple of steaks on the barbecueǤ  UP ON ͹Ǥ Most of the Chinese population only eat riceǤ ͺǤ This drink is shaken over iceǡ poured out straight in cocktail glasses and given to peopleǤ  UP ͻǤ When the waiter brought our meal we all started eating it with enjoymentǤ  IN ͳͲǤ With this dietǡ I have to stop eating breadǡ cookiesǡ and cakesǤ OUT

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˋˊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːː˞˘ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ˑ˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ ͳǤ I had managed to rustle up a couple of sandwiches and coffeeȀ౮a couple of chairs by the time Dan returned from the bathroomǤ ʹǤ I have high blood pressure so I’m trying to cut down on caffeineȀcaloriesǤ ͵Ǥ Judging from the way the children were tucking in their shirts Ȁmealǡ they were very hungryǤ ͶǤ Molly gave up her office jobȀunhealthy food and started traveling around the worldǤ ͷǤ This Italian restaurant serves up to local people onlyȀauthentic Italian cuisine onlyǤ ͸Ǥ Being both studentsǡ we lived on very happilyȀvery little when we got marriedǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͹Ǥ When on holidayǡ I eat out every nightȀthings I don’t understandǤ ͺǤ With the exception of Kaneǡ everyone in the office gets through a huge amount of workȀfoodǤ

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ ͳǤ tuck in  aǤ a diet  bǤ a blanket  cǤ chocolate ʹǤ serve up  aǤ dinner  bǤ drinks  cǤ guests

͵Ǥ get through  aǤ a meal  bǤ a telephone  cǤ an exam ͶǤ give up  aǤ sweets  bǤ advice  cǤ a job

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʓˈ˕ˋ ˊ˃ ˑ˄ˈ ˜ˈˍˋ ˖˒ˎˈ˕˃ˎˋ ˓ˑˉˇˈ˔˕˅ˈː˔ˍˋˌ ˒˖ˇˋːˆǤ ʹǤ ʓˋ˃˄ˈ˕ˋˍ˃ˏ ˓ˈˍˑˏˈːˇ˖ˈ˕˔ˢ ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˕ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˈːˋˢ ˔˃˘˃˓ˑ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃˜ˋ˘ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍ˕ˑ˅Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˄˞ˎ ˔˕˖ˇˈː˕ˑˏǡ ˢ ˒ˋ˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˋ˔ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˍˑː˔ˈ˓˅˃ˏˋǤ ͶǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˉˋˎ˃ ˅ ʙˋ˕˃ˈǡ ˢ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˒ˋ˕˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˅ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ː˃˘Ǥ ͷǤ ʙ˓˃˔ːˑˈ ˅ˋːˑ ˎ˖˚˛ˈ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˒ˑˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ˍˑˏː˃˕ːˑˌ ˕ˈˏ˒ˈ˓˃˕˖˓˞Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʛˑˢ ˉˈː˃ ˒˞˕˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˖˄ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˏˈːˢ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˍ˖˓ˋ˕˟ǡ ːˑ ˒ˑˍ˃ ˚˕ˑ ˢ ˔ˑˆˎ˃˔ˋˎ˔ˢ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˔ˋˆ˃˓ˈ˕ ˇˑ ˇˈ˔ˢ˕ˋ ˅ ˇˈː˟Ǥ ͹Ǥ ʠ˓ˈˇːˈ˔˕˃˕ˋ˔˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˌ ˄˓˃ˊˋˎˈ˙ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˢˈ˕ ˑˍˑˎˑ 5  ˍˋˎˑˆ˓˃ˏˏ ˍˑ˗ˈ ˅ ˆˑˇǤ ͺǤ ʢ˔˕˓˃ˋ˅˃ˌ˔ˢ ˒ˑ˖ˇˑ˄ːˈˈǡ ˃ ˢ ˔ˑˑ˄˓˃ˉ˖ ˚˕ˑǦːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ː˃ ˖ˉˋːǤ ͻǤ ʮ ˍ˖˒ˋˎ˃ ˒ˋ˙˙˖ ː˃ ˅˞ːˑ˔ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ǡ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ˑˏ ˏ˞ ˏˑˉˈˏ ˒ˑˈ˔˕˟ ˇˑˏ˃Ǥ

16

1. FOOD

KEYS h౮IǤ ͳǤ up ʹǤ up ͵Ǥ inȀout

ͶǤ onȀout ͷǤ in ͸Ǥ through

͹Ǥ up ͺǤ down

h II. ͳǤ After the injury Neil decided to give up footballǤ ʹǤ Grace doesn’t have time to cook so she eats out almost every nightǤ ͵Ǥ How do you get through so much meatǫ Doesn’t it raise your cholesterol level? ͶǤ I can’t stop smoking but I’ve cut down to five cigarettes a  dayǤ ͷǤ Ireallydon’tfeellikeeatingintonightǤLet’sgotoourlocal pubǤ ͸Ǥ IfMaxandJillcomeI’llrustleupacoupleofsteaksonthe barbecueǤ ͹Ǥ Most of the Chinese population live on riceǤ ͺǤ This drink is shaken over ice and served straight up in cocktail glassesǤ ͻǤ When the waiter brought our meal we all tucked inǤ ͳͲǤ With this dietǡ I have to cut out breadǡ cookiesǡ and cakesǤ

h III. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ ͹Ǥ ͺǤ

a couple of sandwiches and coffee caffeine meal her office job authentic Italian cuisine only very little every night work

17

PHRASAL VERBS h IV. ͳ Ȅ a ʹ Ȅ c

͵ Ȅ b Ͷ Ȅ b

h V. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ

The kids were tucking in a Christmas puddingǤ Diabetics are advised to cut out sugary foodsǤ When I was a student I used to live on tinned foodǤ When I lived in Chinaǡ I used to eat out all the timeǤ Red wine is best served up at room temperatureǤ My wife is trying to persuade me to give smoking up but I’ve agreed to cut down to ten cigarettes a day so farǤ ͹Ǥ An average Brazilian gets through about ͷ kilos of coffee a yearǤ ͺǤ Make yourself comfortable and I’ll rustle something up for supperǤ ͻǤ I’ve bought a takeaway pizza so we can eat in tonightǤ

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2. TRAVEL

3 DAY CAIRO ITINERARY Getaway1fromyourhecticlifeandexperiencelandmarksofCairo during your ͵Ǧday short break in EgyptǤ You’ll be able to see the main sights if you don’t mind packing your days out2Ǥ

Day 1: Arrival Cairo / the Egyptian Museum As soon as your flight touches down3 at Cairo International Airport your personal tour guide will meet and escort you to the hotel and help to check in4Ǥ Now you are ready to set out5 on yourCairoTourǤThevisittotheEgyptianMuseumwilleasilytake up6 the rest of your dayǤ

Day 2: Giza / Cairo Tour Visit the Pyramids of Gizaǡ one of the seven wonders of the ancient worldǤ You’ll start off7 early to avoid crowds and afternoon heatǤ Lunch at Abu Tarek Koshary and enjoy the national cuisineǤ Then you’ll continue to Old Cairo and stop off8 to see two of the earliest sites from Islamic Egypt Ȅ Amr Ibn Al-Aas Mosque and the NilometerǤ Evening free to explore Khan Khaliliǡ Cairo’s old bazaarǤ

Day 3: Final Departure Youcheckout9afterbreakfastǤBidfarewelltoEgyptasyourflight takes off10 from Cairo International AirportǤ 1

get away ˅ˊˢ˕˟ ˑ˕˒˖˔ˍǡ ˖ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ 2 pack out  ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟ǡ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟

19

PHRASAL VERBS 3

touch down  ˒˓ˋˊˈˏˎˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˍˑ˔ː˖˕˟˔ˢ ˊˈˏˎˋ 4 check in ˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˆˑ˔˕ˋːˋ˙ˈǡ ː˃ ˓ˈˌ˔) 5 set out  ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅ˋˈ ȋˇˎˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈȌ ͸ take up  ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋ˅˓ˈˏˢ) 7 start off ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˖˕˟) 8 stop off  ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒˖˕ˋǡ ˔ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˍ˖ 9 check out  ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˋ ˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟ ːˑˏˈ˓ ˅ ˆˑ˔˕ˋːˋ˙ˈ 10 take off  ˅ˊˎˈ˕ˈ˕˟

EXTRA EXAMPLES check in Has Mrs Lane checked in at the hotel yet?

ʒˑ˔˒ˑˉ˃ ʚˈˌː ˖ˉˈ ˊ˃˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓ˑ˅˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˅ ˑ˕ˈˎˈ?

check out Don’t forget that you check out at noonǤ

ʜˈ ˊ˃˄˖ˇ˟˕ˈǡ ˅ ˒ˑˎˇˈː˟ ˅˞ ˇˑˎˉː˞˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢˋˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟ ːˑˏˈ˓Ǥ

get away I like to get away from Moscow at the weekendǤ

ʜ˃ ˅˞˘ˑˇː˞ˈ ˢ ˎˡ˄ˎˡ ˖ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ ˋˊ ʛˑ˔ˍ˅˞Ǥ

pack sth out In summer tourists pack out our townǤ

ʚˈ˕ˑˏ ː˃˛ ˆˑ˓ˑˇ ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˢˡ˕ ˕˖˓ˋ˔˕˞Ǥ

set out We set out early when the traffic was still lowǤ

20

ʛ˞˅˞ˈ˘˃ˎˋ˒ˑ˓˃ː˟˛ˈǡˍˑˆˇ˃ ˇ˅ˋˉˈːˋˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˕˃ˍˑˈ ˋː˕ˈː˔ˋ˅ːˑˈǤ

2. TRAVEL

start off Westartedoffonourwalking trip when it was still darkǤ

ʛ˞ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˋˎˋ˔˟ ˅ ˒ˑ˘ˑˇǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˄˞ˎˑ ˈ˜ˈ ˕ˈˏːˑǤ

stop off We stopped off in San Antonio for a dayǤ

ʛ˞ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎˋ˔˟ ː˃ ˇˈː˟ ˅  ʠ˃ːǦʏː˕ˑƴːˋˑǤ

take off I can spend hours watching the planes take off and landǤ

ʮ ˏˑˆ˖ ˚˃˔˃ˏˋ ː˃˄ˎˡˇ˃˕˟ ˊ˃˕ˈˏǡˍ˃ˍ˅ˊˎˈ˕˃ˡ˕ˋ˒˓ˋˊˈˏˎˢˡ˕˔ˢ ˔˃ˏˑˎˈ˕˞Ǥ

take up sthȀtake sth up Thenewjobtakesupmostof my timeǤ

ʜˑ˅˃ˢ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃ˈ˕ ˒ˑ˚˕ˋ ˅˔ˈ ˏˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢǤ

touch down The plane touched down at Gatwick around midnightǤ

ʠ˃ˏˑˎˈ˕ ˒˓ˋˊˈˏˎˋˎ˔ˢ ˅ ˃ˠ˓ˑ˒ˑ˓˕˖ ʒ˃˕˖ˋˍ ˑˍˑˎˑ ˒ˑˎ˖ːˑ˚ˋǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞Ǧ ˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ͳǤ But with my both parents being illǡ it’s difficult to succeed in leaving home even for a dayǤ ʹǤ I arrived in Paris a few days ago and recorded my arrival at the Hotel de l’AvreǤ ͵Ǥ More than ͳͲͲǡͲͲͲ football fans crowded into and filled the The Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro to see the matchǤ ͶǤ Some plastics require about ʹͲͲ years to decomposeǤ

21

PHRASAL VERBS ͷǤ Steve was so excited to go on his first camping tripǤ ͸Ǥ The flight left the ground and started flying three hours late because of the heavy fogǤ ͹Ǥ Theystartedalongjourneyonanearlymorningǡwearing hiking outfit and each carrying a rucksackǤ ͺǤ Wepaidthebillanddepartedfromthehotelat͹aǤmǤto catch a ͻ aǤmǤ flight to LAǤ ͻǤ We stopped for a short time in the middle of a journey at a gas station and I bought myself a large diet ColaǤ ͳͲǤ When the plane was making contact with the ground in landingǡ one of its tyres burstǤ ͳͳǤ You can leave your luggage for your return flight at the hotel so that it can be put on the planeǤ

h౮IIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˋˊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːː˞˘ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ˑ˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖Ǥ ͳǤ DzMoscow Virtuosidz pack out concert hallsȀ౮bags all over the worldǤ ʹǤ Gregisgettingawayfromallthisfusswithaweeksholiday in IstanbulȀ౮decent pay riseǤ ͵Ǥ Lin felt quite excited as Jack’s careerȀ౮the plane took off from HeathrowǤ ͶǤ MarksaidgoodbyeandwenttocheckinatthehotelȀ౮his suitcasesǤ ͷǤ Momǡ we want to stop off later onȀ౮at Bath on our way backǤ ͸Ǥ Odysseus and twelve of his men started off as heroesȀ౮on a long journeyǤ ͹Ǥ The band are setting out reasons for their breakupȀ౮on a final tour in JuneǤ ͺǤ ThefirstweekofthevacationwastakenupwithrepairsȀ౮the authoritiesǤ ͻǤ We checked out lateȀ౮his address and nearly missed the flightǤ ͳͲǤ Wewillbetouchingdowninabouthalfanhour’stimeȀ౮on the relationship between poverty and poor healthǤ

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2. TRAVEL h౮IIIǤ ʞ˓ˑ˚˕ˋ˕ˈ ˋː˔˕˓˖ˍ˙ˋˡ ˒ˑ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˈːˋˡ ˒˓ˑˆ˓˃ˏˏ˞˕˖˓ˋ˔˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˑˌ˒ˑˈˊˇˍˋˋˊ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ˒ˑ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ If you plan ȋͳȌ _______ from your daily routine and want (2) _______onatripǡtakecaretomakeyourtravelitineraryfirstǤ The first step is to collect itinerary relevant informationǤ This includesyourflightdetailsȋthetimeyoushouldarriveattheairport ȋ͵Ȍ _______ as well as the time when your plane (4) _______ and(5)_______atthedestinationȌandhotelinformationȋhotel name and addressǡ reservation confirmationǡ the time when you should (6) _______ and (7) _______Ǥ Nextǡ use online travel sights or guidebooks to make a list of the things you want to see and do on your tripǤ For each activity on your listǡ estimate the time when you should (8) _______ and how long you’ll be thereǢ decide on the places where you’d like (9)_______onyourwaytothedestinationorbacktothehotelǤ Make your schedule flexible so that you don’t have every day of your trip (10) _______Ǥ Follow our guidelines and the trip arrangements (11) _______ any of your valuable time when you arrive thereǤ

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ ͳǤ check in  aǤ at the bank  bǤ at the airport  cǤ at the cinema ʹǤ get away  aǤ from the vacation   bǤ from the job  cǤ from town

͵Ǥ set out  aǤ on a drive  bǤ on a plane  cǤ on a meeting ͶǤ take up  aǤ weather  bǤ time  cǤ a visit

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋː˔˕˅ˈ ˑ˕ˈˎˈˌ ˅˞ ˇˑˎˉː˞ ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˋ ˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟ ːˑˏˈ˓ ˇˑ ˒ˑˎ˖ˇːˢǤ

23

PHRASAL VERBS ʹǤ ʑ˒ˢ˕ːˋ˙˖˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ˑˏ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋː˔˕˅ˑ˄˃˓ˑ˅˅ː˃˛ˈˏ˓˃ˌˑːˈ ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˈː˞Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅˞ ˉˋ˅ˈ˕ˈ ˅ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˑˏ ˆˑ˓ˑˇˈǡ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˒˓ˋˢ˕ːˑ ˖ˈ˘˃˕˟ ˑ˕ ˆˑ˓ˑˇ˔ˍˑˆˑ ˛˖ˏ˃ ˋ ˇ˅ˋˉˈːˋˢǡ ˒ˑ ˍ˓˃ˌːˈˌ ˏˈ˓ˈ ː˃ ˒˃˓˖ ˇːˈˌǤ ͶǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˏ˞ ˒˓ˋˈ˘˃ˎˋ ˅ ˑ˕ˈˎ˟ǡ ˢ ˑ˔˕˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˅ ˗ˑˌˈ ˔ ˚ˈˏˑˇ˃ː˃ˏˋǡ ˃ ʙˈˌː ˒ˑ˛ˈˎ ˍ ˔˕ˑˌˍˈ ˃ˇˏˋːˋ˔˕˓˃˕ˑ˓˃ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˊ˃˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǤ ͷǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓ˑ˅˃ˎ˔ˢ ː˃ ˓ˈˌ˔ǡ ˏːˈ ˔ˍ˃ˊ˃ˎˋǡ ˚˕ˑ ː˃ːˈˆˑ˄˞ˎˑ˒˓ˑˇ˃ːˑ˄ˋˎˈ˕ˑ˅˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈǡ˚ˈˏˏˈ˔˕ǡˋ ˚˕ˑ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋˇˈ˕˔ˢ ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˌ ˓ˈˌ˔Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʚˡ˔ˋ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˅ːˋˊ ˒ˑ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˈǡ ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢˢ ˒ˑˊ˃ˇˋ ˇˑˏǡ ˆˇˈ ˑː˃ ˓ˑˇˋˎ˃˔˟Ǥ ͹Ǥ ʝː˖ˈ˘˃ˎˋˊ˃ˠ˓ˑ˒ˑ˓˕˃˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ˕ˑˆˑǡˍ˃ˍ˅ˊˎˈ˕ˈˎ ˈˈ ˔˃ˏˑˎˈ˕Ǥ ͺǤ ʞˑ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˈ ˇˑˏˑˌ ˑː ˑ˄˞˚ːˑ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃ˎ˔ˢ ˅ ˏˈ˔˕ːˑˏ ˒˃˄ˈǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˅˞˒ˋ˕˟ ˍ˓˖ˉˍ˖ ˒ˋ˅˃Ǥ ͻǤ ʚ˟ˡˋ˔ ˋ ʙˎ˃˓ˍ ˔ ˠˍ˔˒ˈˇˋ˙ˋˈˌ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˋˎˋ˔˟ ˅ ˒˖˕˟ 30  ˃˅ˆ˖˔˕˃ ͳͺͲ͵ ˆˑˇ˃ ˋˊ ˆˑ˓ˑˇ˃ ʞˋ˕˔˄˖˓ˆǡ ˛˕˃˕ ʞˈː˔ˋˎ˟˅˃ːˋˢǤ ͳͲǤ ʮ ˇˑˎˉˈː ˄˞ˎ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃˕˟ ˠ˔˔ˈǡ ˋ ˠ˕ˑ ˅˚ˈ˓˃ ˊ˃ːˢˎˑ ˖  ˏˈːˢ ˒ˑ˚˕ˋ ˅ˈ˔˟ ˇˈː˟Ǥ ͳͳǤ ʮ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋˎ˃ ˍːˋˆ˖ ˍ˃ˍ ˓˃ˊ ˅ ˕ˑ˕ ˏˑˏˈː˕ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˔˃ˏˑˎˈ˕ ˒˓ˋˊˈˏˎˋˎ˔ˢ ˅ ˃ˠ˓ˑ˒ˑ˓˕˖ ʤˋ˕˓ˑ˖Ǥ

KEYS h I. ͳǤ Butwithmybothparentsbeingillǡit’sdifficulttogetaway from home even for a dayǤ ʹǤ I arrived in Paris a few days ago and checked in the Hotel de l’AvreǤ ͵Ǥ More than ͳͲͲǡͲͲͲ football fans packed out the The Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro to see the matchǤ ͶǤ Some plastics take up about ʹͲͲ years to decomposeǤ

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2. TRAVEL ͷǤ Steve was so excited to start off on his first camping tripǤ ͸Ǥ The flight took off three hours late because of the heavy fogǤ ͹Ǥ They set out on an early morningǡ wearing hiking outfit and each carrying a rucksackǤ ͺǤ We checked out from the hotel at ͹ aǤmǤ to catch a ͻ aǤmǤ flight to LAǤ ͻǤ WestoppedoffatagasstationandIboughtmyselfalarge diet ColaǤ ͳͲǤ WhentheplanewastouchingdownǡoneofitstyresburstǤ ͳͳǤ Youcancheckinyourluggageforyourreturnflightatthe hotelǤ

h II. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ ͹Ǥ ͺǤ ͻǤ ͳͲǤ

concert halls weeks holiday in Istanbul the plane his suitcases at Bath on a long journey on a final tour in June repairs late in about half an hour’s time

h III. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ

to get away to set out to check in takes off touches down check in

͹Ǥ check out ͺǤ start off ͻǤ to stop off ͳͲǤpacked out ͳͳǤwon’t take up

h IV. ͳ Ȅ b

ʹ Ȅ c

͵ Ȅ a 

Ͷ Ȅ b

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PHRASAL VERBS h V. ͳǤ In most hotels you must check out before noonǤ ʹǤ Most of the bars in our neighbourhood are pack out on Friday nightsǤ ͵Ǥ If you live in a big cityǡ it’s always nice to get away from the city noise and traffic at least for a couple of daysǤ ͶǤ WhenwearrivedatthehotelǡIstayedwiththesuitcasesin thefoyerandKanewenttothereceptiondesktocheckinǤ ͷǤ WhenIwascheckinginformyflightǡIwastoldthatitwas overbooked and I had to wait for the next oneǤ ͸Ǥ Lucy started off down the roadǡ leaving behind the house where she had been bornǤ ͹Ǥ He didn’t leave the airport until after her plane had taken offǤ ͺǤ On his way homeǡ he would stop off at the local pub for a  glass of beerǤ ͻǤ TheLewisandClarkexpeditionsetoutonAugust͵ͲǡͳͺͲ͵ from Pittsburghǡ PAǤ ͳͲǤ I had an essay to writeǡ which took up most of the day yesterdayǤ ͳͳǤ I finished the book right when the plane touched down at  HeathrowǤ

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3. HEALTH Influenzaǡ commonly known as Dzthe fludzǡ is an infectious diseaseǤ Peoplecancomedownwith1thefluquitesuddenlyǤUsuallythe first symptoms of the disease are chills and feverǤ The person experiencing chills may break out in2 sweat and if the fever is highhemayeventhrowup3orblackout4ǤManypeopleexperience muscle pains that won’t ease off5 for daysǤ The nose may be runnyǡ and you may find yourself fighting off6 a sore throatǤ Luckilytheglandsintheneckdon’tswellup7ǤGettingover8the flucantakequitealongtimeandtheillnessmayflareup9again if the sick person doesn’t follow the doctor’s prescriptionsǤ Many people complain that they can’t shake off10 cough or running nose for weeksǤ 1 come down with  ˊ˃˄ˑˎˈ˕˟ǡ ˔ˎˈ˚˟ 2 break out in  ˒ˑˍ˓˞˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˒ˑ˕ˑˏǡ ˔˞˒˟ˡ) 3 throw up ˔˕˓˃ˇ˃˕˟ ˓˅ˑ˕ˑˌ 4 black out  ː˃ ˏˆːˑ˅ˈːˋˈ ˕ˈ˓ˢ˕˟ ˔ˑˊː˃ːˋˈ 5 ease off ˑ˔ˎ˃˄ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ 6 fight off  ˄ˑ˓ˑ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˄ˑˎˈˊː˟ˡ) 7 swell up  ˑ˒˖˘˃˕˟ 8 get over ˒ˑ˄ˈˉˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˑˇˑˎˈ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˑˎˈˊː˟) 9 flare up ˅˔˒˞˘ː˖˕˟ ˔ːˑ˅˃ǡ ˑ˄ˑ˔˕˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋ) 10 shake off  ˋˊ˄˃˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ˕ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋȌǢ ˄ˑ˓ˑ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˄ˑǦ ˎˈˊː˟ˡ)

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PHRASAL VERBS

EXTRA EXAMPLES black out For a few secondsǡ I thought I  was going to black outǤ

ʜ˃ ˔ˈˍ˖ːˇ˖ ˏːˈ ˒ˑˍ˃ˊ˃ˎˑ˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˢ ˒ˑ˕ˈ˓ˢˡ  ˔ˑˊː˃ːˋˈǤ

break out in sth My whole body broke out in a rashǤ

ʑ˔ˈ ˏˑˈ ˕ˈˎˑ ˒ˑˍ˓˞ˎˑ˔˟ ˔˞˒˟ˡǤ

come down with sth Jenny has come down with a  cold againǤ

ʓˉˈːːˋ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˒˓ˑ˔˕˞ˎ˃Ǥ

ease off Take this pill and the pain will ease offǤ

ʞ˓ˋˏˋ ˠ˕˖ ˕˃˄ˎˈ˕ˍ˖ǡ ˋ ˄ˑˎ˟ ˒˓ˑˌˇˈ˕Ǥ

fight off sthȀfight sth off I must take this medicineǡ as I  am fighting off a coldǤ

ʛːˈ ː˖ˉːˑ ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ˠ˕ˑ ˎˈˍ˃˓˔˕˅ˑǡ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ˖ ˚˕ˑ ˢ ˄ˑ˓ˡ˔˟ ˔ ˒˓ˑ˔˕˖ˇˑˌǤ

flare up Chronic diseases tend to flare up in spring and autumnǤ

ʙ˃ˍ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎˑǡ ˘˓ˑːˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˈ ˊ˃˄ˑˎˈ˅˃ːˋˢ ˑ˄ˑ˔˕˓ˢˡ˕˔ˢ ˅ˈ˔ːˑˌ ˋ ˑ˔ˈː˟ˡǤ

get over sth Lucy got over the illness quicklyǤ

ʚˡ˔ˋ ˄˞˔˕˓ˑ ˑ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˑ˕ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋǤ

shake off sthȀshake sth off My husband can’t seem to shake off this feverǤ

28

ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˏˑˌ ˏ˖ˉ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˋˊ˄˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢ ˑ˕ ˠ˕ˑˌ ˎˋ˘ˑ˓˃ˇˍˋǤ

3. HEALTH

swell up In the evening the ankle swelled up and the pain got worseǤ

ʑˈ˚ˈ˓ˑˏ ˎˑˇ˞ˉˍ˃ ˑ˒˖˘ˎ˃ǡ ˋ  ˄ˑˎ˟ ˖˔ˋˎˋˎ˃˔˟Ǥ

throw upȀthrow sth upȀthrow up sth The child threw up his dinnerǤ

ʞˑ˔ˎˈ ˑ˄ˈˇ˃ ˓ˈ˄ˈːˍ˃ ˅˞˓˅˃ˎˑǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢˏˈˉˇ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ ͳǤ black out  ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ ͹Ǥ ͺǤ ͻǤ ͳͲǤ

aǤ be suddenly affected by an unpleasant sensation or condition break out in bǤvomit come down with  cǤ get rid of an illness ease off  dǤgetanillnessagainafterithadgone away or got better fight off  eǤ begin to suffer from a specified illness flare up  fǤ recover from an illness get over  gǤbecome larger and rounder than usual because of an injury or illness shake off  hǤlose consciousness for a short time swell up  iǤ getridofortrytogetridofanillness throw up  jǤ gradually become less painfulǡ difficult or unpleasant

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ͳǤ After the accident Grace _______ and couldn’t remember what had happenedǤ  aǤ flared up bǤ stopped off cǤblackedout

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PHRASAL VERBS ʹǤ Dan didn’t give the injury much attention at firstǡ but his wrist began to _______ laterǤ  aǤ swell up  bǤ flare up  cǤ give up ͵Ǥ Havingeaten͸chocolateeggsǡnowonderthekid_______ in ͳͷ minutesǤ  aǤ blacked out bǤ threw up  cǤ swelled up ͶǤ If your immune system is weakened by stressǡ your body can’t _______ infection properlyǤ  aǤ get through bǤ fight off  cǤ shake off ͷǤ It took Jill quite a time to _______ the shock of her husband’s deathǤ  aǤ get over  bǤ fight off  cǤ ease off ͸Ǥ My son _______ a rash after eating some honeyǤ  aǤ came down with  bǤ flared up  cǤ broke out in ͹Ǥ Several tourists have _______ with heat stroke todayǤ  aǤ come down  bǤ blacked out cǤ got over ͺǤ The disease has _______ againǡ keeping me out of work todayǤ  aǤ eased off bǤ flared up  cǤ swelled up ͻǤ The pain _______ after the doctor gave me a shot of painkillerǤ  aǤ eased off  bǤ blacked out cǤ flared up ͳͲǤ You should _______ this depression of yours and start focusing on your life againǤ  aǤ give up  bǤ throw up  cǤ shake off

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃ˏˈːˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ 30

3. HEALTH

Text 1 ȋͳȌCatchingacoldisnotonlyannoyingbutalsocanbedangerousasitcancausesomeofyourchronicdiseasesto(2) aggravateǤ Medicationscanȋ͵Ȍrelievecertainsymptomslikeheadacheǡbut there’snoprovencuretohelpyouȋͶȌrecoverfromthedisease quicklyǤ Among popular non-medical cures for the cold is food high in vitamin C which can help your body ȋͷȌ get rid of the coldǡ or even avoid it altogetherǤ

Text 2 Aconcussionisaresultofheadtraumathatinjuresthebrainand causes the brain tissue ȋ͸Ȍ edemaǤ ȋ͹Ȍ Losing consciousness is notarequirementfordiagnosingaconcussionǤMoretypicallypatientswithconcussioncomplainofaheadacheordizzinessǤThey may also ȋͺȌ vomitǡ ȋͻȌ sweatǡ or have visual problemsǤ Physical and mental restǡ which is a good treatment for concussionǡ will help ȋͳͲȌ get rid of the results of the traumaǤ

h౮IVǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ ͳǤ An old kidney disease flared backǡ and he had to take painkillers to ease of the pain and missed work for several daysǤ ʹǤ Chris went down with this summer flu everyone’s getting and is still trying to fight it offǤ ͵Ǥ They’ve prescribed him some antibiotics to shake off any possible infectionǤ ͶǤ Put some ice on your ankle before it flares upǤ ͷǤ The pain is killing meǤ I feel like I’m going to dark outǤ

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑˑ˅˓ˈˏˢ˃˅˃˓ˋˋˢ˒ˑ˕ˈ˓ˢˎ˔ˑˊː˃ːˋˈˋ˒˓ˋ˛ˈˎ˅˔ˈ˄ˢ ˖ˉˈ ˅ ˄ˑˎ˟ːˋ˙ˈǤ ʹǤ ʖ˃˄ˑˎˈ˅˃˕˟ ˆ˓ˋ˒˒ˑˏ ˢ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˅ ˠ˕ˑˌ ˍˑˏ˃ːˇˋ˓ˑ˅ˍˈǤ ͵Ǥ ʖ˃˒˃˘ ˄˞ˎ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˕˅˓˃˕ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏǡ ˚˕ˑ ˈˈ ˚˖˕˟ ːˈ  ˔˕ˑ˛ːˋˎˑǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͶǤ ʛˈːˢ ˖ˍ˖˔ˋˎ˃ ˒˚ˈˎ˃ǡ ˋ ˕ˈ˒ˈ˓˟ ˏˈ˔˕ˑ ˖ˍ˖˔˃ ˑ˒˖˘˃ˈ˕ǡ ˃  ˍˑˉ˃ ː˃ ˓˖ˍˈ ˒ˑˍ˓˞˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˔˞˒˟ˡǤ ͷǤ ʜ˃ ˕ˑǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑ˒˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˕˃ˍˑˌ ˔ˈ˓˟ˈˊːˑˌ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋǡ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˖ˌ˕ˋ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙˞Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʠ˕˓ˈ˔˔ ˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋːˑˌ ˑ˄ˑ˔˕˓ˈːˋˢ ˏːˑˆˋ˘ ˊ˃˄ˑˎˈ˅˃ːˋˌǤ ͹Ǥ ʬ˕ˑ ˎˈˍ˃˓˔˕˅ˑ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˔ːˋˏ˃ˈ˕ ˔ˋˏ˒˕ˑˏ˞Ǥ ͺǤ ʬ˕ˑ˕ ˍ˃˛ˈˎ˟ ˖ ˏˈːˢ ˖ˉˈ ˙ˈˎ˖ˡ ˅ˈ˚ːˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˢ ːˋˍ˃ˍ ːˈ ˏˑˆ˖ ˑ˕ ːˈˆˑ ˋˊ˄˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢǤ ͻǤ ʬ˘ˋː˃˙ˈˢ ˔˕ˋˏ˖ˎˋ˓˖ˈ˕ ˋˏˏ˖ːː˖ˡ ˔ˋ˔˕ˈˏ˖ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˒ˑˏˑˆ˃ˈ˕ ˑ˓ˆ˃ːˋˊˏ˖ ˄ˑ˓ˑ˕˟˔ˢ ˔ˑ ˏːˑˆˋˏˋ ˊ˃˄ˑˎˈ˅˃ːˋˢˏˋǤ

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ h ʹ Ȅ a ͵ Ȅ e Ͷ Ȅ j

ͷ Ȅ i ͸ Ȅ d ͹ Ȅ f ͺ Ȅ c

ͻ Ȅ g ͳͲ Ȅ b

ͳ Ȅ c ʹ Ȅ a ͵ Ȅ b Ͷ Ȅ b

ͷ Ȅ a ͸ Ȅ c ͹ Ȅ a ͺ Ȅ b

ͻ Ȅ a ͳͲ Ȅ c

h II.

h III. ͳǤ coming down with ʹǤ flare up ͵Ǥ ease off ͶǤ get over ͷǤ fight off

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͸Ǥ to swell up ͹Ǥ blacking out ͺǤ throw up ͻǤ break in sweat ͳͲǤ shake off

3. HEALTH h IV. ͳǤ An old kidney disease flared upǡ and he had to take painkillerstoease offthepainandmissed work for several daysǤ ʹǤ Chris came down with this summer flu everyone’s getting and is still trying to shake it offǤ ͵Ǥ They’ve prescribed him some antibiotics to fight off any possible infectionǤ ͶǤ Put some ice on your ankle before it swells upǤ ͷǤ The pain is killing meǤ I feel like I’m going to black outǤ

h V. ͳǤ I blacked out during the accident and regained consciousness in hospitalǤ ʹǤ I started coming down with the flu when I was on this business tripǤ ͵Ǥ The smell was so disgusting that she nearly threw upǤ ͶǤ I’ve got stung by a bee and now the sting is swelling up and the skin on my arm is breaking out in rashǤ ͷǤ It can take months to get over a serious illness like thatǤ ͸Ǥ Stress causes many diseases to flare upǤ ͹Ǥ This medicine only eases off symptomsǤ ͺǤ I’ve had this cough for ages and I just can’t shake it offǤ ͻǤ Echinacea stimulates the immune system which helps the body fight off many diseasesǤ

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4. KEEPING FIT Working out1 in the gym has become a very popular sport activityallovertheworldǤRegularexercisesessionsinagymhelp people burn off2 caloriesǡ build up3 musclesǡ tone up4 bodies and work off5 the stress and tension of work and modern lifeǤ You can certainly work out at home but some types of exercises canbemoreeffectiveinagymǤAnexperiencedtrainerwillteach youhowtogoabout6doingexercisesintherightwayǤButifyou haveneversetfootinagymandhavenoideawhattodowhen you get thereǡ here are some tipsǤ ͳǤ Warmup7atstartǢit’llprepareyouforothergymactivitiesǤ ʹǤ Remember to cool down8 after your exercise sessionǤ ͵Ǥ Set realistic goals and don’t max out9 to prevent injuriesǤ ͶǤ Be consistent and don’t give in10Ǥ The competitive atmosphere of the gym will encourage you to forge ahead11Ǥ As long as you follow the rules you’ll enjoy your gym sessionsǤ 1

work out  ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˑˏǡ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 2 burn off ˔ˉˋˆ˃˕˟ ȋˍ˃ˎˑ˓ˋˋ) 3 build up ː˃˓˃˜ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˏ˖˔ˍ˖ˎ˞) 4 tone up  ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟ ˕ˑː˖˔ǡ ˖ˍ˓ˈ˒ˎˢ˕˟ 5 work off  ˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˕ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 6 go about ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑǢ ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˖˒˃˕˟ ˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ 7 warm up  ˓˃ˊˏˋː˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃ˊˑˆ˓ˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ

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4. KEEPING FIT 8

cool down  ˑ˘ˎ˃ˉˇ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˑ˔˕˞˅˃˕˟ 9 max out  ˅˞ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˇˑ˔˕ˋˆ˃˕˟ ˒˓ˈˇˈˎ˃ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ˔˕ˈˌ 10 give in ˔ˇ˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖˔˕˖˒˃˕˟ 11 forge ahead  ˏˈˇˎˈːːˑ ˋ ˓˃˅ːˑˏˈ˓ːˑ ˒˓ˑˇ˅ˋˆ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅˒ˈ˓˩ˇ

EXTRA EXAMPLES build up sthȀbuild sth up Keeping to a special diet is essential if you want to build up musclesǤ

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅˞ ˘ˑ˕ˋ˕ˈ ː˃˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟ ˏ˖˔ˍ˖ˎ˞ǡ ː˃ˇˑ ˒˓ˋˇˈ˓ˉˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ ˔ˋ˔˕ˈˏ˞ ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˢǤ

burn off sthȀburn sth off Working out improves your health and burns off caloriesǤ

ʖ˃ːˢ˕ˋˢ ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˑˏ ˖ˎ˖˚˛˃ˡ˕ ˊˇˑ˓ˑ˅˟ˈ ˋ ˔ˉˋˆ˃ˡ˕ ˍ˃ˎˑ˓ˋˋǤ

cool down Don’trushoutsideǡcooldown a littleǤ

ʜˈ ˄ˈˆˋ ː˃ ˖ˎˋ˙˖ǡ ˔ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ˑ˔˕˞ː˟ ːˈˏːˑˆˑǤ

forge ahead I’m forging shaping upǤ

ahead

with

ʮ ˏˈˇˎˈːːˑǡ ːˑ ˖˅ˈ˓ˈːːˑ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˉ˖ ˅ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛˖ˡ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖Ǥ

give in Regular workouts are difficult but you mustn’t give in if you want to tone up your bodyǤ

ʟˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ː˞ˈ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅ˍˋ Ȅ ˕ˢˉˈˎˑˈ ˊ˃ːˢ˕ˋˈǡ ːˑ ˕˞ ːˈ ˇˑˎˉˈː ˔ˇ˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˛˟ ˖ˍ˓ˈ˒ˋ˕˟ ˔˅ˑˈ ˕ˈˎˑǤ

go about sth I have no idea how to go about doing this exerciseǤ

ʮ ːˈ ˋˏˈˡ ːˋ ˏ˃ˎˈˌ˛ˈˆˑ ˒˓ˈˇ˔˕˃˅ˎˈːˋˢ ˑ ˕ˑˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ː˃˚˃˕˟ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ˠ˕ˑ˖˒˓˃ˉːˈːˋˈǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS

max out Sam has been maxing out in every gameǤ

ʠˠˏ ˒ˑˎːˑ˔˕˟ˡ ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ː˃ ˍ˃ˉˇˑˌ ˋˆ˓ˈǤ

tone up sthȀtone sth upȀtone up Regular exercise tones up the musclesǤ

ʟˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ː˞ˈ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅ˍˋ ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃ˡ˕ ˏ˞˛ˈ˚ː˞ˌ ˕ˑː˖˔Ǥ

warm upȀwarm up sthȀwarm sth up A short run will help us warm upǤ

ʙˑ˓ˑ˕ˍ˃ˢ ˒˓ˑ˄ˈˉˍ˃ ˒ˑˏˑˉˈ˕ ː˃ˏ ˓˃ˊˑˆ˓ˈ˕˟˔ˢǤ

work off sthȀwork sth off Going to the gym is the best waytoworkoffexcessweightǤ

ʖ˃ːˢ˕ˋˢ ˅ ˕˓ˈː˃ˉˈ˓ːˑˏ ˊ˃ˎˈ  Ȅ ˎ˖˚˛ˋˌ ˔˒ˑ˔ˑ˄ ˔˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˎˋ˛ːˋˌ ˅ˈ˔Ǥ

work out I’dratherjogthanworkoutat the gymǤ

ʮ ˎ˖˚˛ˈ ˄˖ˇ˖ ˄ˈˆ˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˔˙ˑˌǡ ˚ˈˏ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅  ˕˓ˈː˃ˉˈ˓ːˑˏ ˊ˃ˎˈǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢˏˋǡ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˢ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˈ ː˃ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ   

build up  tone up burn off  calf muscles one’s body excess fat

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warm up go about  work off extra pounds doingsit-upsorpush-up one’s strength

4. KEEPING FIT ͳǤ Firstǡ do some stretching exercises to _______ _______Ǥ ʹǤ I doubt if dancing can _______ _______Ǥ ͵Ǥ IguessIhaveto_____________beforeIputonaswimsuit this summerǤ ͶǤ Ifyoudon’tknowhowto______________ǡyoucanalways consult our gym coachesǤ ͷǤ Start _______ _______by doing some mild exerciseǤ ͸Ǥ The hotel swimming pool offers plenty of opportunity to  _______ _______Ǥ

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ˅ː˖ˉːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ

Pros & Cons of Dieting ` Pros of Dieting: Dieting can become a sure formula for weight loss if you know how (1) _______ itǤ Just consuming less calories each day than you (2) _______ will allow you (3) _______ with losing weight and ȋͶȌ _______ your health without (5) _______ at a gymǤ

` Cons of Dieting: DietprogramsarehardtosticktoǤͻͷΨofthosewhogoondiets finally (6) _______ and failǤ Being active is crucial to speed up weight lossǡ so if you ȋ͹Ȍ _______ at a minimum of three times a  week you will both (8) _______ excess fat and ȋͻȌ _______ your bodyǤ

h౮IIIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ˕˃ˍǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ˑːˋ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ ͳǤ A cardio machine can be a great way to get rid of calories and get in shapeǤ ʹǤ Acupuncture can help improve the strength and firmness of your bodyǤ ͵Ǥ If you want to increase the strength of musclesǡ you need to know how to do it correctlyǤ

OFF UP UP

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PHRASAL VERBS ͶǤ Last week I did too much on pumping iron and got a pulled muscleǤ ͷǤ MrRossiregularlyattendsagymtogetridof the stress of his jobǤ ͸Ǥ MysisterownsahealthclubsoIcanexercise every dayǤ

OUT OFF OUT

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˕ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏǤ ͳǤ Attheendofyourtrainingsessionǡyoushouldalwayscool downǤ  aǤ recover from physical exertion  bǤ become less angry  cǤ become slightly colder ʹǤ For those weakened by a long illnessǡ it is important to exercise daily to build up your musclesǤ  aǤ accumulate  bǤ strengthen  cǤ increase ͵Ǥ Iamgoingtostartanewfitnessprogramthatwillhelpme tone upǤ  aǤ become firmer  bǤ become more beautiful  cǤ become stronger ͶǤ I’m trying to work off the fat from my waist by doing exercises every morningǤ  aǤ relieve  bǤ get rid of  cǤ escape ͷǤ If you work out at home it can become boring quicklyǤ  aǤ exercise  bǤ practise  cǤ coach ͸Ǥ Low-intensity exercise like badminton has much more impact on burning off fat than high-intensity sportsǤ  aǤ using  bǤ removing  cǤ getting rid of

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4. KEEPING FIT h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈˇːˈˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˢ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˊ˃ːˢ˕ǣ ˢ ˓ˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ːˑ˕˓ˈːˋ˓˖ˡ˔˟ ˅ ˕˓ˈː˃ˉˈ˓ːˑˏ ˊ˃ˎˈǡ ˔˄˓˃˔˞˅˃ˢ ˎˋ˛ːˋˌ ˅ˈ˔ ˋ ː˃˓˃˜ˋ˅˃ˢ ˏ˞˛˙˞ ˓˖ˍǡ ːˑˆ ˋ ˆ˓˖ˇˋǤ ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅ ˗ˋ˕ːˈ˔˔ˈ ˕˞ ːˑ˅ˋ˚ˑˍǡ ːˈ ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˌ˔ˢ ˒ˑˎːˑ˔˕˟ˡ ˅ ˒ˈ˓˅˞ˌ ˉˈ ˇˈː˟ ˅ ˕˓ˈː˃ˉˈ˓ːˑˏ ˊ˃ˎˈǤ ͵Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋ˕˞ːˈ˔ˇ˃˛˟˔ˢǡ˕ˑˏˈˇˎˈːːˑǡ ːˑ˖˅ˈ˓ˈːːˑ˒˓ˋˇˈ˛˟ ˅ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛˖ˡ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖Ǥ ͶǤ ʗˆ˓ˑˍˋ ˖ˉˈ ː˃ ˒ˑˎˈ ˓˃ˊˑˆ˓ˈ˅˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˋˆ˓ˑˌǤ ͷǤ ʛːˑˆˋˈ ˎˡˇˋ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˢ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˇˑ˅ˑˎ˟ː˞ ˔˅ˑˋˏ ˕ˈˎˑˏǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˋˏ ː˖ˉːˑ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˒ˑˇˇˈ˓ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ ˈˆˑ ˅ ˕ˑː˖˔ˈǤ ͸Ǥ ʞˑ˔ˎˈ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅ˍˋ ːˈˑ˄˘ˑˇˋˏˑ ˑ˔˕˞˕˟ǡ ˕˃ˍ ˍ˃ˍ ˠ˕ˑ ˔ːˋˉ˃ˈ˕ ˓ˋ˔ˍ ˕˓˃˅ˏǤ ͹Ǥ ʡ˞ ˏˑˉˈ˛˟ ˒ˑˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟ǡ ˍ˃ˍ ː˃˚˃˕˟ ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ˍ˃˓ˇˋˑ˕˓ˈː˃ˉˈ˓ˈǫ ͺǤ ʦˈˎˑ˅ˈˍ ˒ˑ˒˓˃˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˔˝ˈˇ˃ˈ˕ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˍ˃ˎˑ˓ˋˌǡ ˚ˈˏ ˔ˉˋˆ˃ˈ˕ ˅ ˕ˈ˚ˈːˋˈ ˇːˢǤ

KEYS h I. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ

warm up calf muscles burn off excess fat tone up my body go about doing sit-ups or push-up building up your strength work off extra pounds

h II. ͳǤ to go about ʹǤ burn off ͵Ǥtoforgeahead

ͶǤ build up ͷǤ maxing out ͸Ǥ give in

͹Ǥ work out ͺǤ work off ͻǤ tone up

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PHRASAL VERBS h III. ͳǤ A cardio machine can be a great way to burn off calories and get in shapeǤ ʹǤ Acupuncture can help tone up your bodyǤ ͵Ǥ Ifyouwanttobuildupmusclesǡyouneedtoknowhowto do it correctlyǤ ͶǤ Last week I maxed out on pumping iron and got a pulled muscleǤ ͷǤ Mr Rossi regularly attends a gym to work off the stress of his jobǤ ͸Ǥ My sister owns a health club so I can work out every dayǤ

h IV.   

ͳ Ȅ a ʹ Ȅ b ͵ Ȅ c

Ͷ Ȅ b ͷ Ȅ a ͸ Ȅ c

h V. ͳǤ RecentlyI’vebeentoobusyworkingoutatagymǡworking off excess weight and building up my arm and leg and chest musclesǤ ʹǤ If you are a fitness beginnerǡ don’t max out on your first day at the gymǤ ͵Ǥ If you don’t give inǡ you’ll forge ahead with shaping upǤ ͶǤ Theplayersarealreadyonthefieldwarmingupbeforethe gameǤ ͷǤ Alotofpeoplesaytheyarehappywiththeirbodyǡsothey only need to tone it upǤ ͸Ǥ It’s necessary to cool down after exercise as it reduces the risk of injuriesǤ ͹Ǥ Can you show how to go about working on this cardio machine? ͺǤ Apersongetsfatifheeatsmorecaloriesthanheburnsoff during the dayǤ

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5. TIME Jane is an Executive Assistant at an international company in BristolǤ She works irregular hoursǡ so she doesn’t have to clock in1 and out2Ǥ The job gives Jane a lot of responsibilitiesǡ so she’s always pressed for3 timeǤ She has to fit a lot of activities in4 her busy schedule and she hates being held up5 by disruptions to normal office proceduresǤ After a short lunch break she has to presson6withherdutiesǤJanehastobalanceherworkloadwith herpersonallifeǡsoshedoesn’thavemuchtimetowhileaway7Ǥ Sometimesherworkinghoursrunon8tilllateintheeveningǤBut when she does have spare time she usually hangs out9 with her friendsǤ It’s difficult for Jane to plan for the futureǤ This year she was planning to take her holiday in August but she has had to bring it forward10 as in August her boss is flying to New YorkǤ 1

clock in  ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˖˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˎˈːːˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢȌǢ ˗ˋˍ˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇ˃ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍ˃ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ 2 clock out ˊ˃ˍ˃ː˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˖˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˎˈːːˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢȌǢ ˗ˋˍ˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍ ˊ˃ˍ˃ː˚ˋ˅˃ˈ˕ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋˌ ˇˈː˟ 3 be pressed for  ːˈ ˘˅˃˕˃˕˟ ȋ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 4 fit in  ː˃˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ȋˇˎˢ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 5 hold up  ˊ˃ˇˈ˓ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ 6 press on  ˔˒ˈ˛ˋ˕˟Ǣ ˃ˍ˕ˋ˅ːˑ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖) 7 while away  ˒˓ˑ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˍˑ˓ˑ˕˃˕˟ ȋ˅˓ˈˏˢ) 8 run on  ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˇˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˇˑˎ˟˛ˈǡ ˚ˈˏ ˊ˃˒ˎ˃ːˋ˓ˑǦ ˅˃ːˑ)

41

PHRASAL VERBS 9

hang out  ˕˖˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˆˇˈǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 10 bring forward  ˒ˈ˓ˈːˈ˔˕ˋ ː˃ ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˓˃ːːˋˌ ˔˓ˑˍ

EXTRA EXAMPLES be pressed for sth Nicole is always pressed for timeǤ

ʢ ʜˋˍˑˎ˟ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ˕ ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǤ

bring forward sthȀbring sth forward The meeting’s been brought forward to WednesdayǤ

ʠˑ˄˓˃ːˋˈ ː˃  ˔˓ˈˇ˖Ǥ

˒ˈ˓ˈːˈ˔ˎˋ

clock in I clock in at ͻǣ͵ͲǤ

ʮ ː˃˚ˋː˃ˡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ˅ ͻǣ͵ͲǤ

clock out By ͸ pǤmǤ most clerks have clocked outǤ

ʙ ͸ ˚˃˔˃ˏ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓˃ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋː˔˕˅ˑ ˍˎˈ˓ˍˑ˅ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋˎˋ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖Ǥ

fit in sthȀfit sth in I wanted to fit in a jog before breakfastǤ

ʮ ˘ˑ˕ˈˎ ː˃ˌ˕ˋ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˇˎˢ ˒˓ˑ˄ˈˉˍˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃ˍˑˏǤ

hang out ȋinformal) I don’t know who my younger sister hangs out withǤ

ʮ ːˈ ˊː˃ˡǡ ˔ ˍˈˏ ˕˖˔˖ˈ˕˔ˢ ˏˑˢ ˏˎ˃ˇ˛˃ˢ ˔ˈ˔˕˓˃Ǥ

hold sb upȀhold up sb SorryI’mlateǤIwasheldupat workǤ

ʗˊ˅ˋːˋ˕ˈǡ ˢ ˑ˒ˑˊˇ˃ˎǤ ʛˈːˢ ˊ˃ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕ˈǤ

press on We’ll talk about your project laterǢ now let’s press onǤ

42

ʛ˞˒ˑˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋˏˑ˅˃˛ˈˏ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ˈ ˒ˑˊˉˈǡ ˃ ˔ˈˌ˚˃˔ ˇ˃˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉˋˏ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖Ǥ

5. TIME

run on Meetings sometimes run on longer than plannedǤ

ʗːˑˆˇ˃ ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˢ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˊ˃˒ˎ˃ːˋ˓ˑ˅˃ːːˑˆˑ ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǤ

while away sthȀwhile sth away We whiled away the evening over a game of chessǤ

ʛ˞ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˕˃ˎˋ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ ˊ˃ ˋˆ˓ˑˌ ˅ ˛˃˘ˏ˃˕˞Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ awayǡ forǡ forwardǡ inǡ offǡ onǡ out ˋˎˋ upǤ ͳǤ If I weren’t pressed _______ time we could have lunch togetherǤ ʹǤ Our mobile application allows you to clock _______ and clock _______ directly from any iPhone or Android deviceǤ ͵Ǥ If it’s urgentǡ we can fit you _______ for a scan tomorrowǤ ͶǤ All he does is hang _______ in jazz clubs and get drunkǤ ͷǤ Now that all the passengers are on boardǡ I wonder what’s holding us _______Ǥ ͸Ǥ Kane was determined to press _______ with the projectǡ despite the criticisms from his colleaguesǤ ͹Ǥ The club proved to be a very pleasant place to while _______ a couple of hoursǤ ͺǤ The negotiations ran _______ for hours with no resultsǤ ͻǤ The semifinals have been brought _______ to ͳʹ MayǤ

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ͳǤ Eva said she could teach the German class if she weren’t short of timeǤ

43

PHRASAL VERBS ʹǤ The dispute concerned the use of swipe cards to register the time of arrival at and departure from workǤ ͵Ǥ I don’t think I can find time for a swim before breakfastǤ ͶǤ They would spend time in the pub for hoursǡ having ordered just a glass of beerǤ ͷǤ The anti-migrant march hindered traffic in the city centreǤ ͸Ǥ Mr Foster ignored our angry comments and continued his speech in a determined wayǤ ͹Ǥ Green Park is perfect for spending a day off in a relaxed and pleasant wayǤ ͺǤ The discussion continued for hours but in the end we managed to reach a consensusǤ ͻǤ Can I move my appointment with Dr Bradley to ͵ǣ͵Ͳ instead of ͸ o’clock?

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˒ˋ˛ˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˡ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ˑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˏˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˏˋǤ   ͳǤ to __________________  

aǤ time bǤ an evening cǤ days

  ʹǤ to __________________  

aǤ a lunch bǤ an appointment cǤ domestic work

  ͵Ǥ to __________________  

aǤ cash bǤ time cǤ money

  ͶǤ to __________________  

aǤ a concert bǤ traffic cǤ progress

h౮IVǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˅ˑ˔ˈˏ˟ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˑˍ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˋ ˋ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˋ˘Ǥ I’mRitaHartandI’msecretarytoDrKendalǡafamilypractitionerǤ I’m responsible for maintaining the smooth running of his office

44

5. TIME andfreeinghimfromperformingroutineactivitiesǤLuckilyǡIdon’t have to tick in and clock from but my workday may run forward until the last of the patients leaves Dr Kendal’s officeǤ One of my main duties is scheduling Dr Kendal’s appointmentsǤ When a patient calls for an appointment I have to record the information onto Dr Kendal’s calendarǤ Sometimes a patient may call and ask to take his appointment forward or cancel itǤ Or an emergency patient may insist on putting him in right awayǤ Analytical skills are very important hereǤ I have to assess each call carefully as my boss is always pressed under spare time and hates it when schedule conflicts hold down his workǤ I also have to do some minor work for Dr Kendal outside the officeǡ and do itquicklyasIhavemyofficedutiestopushonwithwhenIcome backǤ

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʗˆ˓˃ ˅ ˛˃˘ˏ˃˕˞ Ȅ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˋˌ ˔˒ˑ˔ˑ˄ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˇˑˉˇˎˋ˅˞ˌ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓Ǥ ʹǤ ʜˋˍ˕ˑ ːˈ ˑˉˋˇ˃ˎǡ ˚˕ˑ ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˈ ˊ˃˕ˢːˈ˕˔ˢ ˇˑ ˅ˑ˔˟ˏˋ ˚˃˔ˑ˅Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʜˑ˅˞ˌ ˏˈːˈˇˉˈ˓ ˄˞ˎ ˒ˑˎˑː ˓ˈ˛ˋˏˑ˔˕ˋ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉˋ˕˟ ˏˑˇˈ˓ːˋˊ˃˙ˋˡ ˊ˃˅ˑˇ˃Ǥ ͶǤ ʜˈ˔˚˃˔˕ː˞ˌ ˔ˎ˖˚˃ˌ ˊ˃ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ː˃ ˔˕˓ˑˌ˒ˎˑ˜˃ˇˍˈ ː˃ ˇ˅ˈ ːˈˇˈˎˋǤ ͷǤ ʓˉˋˎ ːˈ ˋˊ ˕ˈ˘ ˎˡˇˈˌǡ ˔ ˍˈˏ ˏˑˉːˑ ˒ˑ˕˖˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǤ ͸Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋˏˑˈ˓˃˔˒ˋ˔˃ːˋˈː˃ˊ˃˅˕˓˃˒ˑˊ˅ˑˎˋ˕ǡˢː˃ˌˇ˖ˇˎˢ ˕ˈ˄ˢ ˅˓ˈˏˢǤ ͹Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋˈ ˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓˖ˡ˕ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇ˃ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ˋ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˖˘ˑˇ˃ǡ ˕ˑ ˠ˕ˑ ˒ˑˏˑˆ˃ˈ˕ ˓˖ˍˑ˅ˑˇ˔˕˅˖ ˍˑː˕˓ˑˎˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˋ˘ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˈˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˅ ˕ˈ˚ˈːˋˈ ˇːˢǤ ͺǤ ʝːˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈːˈ˔ˎˋ ˔˅˃ˇ˟˄˖ ː˃ ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˓˃ːːˡˡ ˇ˃˕˖ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˈˈ ˄˓˃˕ ˕ˑˉˈ ˏˑˆ ː˃ ːˈˌ ˒˓ˋ˔˖˕˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟Ǥ ͻǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ˄˞ˏˋ˔˕ˈ˓ʟˑ˄ˋːːˈ˄˞ˎ˕˃ˍˊ˃ːˢ˕ǡˑː˄˞˒ˑˏˑˆ ˕ˈ˄ˈǤ

45

PHRASAL VERBS

KEYS h I. ͳǤ for ʹǤ inȀout ͵Ǥ in

ͶǤ out ͷǤ up ͸Ǥ on

͹Ǥ away ͺǤ on ͻǤ forward

h II. ͳǤ Eva said she could teach the German class if she weren’t pressed for timeǤ ʹǤ The dispute concerned the use of swipe cards to clock in and clock out of workǤ ͵Ǥ I don’t think I can fit in a swim before breakfastǤ ͶǤ Theywouldhangoutinthepubforhoursǡhavingordered just a glass of beerǤ ͷǤ The anti-migrant march held up traffic in the city centreǤ ͸Ǥ Mr Foster ignored our angry comments and pressed on with his speechǤ ͹Ǥ Green Park is perfect for whiling away a day offǤ ͺǤ Thediscussionranonforhoursbutintheendwemanaged to reach a consensusǤ ͻǤ Can I bring forward my appointment with Dr Bradley to ͵ǣ͵Ͳ instead of ͸ o’clock?

h III. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ

while away fit in be pressed for hold up

h IV. I’mRitaHartandI’msecretarytoDrKendalǡafamilypractitionerǤ I’m responsible for maintaining the smooth running of his office andfreeinghimfromperformingroutineactivitiesǤLuckilyǡIdon’t

46

5. TIME havetoclockinandclockoutbutmyworkdaymayrunonuntil the last of the patients leaves Dr Kendal’s officeǤ One of my main duties is scheduling Dr Kendal’s appointmentsǤ When a patient calls for an appointment I have to record the information onto Dr Kendal’s calendarǤ Sometimes a patient may call and ask to bring his appointment forward or cancel itǤ Or an emergency patient may insist on fitting him in right awayǤ AnalyticalskillsareveryimportanthereǤIhavetoassesseachcall carefullyasmybossisalwayspressedforsparetimeandhatesit whenscheduleconflictsholduphisworkǤIalsohavetodosome minor work for Dr Kendal outside the officeǡ and do it quickly as I  have my office duties to press on with when I come backǤ

h V. ͳǤ Playing chess is a nice way to while away a rainy eveningǤ ʹǤ No one expected the meeting to run on until ͺ o’clockǤ ͵Ǥ The new manager was determined to press on with modernizing the factoryǤ ͶǤ Theaccidentheldupworkattheconstructionsitefortwo weeksǤ ͷǤ Jill is not the person to hang out withǤ ͸Ǥ If my schedule for tomorrow allows itǡ I’ll fit you inǤ ͹Ǥ If workers clock in and outǡ it helps the management control their hours during the workdayǤ ͺǤ Theybroughtthedateoftheweddingforwardsothather brother could attendǡ tooǤ ͻǤ If Mt Robin weren’t so pressed for timeǡ he would help youǤ

47

REVISION 1—5 h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ ͳǤ After kissing good-bye to his wife and kidsǡ Tim set out for  ǥ  a. work  b. the railway station  c. a walk ʹǤ EventhoughthetaskwasverydifficultǡAbbywouldn’tgive in and ǥ  a. started working  b. stopped working  c. kept working ͵Ǥ I must have blacked out because I ǥ  a. have black paint all over my jeans  b. can’t remember anything  c. have a black eye ͶǤ If you want to lose weightǡ the best food stuff to cut out would be ǥ  a. fruit and vegetable  b. dairy products  c. bakery food ͷǤ Ifyou’regoingtoLondonǡwhydon’tyoustopoffinBasildon to see your aunt Maggie ǥ  a. before you leave  b. on your way there  c. after you get back

48

REVISION 1—5 ͸Ǥ    ͹Ǥ 

Joel works out every evening because he ǥ a. wants to keep fit b. has much work c. needs money Neal has been held up by a traffic jamǡ so he’s likely to be  ǥ b. early  c. late a. injured

ͺǤ The meeting was scheduled for September ͳͷ but then it was brought forward a week to ǥ  a. September ʹʹ b. September ͺ c. September ʹͻ ͻǤ    ͳͲǤ   

Whenever Gary’s arthritis flares upǡ he has to ǥ a. take some medication b. go to the gym c. wear plaster You are likely to have a stomach problem if you live on ǥ a. wholesome food b. fried food c. healthy food

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ ͳǤ After the accident Jenny had to stop drivingǤ  ʹǤ It took old Mrs Stram a very long time to recover from that bout of arthritis she hadǤ  ͵Ǥ Jogging is excellent for getting rid of tensionǤ ͶǤ MarkfeltgreataboutleavingNewYorkǡeven if for only one dayǤ ͷǤ Mysonkeptaskingmeforanewbicycleǡand I finally agreedǤ ͸Ǥ Professional boxers spend at least an hour every day exercising in the gymǤ ͹Ǥ The average American eats ͳͲͲ burgers a yearǤ 

GIVE GET WORK GET GIVE WORK GET

49

PHRASAL VERBS ͺǤ VolunteerismfillsthelittletimeIhaveoutside of schoolǤ ͻǤ Welcome on boardǤ This is your Captain speakingǤ We are due to leave the ground and start flying in ten minutesǤ 

TAKE

TAKE

h౮IIIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋǤ

off ͳǤ After the pill the stomachache was becoming less intensiveǤ ʹǤ At this time a lot of service workers would be departing from workǤ ͵Ǥ He decided to make a short visit to London to see the sightsǤ ͶǤ Nowadays many kids consume a lot of crisps and fizzy drinksǤ ͷǤ When I feel frustratedǡ I go and get rid of it in the gymǤ

out ͸Ǥ Her workdays are full of meetingsǡ conferences and other eventsǤ ͹Ǥ It is difficult to exclude sugar from your dietǤ ͺǤ Our band is leaving on a European tour in JuneǤ ͻǤ Soon after the accident I became unconsciousǤ ͳͲǤ This café is a popular place where students spend a lot of timeǤ

up ͳͳǤ I tried giving him some waterǡ but he was so weak with hunger that he vomited itǤ ͳʹǤ It’s important to do gentle physical exercise before you do any sportǤ ͳ͵Ǥ The best way to increase your stamina is to run miles on your days offǤ ͳͶǤ The new baby consumes all my time and energyǤ ͳͷǤ The strike delayed work on the new bridge for weeksǤ

50

REVISION 1—5 h౮IVǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ   

cut ȋʹȌ give work ȋʹȌ

burn forge take

ahead in out (3)

fit max

down off (2) up (2)

The best way to lose weight is different for everyone but it’s neither (1) _____________ at a gym nor (2) ______________ eating completelyǤ A person who hasn’t exercised for years runs theriskofgettinganinjuryifheshouldstartȋ͵Ȍ_____________ at a  gym seven days a weekǤ The same is true for people who suddenly go on a diet and (4) ______________ certain types of food along with nutrients and vitamins that our bodies needǤ To lose weightǡ you need (5) ______________ excess calories and prevent your body from storing any excess energy as fatǤ The most effective way to do this is to (6) _______________ on fatty foods and (7) ______________ extra exercise in addition to your regular programǤ Just a short ͳͷ minute walk will help you (8)  ________________ excess weight if taken most days of the weekǤRememberthat(9)_________________withlosingweight isagradualprocessthatislikely(10)_______________yourtime and energyǤ

h౮VǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ forǡ inǡ offǡ onǡ outǡ through ˋˎˋ upǤ I have never worked (1) _______ in a gym as I don’t need any special equipment to tone (2) _______ my own bodyǤ My days are usually so packed (3) _______ that I’m constantly pressed (4) _______ time and can hardly fit (5) _______ an evening walkwithmydogǤMyfriendsenvymebecausetheyhavetolive (6) _______fruitandvegetablesǡcut(7)_______sweetstuffand baked goods and exercise for hours to burn (8) _______ an icecream or a pastryǤ I just watch what I eat but will happily get

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PHRASAL VERBS (9) _______ a large meal when I eat (10) _______Ǥ Besides I’m a sweet tooth and can’t imagine giving (11) _______ my bedtime sweetsǤ My friends keep on talking about push-upsǡ sit-ups and pull-upsǡ the right way of warming (12) _______ǡ and the importance of maxing (13) _______ in the gymǡ but often end with a pulled muscle or an ankle that swells (14) _______ after a dislocationǤ

h౮VIǤʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢː˃˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌˢˊ˞ˍǡˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ˚ˈ˓˃ ˖˕˓ˑˏ ˖ ˏˈːˢ ˄˞ˎˑ ˏ˃ˎˑ ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˢ  ːˈ ˓˃ˊˑˆ˓ˈˎ˔ˢ ˅ ˊ˃ˎˈ ˋ ˒ˑ˅˓ˈˇˋˎ ˓˖ˍ˖Ǥ ʡˈ˒ˈ˓˟ ˑː˃ ˑ˕ˈˍˎ˃ ˋ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˄ˑˎˋ˕Ǥ ʹǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ˓ˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ːˑ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˍ˖˓ˋ˕˟ ˋ ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˕ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˈːˋˢ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍ˕ˑ˅ ˔ ˅˞˔ˑˍˋˏ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ːˋˈˏ ˉˋ˓˃Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʛ˞ ˒ˎ˃ːˋ˓ˑ˅˃ˎˋ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˕˖˓ˋ˔˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˌ ˒ˑ˘ˑˇ ˅ ː˃˚˃ˎˈ ˋˡˎˢǡ ːˑ ː˃ˏ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈːˈ˔˕ˋ ˈˆˑ ː˃ ˋˡː˟ǡ ˕˃ˍ ˍ˃ˍ ˏˑˌ ˆ˓˃˗ˋˍ ˅ ˋˡːˈ ˒ˑˎˑː ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˌ ˋ ˍˑː˗ˈ˓ˈː˙ˋˌǤ ͶǤ ʞˑ˒˖˕ˋ˅ʏː˕˃ˎ˟ˡˏ˞ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎˋ˔˟˅ʠ˕˃ˏ˄˖ˎˈǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑ˕˖˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ː˃˛ˋˏˋ ˏˈ˔˕ː˞ˏˋ ˇ˓˖ˊ˟ˢˏˋǤ ͷǤ ʮ ˄˞ ˒˓ˈˇ˒ˑ˚ˎ˃ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˏ˞ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ ːˈ ˘ˑˇˋˎˋ ˅ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ːǤ ʮ ˚˖˅˔˕˅˖ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˖ ˏˈːˢ ː˃˚ˋː˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˒˓ˑ˔˕˖ˇ˃Ǥ ʮ ˔ˑˑ˄˓˃ˉ˖ ˚˕ˑǦːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ː˃ ˖ˉˋːǡ ˋ ˏ˞ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˕˃ˈˏ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ ˖ ˕ˈˎˈ˅ˋˊˑ˓˃Ǥ

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ a ʹ Ȅ ˔ ͵ Ȅ b Ͷ Ȅ ˔ ͷ Ȅ b

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͸ Ȅ a ͹ Ȅ ˔ ͺ Ȅ b ͻ Ȅ a ͳͲ Ȅ b

REVISION 1—5 h II. ͳǤ After the accident Jenny had to give up drivingǤ ʹǤ It took old Mrs Stram a very long time to get over that bout of arthritis she hadǤ ͵Ǥ Jogging is excellent for working off tensionǤ ͶǤ MarkfeltgreataboutgettingawayfromNewYorkǡevenif for only one dayǤ ͷǤ MysonkeptaskingmeforanewbicycleǡandIfinallygave inǤ ͸Ǥ Professional boxers spend at least an hour every day working out in the gymǤ ͹Ǥ The average American gets through ͳͲͲ burgers a yearǤ ͺǤ Volunteerism takes up the little time I have outside of schoolǤ ͻǤ Welcome on boardǤ This is your Captain speakingǤ We are due to take off in ten minutesǤ

h III. ͳǤ ʹǤ ͵Ǥ ͶǤ ͷǤ ͸Ǥ ͹Ǥ ͺǤ ͻǤ ͳͲǤ ͳͳǤ ͳʹǤ ͳ͵Ǥ

After the pill the stomachache was easing offǤ AtthistimealotofserviceworkerswouldbeclockingoffǤ He decided to stop off in London to see the sightsǤ Nowadays many kids live on crisps and fizzy drinksǤ When I feel frustratedǡ I go and work it off in the gymǤ Her workdays are packed out with meetingsǡ conferences and other eventsǤ It is difficult to cut out sugar from your dietǤ Our band is setting out on a European tour in JuneǤ Soon after the accident I blacked outǤ This café is a popular place where students hang outǤ I tried giving him some waterǡ but he was so weak with hunger that he threw it upǤ It’s important to warm up before you do any sportǤ The best way to build up your stamina is to run miles on your days offǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͳͶǤ The new baby takes up all my time and energyǤ ͳͷǤ The strike held up work on the new bridge for weeksǤ

h IV.     

ͳǤ maxing out ʹǤ giving up ͵Ǥ to work out ͶǤ cut out ͷǤ to burn off

͸Ǥ to cut down ͹Ǥ fit in ͺǤ work off ͻǤ forging ahead ͳͲǤ to take up

h V.     

ͳǤ out ʹǤ up ͵Ǥ out ͶǤ for ͷǤ in

͸Ǥ on ͹Ǥ out ͺǤ off ͻǤ through ͳͲǤ out

ͳͳǤ up ͳʹǤ up ͳ͵Ǥ out ͳͶǤ up

h VI. ͳǤ Yesterday morning I was pressed for time so didn’t warm upinthegymandinjuredmyarmǤNowithasswollenup and hurts me a lotǤ ʹǤ When I started working out regularly I had to give up smoking and cut out fatty foodsǤ ͵Ǥ Wehadbeenplanningtosetoutonacampingtripinearly July but we had to bring it forward to June as my July schedule is packed out with meetings and conferencesǤ ͶǤ OnourwaytoAntalyawestoppedoffinIstanbultohang out with our local friendsǤ ͷǤ I’d rather we didn’t eat out todayǤ I feel like I’m coming downwithcoldǤI’llrustleupsomedinnerandwe’llwhile the evening away in front of the tellyǤ

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6. DESCRIBING PEOPLE

My sisters Liz and Mary are twins. They are so similar that even our parents have difficulty telling one from the other1. Other than that, there’s a world of difference between them. Liz is a bright personality and always stands out2 in a crowd. She knows she’s very beautiful and enjoys dressing up3 though sometimes she finds it hard to decide what to put on4. Quite often she shows off5 and it irritates me a bit. Even when we visit our grandparents, the first thing she does when we arrive is freshen herself up6! Mary, on the contrary, is very shy and always tries to blend in with7 the people around her. She always shies away from8 noisy people and places and prefers a good book to swinging parties. She never minds trends and fashion and doesn’t care much about what to slip on9. As a rule she dresses down10 in order not to attract much attention. They are certainly as different as chalk and cheese, but I like them just the way they are! 1

tell one from the other ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊˎˋ˚˃˕˟ 2 stand out ˄˞˕˟ ˊ˃ˏˈ˕ː˞ˏǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ 3 dress up ː˃˓ˢˉ˃˕˟˔ˢ 4 put on ː˃ˇˈ˅˃˕˟ 5 show off ˍ˓˃˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓ˋ˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 6 freshen up ˒˓ˋ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˑˍǡ ˑ˔˅ˈˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ

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PHRASAL VERBS 7

blend in with aȌ ːˈ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˕ˑˎ˒ˈȌȀ˔ˏˈ˛˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˕ˑˎ˒ˑˌ); bȌ ˅ˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˍˑˎˎˈˍ˕ˋ˅) 8 shy away from ˔˕ˑ˓ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˋˊ˄ˈˆ˃˕˟ 9 slip on ː˃˙ˈ˒ˋ˕˟ ȋˑˇˈˉˇ˖) 10 dress down ˑˇˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑȀ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˜ˈ

EXTRA EXAMPLES blend in ȋwith) sb Joel is so shy that he always tries to blend in with the people around him.

ʓˉˑˠˎ ˕˃ˍˑˌ ˊ˃˔˕ˈː˚ˋ˅˞ˌǡ ˚˕ˑ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˔˕˃˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ːˈ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢː˃˗ˑːˈˑˍ˓˖ˉ˃ˡ˜ˋ˘Ǥ

dress down More and more people are dressing down for work these days.

ʠˈˆˑˇːˢ ˅˔ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˋ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˎˡˇˈˌ ˑˇˈ˅˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˜ˈ.

dress up Nikki always dresses up for parties.

ʜˋˍˋ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ː˃˓ˢˉ˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ː˃ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ˋːˍˋǤ

freshen up Where’s the bathroom? I would like to freshen up.

ʒˇˈ ˅˃ːː˃ˢ ˍˑˏː˃˕˃ǫ ʮ ˘ˑ˚˖ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˑˍ.

put on sth / put sth on Carly put her coat on and ran out of the house.

ʙ˃˓ˎˋ ː˃˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎ˃ ˒˃ˎ˟˕ˑ ˋ  ˅˞˄ˈˉ˃ˎ˃ ˋˊ ˇˑˏ˃Ǥ

show off Don’t take any notice of Ann, she is just showing off.

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ʜˈ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˌ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˢ ː˃ ʏːː˖ǡ ˑː˃ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˓ˋ˔˖ˈ˕˔ˢ.

6. DESCRIBING PEOPLE

shy away from sth Kids usually shy away from strangers.

ʓˈ˕ˋ ˑ˄˞˚ːˑ ˔˕ˑ˓ˑːˢ˕˔ˢ ːˈˊː˃ˍˑˏ˙ˈ˅Ǥ

slip sth on / slip on Jim slipped on a pair of blue jeans and T-short and went to the shop.

ʓˉˋˏ ː˃˙ˈ˒ˋˎ ˇˉˋː˔˞ ˋ  ˗˖˕˄ˑˎˍ˖ ˋ ˒ˑ˛ˈˎ ˅ ˏ˃Ǧ ˆ˃ˊˋːǤ

stand out Ken is the sort of person who always stands out in a crowd.

ʙˈː ˋˊ ˕ˈ˘ǡ ˍ˕ˑ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ː˃ ˗ˑːˈ ˇ˓˖ˆˋ˘ ˎˡˇˈˌǤ

tell sb / sth from sb / sth Bob and Bill are twins. It’s impossible to tell one from the other.

ʐˑ˄ ˋ ʐˋˎˎ Ȅ ˄ˎˋˊːˈ˙˞Ǥ ʗ˘ ːˈ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ ˓˃ˊˎˋ˚ˋ˕˟.

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢˏˈˉˇ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. dress up 2. dress down 3. blend in with 4. freshen up 5. put on 6. show off

a. make yourself look neat and tidy after a journey or before a meeting b. avoid doing something because you are nervous or frightened c. wear clothes that are less smart than usual d. put clothes or shoes on quickly and easily e. behave in such a manner as to make an impression f. be or look the same as those around you

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PHRASAL VERBS 7. shy away from 8. slip on 9. stand out 10. tell sb from sb

g. distinguish somebody from another person h. place clothing on your body in order to wear it i. wear clothes that are smarter than the ones you usually wear j. be much better than other people

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. Chris, a six-foot-three redhead, __________ in his small rural community like a palm tree in a cornfield. a. stood out b. blended c. showed off 2. We can __________ tonight because the ceremony is going to be very informal. b. dress down c. put on a. dress up 3. Teenagers often __________ curious or flirty glances from attractive members of the opposite sex. a. blend in with b. shy away from c. freshen up 4. I think Tom is just trying to __________ in front of the girls. a. stand out b. freshen up c. show off 5. She __________ a pair of white jeans and a black sleeveless top and went for a walk with her dog. a. slipped on b. dressed up c. dressed down 6. I hope when we arrive there will be some time to __________ before the interview. a. show off b. freshen up c. dress up 7. No matter how hard I tried to __________ my group-mates, they knew my background was different. a. stand out from b. shy away from c. blend in with 8. All kids were __________ in white sheets, pretending to be ghosts. a. dressed up b. dressed down c. blended in

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6. DESCRIBING PEOPLE 9. I’ll have to __________ my coat; it’s too cold outside. a. dress up b. put on c. slip on

h౮IIIǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. Do you know how to see a fake Vuitton handbag from the real one? 2. He doesn’t usually drive fast. He’s just showing up because he wants to impress you. 3. I was happy to see the girls beginning to blend with in the other guests. 4. In our office, people wear down on Fridays. 5. It’s a small informal partyȄyou don’t have to dress down. 6. Many men nowadays shy from away relations with single mothers. 7. Sam was already at the door slipping in his coat. 8. She stands out against the crowd because she’s not afraid to speak her mind. 9. She took off her dress and dressed on a sweater and trousers. 10. There’s a bathroom upstairs if you’d like to dress up.

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. blend in with a. classmates b. guests c. milk 2. shy away from a. housework b. conflicts c. friendship

3. put on a. a coat b. a haircut c. weight 4. slip on a. jeans b. shoes c. make-up

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʗːˑˆˇ˃ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˓ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˋ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚ˋ˕˟ ˄ˎˋˊːˈ˙ˑ˅ ˇ˓˖ˆ ˑ˕ ˇ˓˖ˆ˃.

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PHRASAL VERBS ʹǤ ʚ˖˚˛ˈ ˑˇˈː˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˜ˈǡ ˏ˞ ˈˇˈˏ ˅ ˎˈ˔ ː˃ ˄˃˓˄ˈˍˡǤ ͵Ǥ ʛˈˆˆˋ ˕˃ˍ˃ˢ ˍ˓˃˔ˋ˅˃ˢǨ ʝː˃ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˅ ˕ˑˎ˒ˈ. ͶǤ ʜˈ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˌ ː˃ ːˈˆˑ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˢǡ ˑː ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˓ˋ˔˖ˈ˕˔ˢ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˆˑ˔˕ˢˏˋǤ 5. ʜ˃ˇˈː˟ ˆˑˎ˖˄ˑˈ ˒ˎ˃˕˟ˈǡ ˑːˑ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˋˇˈ˕Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʞˑˇˑˉˇˋ ˏˋː˖˕ˍ˖ǡ ˢ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ː˃ˍˋː˖ ˍˑ˗˕˖ ˋ ˔˒˖˜˖˔˟ ˅ːˋˊǤ ͹Ǥ ʞˑ˔ˎˈ˕˃ˍˑˌ˖˕ˑˏˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˌ˒ˑˈˊˇˍˋˏːˈː˖ˉːˑ˅˓ˈˏˢǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˑˍ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˑ˄ˈˇˑˏǤ ͺǤ ʠˋˎ˟˅ˋˢ ˕˃ˍ˃ˢ ˔˕ˈ˔ːˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˃ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˔˕ˑ˓ˑːˋ˕˔ˢ ˎˡ˄ˑˆˑǡ ˍ˕ˑ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˈ˕ ː˃ ːˈˈ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˈǤ ͻǤ ʮ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˅ ˠ˕ˑˌ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋ ˇ˅˃ ˆˑˇ˃ ː˃ˊ˃ˇǡ ːˑ  ˅˔ˈ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˅ˎˋˎ˔ˢ ˅ ˍˑˎˎˈˍ˕ˋ˅Ǥ ͳͲǤ ʮ ːˈ ˎˡ˄ˎˡ ː˃ˇˈ˅˃˕˟ ˏ˃˔ˍ˃˓˃ˇː˞ˌ ˍˑ˔˕ˡˏ ˇ˃ˉˈ ː˃  ʤˠˎˎˑ˖ˋːǤ

KEYS h౮I. ͳ Ȅ i ʹ Ȅ c ͵ Ȅ f Ͷ Ȅ a

ͷ Ȅ h ͸ Ȅ e ͹ Ȅ b ͺ Ȅ d

ͻ Ȅ j ͳͲ Ȅ g

ͳ Ȅ a ʹ Ȅ b ͵ Ȅ b

Ͷ Ȅ c ͷ Ȅ a ͸ Ȅ b

͹ Ȅ c ͺ Ȅ a ͻ Ȅ b

h II.

h III. 1. Do you know how to tell a fake Vuitton handbag from the real one?

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6. DESCRIBING PEOPLE 2. He doesn’t usually drive fast. He’s just showing off because he wants to impress you. 3. I was happy to see the girls beginning to blend in with the other guests. 4. In our office, people dress down on Fridays. 5. It’s a small informal party Ȅ you don’t have to dress up. 6. Many men nowadays shy away from relations with single mothers. 7. Sam was already at the door slipping on his coat. 8. She stands out in the crowd because she’s not afraid to speak her mind. 9. She took off her dress and put on a sweater and trousers. 10. There’s a bathroom upstairs if you’d like to freshen up.

h IV.  

ͳ Ȅ c ʹ Ȅ a

͵ Ȅ b Ͷ Ȅ c

h V. 1. Sometimes only parents can tell one twin from the other. 2. You’d better dress down, we’re going to a barbecue in the forest. 3. Meggy is so beautiful! She really stands out in a crowd. 4. Don’t pay attention to him, he is just showing off in front of the guests. 5. Put on the blue dress, it suits you a lot. 6. Wait a sec, I’ll just slip on my cardigan and come downstairs. 7. After such a tiring journey I need some time to freshen myself up before dinner. 8. Silvia is so bashful that she shies away from anyone who pays close attention to her. 9. I started working for the company two years ago but I  haven’t blended in with the team yet. 10. I hate dressing up even at Halloween.

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7. FEELINGS

Be sure to open all emails today. You’re likely to receive some good news that’ll brighten you up1. You might get a good job offer. Or perhaps your old love gets in touch with you to renew old bonds. Expect the unexpected, but don’t get carried away2! Don’t hesitate to try something new today! Even if the idea takes you aback3 at first, think about it, and you may warm to4 it! And when you find yourself doing something new and taking to5 it enthusiastically, you’ll get the infusion of fun you need! This could be a frustrating day. Your boss picks on6 you and puts down7 your new project. Perhaps your best friend lets you down8. Just cool down9, pull yourself together10 and the ultimate result will be worth the efforts. 1

brighten up ˓˃ˇˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˇˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 2 get carried away ˖˅ˎˈˍ˃˕˟Ǣ ˑ˘˅˃˕˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˚˖˅˔˕˅ˈ) 3 take aback ˊ˃˘˅˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˅˓˃˔˒ˎˑ˘Ǣ ˖ˇˋ˅ˋ˕˟ 4 warm to ˅ˑˑˇ˖˛ˈ˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ 5 take to ˒˓ˋ˔˕˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖˅ˎˈ˚˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 6 pick on ˒˓ˋˇˋ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) 7 put down ˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ 8 let down ˓˃ˊˑ˚˃˓ˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟

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7. FEELINGS 9

cool down ˑ˔˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˖˔˒ˑˍ˃ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 10 pull oneself together ˅ˊˢ˕˟ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˓˖ˍˋǡ ˔ˑ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˇ˖˘ˑˏ

EXTRA EXAMPLES be taken aback I was somewhat taken aback by his remark.

ʔˆˑ ˊ˃ˏˈ˚˃ːˋˈ ˏˈːˢ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˖ˇˋ˅ˋˎˑ.

brighten up Kane brightened up when he was told that Sue was coming after all.

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ʙˈˌː˖ ˔ˍ˃ˊ˃ˎˋǡ ˚˕ˑ ʠ˟ˡ ˅˔˩Ǧ˕˃ˍˋ ˒˓ˋˇ˩˕ǡ ˑː ˑ˄˓˃ˇˑ˅˃ˎ˔ˢ.

cool down When he cooled down a little he realized that he had been wrong.

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˑː ːˈˏːˑˆˑ ˑ˔˕˞ˎ, ˕ˑ  ˒ˑːˢˎǡ ˚˕ˑ ˄˞ˎ ːˈ˒˓˃˅Ǥ

get carried away Tom got a bit carried away and started to sing loudly.

ʡˑˏ ːˈˏːˑˆˑ ˖˅ˎˈˍ˔ˢ ˋ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˆ˓ˑˏˍˑ ˒ˈ˕˟Ǥ

let sb down / let down sb The worst feeling is having let your friend down.

ʢˉ˃˔ːˈˈ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˚˖˅˔˕˅˖ˈ˛˟ ˔ˈ˄ˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˇˋ˛˟ ˇ˓˖ˆ˃Ǥ

pick on sb My son says that his Math teacher is always picking on him.

ʛˑˌ ˔˞ː ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˖˚ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ ˏ˃˕ˈˏ˃˕ˋˍˋ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˍ ːˈˏ˖ ˒˓ˋˇˋ˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢ.

pull oneself together With an effort Betty pulled herself together.

ʐˈ˕˕ˋ ˔ ˕˓˖ˇˑˏ ˅ˊˢˎ˃ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˓˖ˍˋ.

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PHRASAL VERBS

put sb down I hate my boss putting me down all the time.

ʛːˈ ːˈ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˏˑˌ ˄ˑ˔˔ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˏˈːˢ ˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍ˖ˈ˕.

take to sth Sarah took to diving straight away.

ʠ˃˓˃ ˔˓˃ˊ˖ ˉˈ ˖˅ˎˈˍˎ˃˔˟ ˇ˃ˌ˅ˋːˆˑˏǤ

warm to sb / sth I was just warming to the game when the rain made us leave the court.

ʛːˈ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑǦ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˋˆ˓˃ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˇˑˉˇ˟ ˒˓ˑˆː˃ˎ ː˃˔ ˔ ˍˑ˓˕˃Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˕ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏǤ 1. Dan took to parkour straight away. a. started to like b. made use of

c. was afraid of

2. I didn’t want him to see me crying like that so I pulled myself together. a. refreshed myself b. recovered control of my emotions c. changed my behaviour 3. I’m always taken aback by her directness. a. amused b. worried c. surprised 4. Jane had been let down badly several times in the past. a. cheated b. disappointed c. lowered in rank 5. Marsha just got carried away because the book was such fun. a. lost self-control

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7. FEELINGS b. got absent-minded c. forgot everything else 6. Pat’s ex-boyfriend was always putting her down in front of his friends. a. criticizing her b. abusing her c. humiliating her 7. Tara brightened up at the thought of visiting her home town. a. became hopeful b. got inspired c. became happier 8. The more she spoke, the more we warmed to the idea. a. appreciated b. disapproved of c. liked 9. When I had cooled down, I was able to look at the situation more objectively. a. become slightly colder b. become less angry c. become less strong 10. Why are you always picking on me? a. insulting me b. finding falt with me c. abusing me

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ

Text 1 brighten up pull oneself together cool down put sb down pick on sb Mr Longh, our ex-boss, was very strict. He didn’t forgive us even a single mistake and (1) _______ ȋalways / us) no matter how hard we worked. Of all my colleagues, Jane suffered most. She is a quiet, shy girl and (2) _______ȋalways) by Mr Longh. She used to tell me that sometimes it took her hours (3) _______ after

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PHRASAL VERBS talking to him. And he was short-tempered too. Mr Longh was quick to fly into a rage and insult us, but even (4) _______ he would never apologize. So it stands to reason that everyone (5) _______ when he resigned.

Text 2 be taken aback take to sth let sb down warm to sth When John offered me a job in his travel agency I (6) _______ ȋreally). To begin with, it meant a change in my career and a kind of downshifting. Besides, I didn’t have the right qualifications and was merely afraid (7) _______ ȋhim). He didn’t rush me and the more I thought about his offer, the more I (8) _______ the idea. Finally I decided to give it a try. I (9) _______ the new job at once and haven’t regretted my decision ever since.

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˋˊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːː˞˘ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ˑ˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖Ǥ 1. Abby brightened up a bit when she saw us/turned on the light. 2. Bob was nervous about meeting Ann’s kids, but he warmed to them after all/immediately. 3. Chris knew he would regret it, when he had cooled down to room temperature/a little. 4. His classmates picked on him because he was the fattest/the strongest boy in their class. 5. Holly took to her new group mates immediately – they were stupid and mean/helpful and friendly. 6. It’s all arranged. I can’t let her down completely/౮now. 7. Jenny put Matt down by reminding him of losing/౮winning the divorce case. 8. Now, Sarah, pull yourself together. Things may be even worse than that/not be as bad as all that. 9. Roger was taken aback by the girl’s shyness౮/directness. 10. When we listen to good music it’s easy to get carried away into the musical paradise/onto the dance-floor.

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7. FEELINGS h౮IVǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʣˋˑː˃ ˅ˊˢˎ˃ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˓˖ˍˋ ˋ ˖ˎ˞˄ː˖ˎ˃˔˟Ǥ ʹǤ ʞˈ˓˅˞ˈ ˔ˈ˓ˋˋ ˏːˈ ːˈ ˒ˑː˓˃˅ˋˎˋ˔˟ǡ ːˑ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ ˔ˈ˓ˋ˃ˎ ˖˅ˎˈˍ ˏˈːˢǤ ͵Ǥ ʠː˃˚˃ˎ˃ˢˑ˚ˈː˟ːˈ˓˅ːˋ˚˃ˎ˃ˋˊǦˊ˃˅˔˕˓ˈ˚ˋ˔ˈˆˑ˓ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˢˏˋǡ ːˑ ˑːˋ ˏːˈ ˔˓˃ˊ˖ ˉˈ ˒ˑː˓˃˅ˋˎˋ˔˟. ͶǤ ʓˉˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˇˑ˅˃ˎ˔ˢǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ː˃˔ ˖˅ˋˇˈˎǤ ͷǤ ʟˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˋ ːˈ ˇˑˎˉː˞ ˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍˑ˅˃˕˟ ˔˅ˑˈˆˑ ˓ˈ˄ˈːˍ˃ ˅ ˒˓ˋ˔˖˕˔˕˅ˋˋ ˇ˓˖ˆˋ˘ ˇˈ˕ˈˌǤ ͸Ǥ ʑˑˊˏˑˉːˑǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˑː ːˈˏːˑˆˑ ˑ˔˕˞ːˈ˕ǡ ˑː ˋˊ˅ˋːˋ˕˔ˢǤ ͹Ǥ ʠˎ˃˄˞ˈ ˔˕˖ˇˈː˕˞ ˚˃˔˕ˑ ˉ˃ˎ˖ˡ˕˔ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˒˓ˈ˒ˑˇ˃˅˃˕ˈˎˋ ˍ ːˋˏ ˒˓ˋˇˋ˓˃ˡ˕˔ˢ. ͺǤ ʡˋː˃ ˍ˃ˊ˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˖ˇˋ˅ˎˈːːˑˌ ˈˆˑ ˊ˃ˏˈ˚˃ːˋˈˏǤ ͻǤ ʛ˞˅˔ˈːˈˏːˑˆˑ˖˅ˎˈˍˎˋ˔˟ˋː˃˚˃ˎˋ˒ˑˇ˒ˈ˅˃˕˟˒ˈ˅˙˖Ǥ ͳͲǤ ʛ˞ ˔ˋˎ˟ːˑ ˒ˑˇ˅ˈˎˋ ː˃˛ˋ˘ ˄ˑˎˈˎ˟˜ˋˍˑ˅ǡ ˒˓ˑˋˆ˓˃˅ ˒ˑˇ˓ˢˇ ˕˓ˋ ˏ˃˕˚˃Ǥ

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ a ʹ Ȅ b ͵ Ȅ c Ͷ Ȅ b

ͷ Ȅ ˔ ͸ Ȅ a ͹ Ȅ c ͺ Ȅ c

ͻ Ȅ b ͳͲ Ȅ b

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

was always putting us down was always being picked on to pull herself together having cooled down brightened up was really taken aback

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PHRASAL VERBS 7. to let him down 8. warmed to 9. took to

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

saw us immediately a little the fattest helpful and friendly now losing not be as bad as all that directness into the musical paradise

h IV. 1. Fiona pulled herself together and smiled. 2. I didn’t like first series but then I took to this soap opera. 3. I was nervous about meeting his parents at first, but I warmed to them immediately. 4. Jim brightened up as soon as he saw us. 5. Parents shouldn’t put down their kid in front of other children. 6. Perhaps, when he has cooled down a little he will apologize. 7. Poor students often complain of being picked on by their teachers. 8. Tina seemed taken aback by his remark. 9. We all got a bit carried away and started singing along with the singer. 10. We have let down our fans badly by losing three matches in a row.

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8. RELATIONSHIPS Dear Pat, My parents don’t get along1 well. In fact, they’ve been falling out2 a lot and I think they are going to break up3 soon. It doesn’t look the least bit of fun. Is there anything I  can do? Parent Trouble

Dear P.T., When people split up4 it’s always bad, but there isn’t much you can do to persuade them to make up5. Your parents are adults and they’ve already made their choice. Just be brave and talk to your best friend about it. Pat

Dear Pat, My best friend broke off6 with her boyfriend. He used to ask out7 two of my other besties and now he seems to be hitting on8 me! I’m not into9 him, but what should I do? Puzzled

Dear P., You don’t have to go out with10 a guy just because he says he likes you. Forget all about him, and go for11 someone decent. And don’t forget about your bestie, she needs your support. Pat

1

get along ˎ˃ˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˖ˉˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 2 fall out ˔˔ˑ˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ 3 break up ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ 4 split up ˓˃˔˘ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ 5 make up ˏˋ˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ 6 break off ˓˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ˕ːˑ˛ˈːˋˢ)

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PHRASAL VERBS 7

ask out ː˃ˊː˃˚˃˕˟ ˔˅ˋˇ˃ːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˋˆˎ˃˛˃˕˟ ȋˍ˖ˇ˃Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) 8 hit on ː˃ˊˑˌˎˋ˅ˑ ˖˘˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟ 9 be into ˋː˕ˈ˓ˈ˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ 10 go out with ˅˔˕˓ˈ˚˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 11 go for ˎˡ˄ˋ˕˟ǡ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ

EXTRA EXAMPLES ask sb out Tony is too shy to ask her out.

ʡˑːˋ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˊ˃˔˕ˈː˚ˋ˅ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒˓ˋˆˎ˃˔ˋ˕˟ ˈˈ ː˃ ˔˅ˋˇ˃ːˋˈ.

be into sb ʛˑˈˌ ˔ˈ˔˕˓ˈ ˇˈˌ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢ ʙ˃˓ˎǤ

My sister is really into Carl.

break off Has Patsy really broken off her engagement with Oliver?

ʞˠ˕˔ˋ ˇˈˌ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˓˃ˊˑ˓˅˃ˎ˃ ˒ˑˏˑˎ˅ˍ˖ ˔ ʝˎˋ˅ˈ˓ˑˏǫ

break up Tim and I broke up last month.

ʮ˓˃ˊˑ˛ˎ˃˔˟˔ʡˋˏˑˏ˅˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ˈǤ

fall out Patty is always falling out with classmates.

ʞ˃˕˕ˋ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˔˔ˑ˓ˋ˕˔ˢ ˔  ˑˇːˑˍˎ˃˔˔ːˋˍ˃ˏˋǤ

get along My dad and I never really got along.

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ʮ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˎ˃ˇˋˎ˃ ˔ ˑ˕˙ˑˏǤ

8. RELATIONSHIPS

go for sb She doesn’t go for tall men.

ʔˌ ːˈ ː˓˃˅ˢ˕˔ˢ ˅˞˔ˑˍˋˈ ˏ˖ˉ˚ˋː˞Ǥ

go out with sb Dan used to go out with my sister.

ʓˠː ˍˑˆˇ˃Ǧ˕ˑ ˅˔˕˓ˈ˚˃ˎ˔ˢ ˔  ˏˑˈˌ ˔ˈ˔˕˓ˑˌǤ

hit on sb Mike has hit on most of the women in the office.

ʛ˃ˌˍ˖ˉˈ˒˓ˋ˔˕˃˅˃ˎ ˍ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈː˔˕˅˖ ˉˈː˜ˋː ˅ ˑ˗ˋ˔ˈǤ

make up Have you made up with your sister yet?

ʡ˞ ˖ˉˈ ˒ˑˏˋ˓ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˔ ˔ˈ˔˕˓ˑˌǫ

split up I think Rita will split up with her boyfriend.

ʮ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ʟˋ˕˃ ˓˃˔˔˕˃ːˈ˕˔ˢ ˔ˑ ˔˅ˑˋˏ ˒˃˓ːˈˏǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ along, for, into, off, on, out ˋˎˋ up. 1. Dave and Max have fallen _______ over some stupid misunderstanding. 2. Do you know how long Nikki and Oliver have been going _______? 3. Even their parents didn’t know that they had broken _______ their engagement. 4. Grace gets _______ well with most of my friends. 5. He’s not the type I usually go _______; I prefer dark-haired men. 6. I was _______ him just by talking to him on the phone for 10 minutes.

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PHRASAL VERBS 7. I was too young and broke _______ with Ken just after a  few months of marriage. 8. Mel’s parents split _______ when he was 6. 9. Michael is too shy and scared to ask her _______. 10. Steve was drunk and hitting _______ me, making such an idiot of himself. 11. Why don’t you forget your differences and make _______ with Martin?

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. After I ended the relationship with Sophie there was a  long cooling-off period to sort out my feelings. 2. I wish someone could persuade Sue and Ruth to become friends again. 3. I’ve been dating with Brad for three years already so now it’s time to decide whether I should put an end to the relationship and remain friends with him or keep the relationship going. 4. If a couple keeps quarrelling frequently they can ruin the relationship and finally become separated. 5. If there were a man who caught my eye I think I would invite him to go with me to a café or a restaurant. 6. Many rich and famous men prefer model type looking women. 7. The ability to be friendly with other people is very important for a healthy life. 8. When a girl is making sexual advances to your husband or boyfriend, you have a moral right to get annoyed.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ˅ː˖ˉːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ Hi, Kate! I have most wonderful news to tell you! Gary (1) ______ (me)! He’s just the kind I (2) ______, all tall and blond and handsome! You know I (3) ______ him since my first day in the office, but

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8. RELATIONSHIPS he (4) ______ with Nicole Moore from the sales department and they seemed to (5) ______ pretty well. Moreover, they were engaged and I didn’t want to interfere. But six months ago Gary (6) ______ with Nicole after that Easter party when she got tipsy and (7) ______ Joel Tucker, our sales rep. Everyone thought that Gary would (8) ______ their engagement, but Nicole somehow managed to (9) ______ with him. Everything seemed fine again until two months ago when Gary caught Nicole making eyes at Joel again and finally (10) ______ with her. So wish me luck, sis! Kisses, Pat

h౮IVǤ ʠˑˈˇˋːˋ˕ˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˑ ˋ ˍˑːˈ˙ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˌǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǤ 1. Brad has hit … 2. Ella is proud of her ability to get … 3. Every time I try to ask Mandy … 4. Jim and Roger fell … 5. Many showbusiness marriages break … 6. Patsy has just told me that she wants to break  … 7. Some young girls tend to go … 8. When the family argument goes too far the most difficult thing is to make  …

a. __________ when Jim started a relationship with Roger’s ex-girlfriend. b. _________ because of personality clashes. c. _________ most of the women in our department. d. _______ older men. e. _______ with the partner. f. _______ with people of all religious convictions. g. _________ our engagement. h. ________ my legs get weak and start to shake.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʓˉˈːːˋ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː˃ ˖˅ˈ˓ˈː˃ ˅ ˕ˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ ˢ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˒ˑˎ˃ˉ˖ ˔ ˈˈ ˔˞ːˑˏǤ ʹǤ ʙˈː˃ˑ˚ˈː˟ˋː˕ˈ˓ˈ˔˖ˈ˕ʡ˃˓˃Ǣˈˏ˖ː˓˃˅ˢ˕˔ˢˍ˃ˍ˓˃ˊ˕˃ˍˋˈ «ˇˈ˅˖˛ˍˋ ˔ ˑ˄ˎˑˉˍˋ».

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PHRASAL VERBS ͵Ǥ ʛˑˋ ˔ˑ˔ˈˇˋ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˓˖ˆ˃ˎˋ˔˟ǡ ˋǡ ː˃ˍˑːˈ˙ǡ ˓˃ˊˑ˛ˎˋ˔˟. ͶǤ ʝːˋ ˒ˑ˔˔ˑ˓ˋˎˋ˔˟ ː˃ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˈ ʟˑˉˇˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˋ ˔ ˕ˈ˘ ˒ˑ˓ ˅˔ˈ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˒ˑˏˋ˓ˋˎˋ˔˟Ǥ ͷǤ ʠˑ˅˓ˈˏˈːː˞ˏ ˏ˖ˉ˚ˋː˃ˏ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˉˈː˜ˋː˞ ˒˓ˋˆˎ˃˛˃ˡ˕ ˋ˘ ː˃ ˔˅ˋˇ˃ːˋˈ? ͸Ǥ ʮ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˖ˇˋ˅ˎˈː˃ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ʓˠː ˋ ʛˠːˇˋ ˓˃ˊˑ˓˅˃ˎˋ ˒ˑˏˑˎ˅ˍ˖. ͹Ǥ ʮ˅˔˕˓ˈ˚˃ˡ˔˟˔ʓˑːˑˏ˖ˉˈ˒ˢ˕˟ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ˈ˅ǡ˃ˑː˅˔ˈˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˔ˇˈˎ˃ˎ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˈǤ ͺǤ ʮ ˓˃˔˔˕˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˔ ʐˋˎˑˏ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ʡˑˏ˃Ǥ ͻǤ ʮ ˔ˎˑˏ˃ˎ ˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˒˃˓ːˡ ːˑ˔ǡ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ˖ ˚˕ˑ ˑː ˒˞˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˃˕˟ ˍ ˏˑˈˌ ˇˈ˅˖˛ˍˈǤ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

out out off along

5. 6. 7. 8.

for into up up

9. out 10. on 11. up

h II. 1. After I broke up with Sophie there was a long cooling-off period to sort out my feelings. 2. I wish someone could persuade Sue and Ruth to make up. 3. I’ve been going out with Brad for three years already so now it’s time to decide whether I should break off the relationship and remain friends with him or keep the relationship going. 4. If a couple keeps falling out frequently they can ruin the relationship and finally split up. 5. If there were a man who caught my eye I think I would ask him out.

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8. RELATIONSHIPS 6. Many rich and famous men go for model type looking women. 7. The ability to get alongwith other people is very important for a healthy life. 8. When a girl is hitting on your husband or boyfriend, you have a moral right to get annoyed.

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

has asked me out go for have been into was going out be getting along

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

fell out was hitting on break off make up split up

h IV. ͳ Ȅ on Ȅ c ʹ Ȅ along Ȅ f ͵ Ȅ out Ȅ h Ͷ Ȅ out Ȅ a

ͷ Ȅ up Ȅ b ͸ Ȅ off Ȅ g ͹ Ȅ for Ȅ d ͺ Ȅ up Ȅ e

h V. 1. Jenny says she is sure I’m going to get along with her son very well. 2. Ken is really into Tara; he just goes for cover girls. 3. My neighbours argued constantly, and finally broke up. 4. They fell out last Christmas and haven’t made up yet. 5. Do modern men like it when women ask them out? 6. I was taken aback when Dan and Mandy broke off their engagement. 7. I’ve been going out with Don for five months already and he hasn’t proposed yet. 8. Tom was the reason I split up with Bill. 9. I broke this guy’s nose because he tried to hit on my girlfriend.

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9. STAGES THROUGH LIFE

Adelmo is 20 and he’s studying law at McGill University in Montreal. Adelmo was named after1 his grandfather, a successful lawyer, and everybody says that he takes after2 him. Adelmo’s parents died in a car accident when he was only 5 so he was brought up3 by his grandparents. His grandma had to stand down4 as headmistress to look after5 him. Adelmo grew up6 in Mexico but when he was 15 his grandparents moved to Canada. Adelmo was an obedient child and his grandparents never worried that he might drop out7 of school or turn to8 drugs and wind up9 in prison. Now Adelmo’s goal is to get his degree as he wants to live up to10 all hopes and expectations of his grandparents. 1

name after ː˃ˊ˞˅˃˕˟ ˅ ˚ˈ˔˕˟ ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 2 take after ˒ˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ː˃ ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 3 bring up ˅ˑ˔˒ˋ˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟ 4 stand down ˖˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˑ˕˔˕˃˅ˍ˖ ˔ ˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒ˑ˔˕˃ 5 look after ˊ˃˄ˑ˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˑ ˍˑˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˒˓ˋ˔ˏ˃˕˓ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˊ˃ ˍˈˏǦ ˎˋ˄ˑ 6 grow up ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˊ˓ˑ˔ˎ˞ˏǡ ˅ˊ˓ˑ˔ˎˈ˕˟ 7 drop out ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ȋ˖˚ˈ˄˖ǡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖) 8 turn to ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˒˓ˋˑ˄˜ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ

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9. STAGES THROUGH LIFE 9

wind up ˑˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˍ˃ˍˑˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒ˑˎˑˉˈːˋˋ 10 live up to ˑ˒˓˃˅ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ȋː˃ˇˈˉˇ˞)

EXTRA EXAMPLES bring up sb / bring sb up He was brought up by his elder sister.

ʔˆˑ ˅˞˓˃˔˕ˋˎ˃ ˔˕˃˓˛˃ˢ ˔ˈ˔˕˓˃Ǥ

drop out Max dropped out of college after his first year.

ʛ˃ˍ˔˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎˍˑˎˎˈˇˉ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˒ˈ˓˅ˑˆˑ ˍ˖˓˔˃Ǥ

grow up I want to be an engineer when I grow up.

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˅˞˓˃˔˕˖ǡ ˢ ˘ˑ˚˖ ˔˕˃˕˟ ˋːˉˈːˈ˓ˑˏǤ

live up to sth I have certainly lived up to my parents’ expectations.

ʮ˅˒ˑˎːˑˌˏˈ˓ˈˑ˒˓˃˅ˇ˃ˎ˃ ː˃ˇˈˉˇ˞ ˏˑˋ˘ ˓ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˈˌǤ

look after sb Don’t worry, I’ll look after the kids on Sunday.

ʜˈ˒ˈ˓ˈˉˋ˅˃ˌǡˢ˒˓ˋ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˡ ˊ˃ ˇˈ˕˟ˏˋ ˅ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˈː˟ˈǤ

name sb after sb Dave was named after his father.

ʓˠˌ˅˃ ː˃ˊ˅˃ˎˋ ˅ ˚ˈ˔˕˟ ˈˆˑ ˑ˕˙˃Ǥ

stand down He stood down after only five months as chairman.

ʝː ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋˎ ˒ˑ˔˕ ˒˓ˈˇ˔ˈˇ˃˕ˈˎˢ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˎˋ˛˟ ˚ˈ˓ˈˊ ˒ˢ˕˟ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ˈ˅Ǥ

take after sb Your son doesn’t take after you at all!

ʑ˃˛ ˔˞ː ː˃ ˅˃˔ ˔ˑ˅˔ˈˏ ːˈ ˒ˑ˘ˑˉ!

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PHRASAL VERBS

turn to sth Many addicts turn to crime to finance their habit.

ʛːˑˆˋˈ ː˃˓ˍˑˏ˃ː˞ ˋˇ˖˕ ː˃ ˒˓ˈ˔˕˖˒ˎˈːˋˢǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑ˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟ ː˃˓ˍˑ˕ˋˍˋǤ

wind up You’re going to wind up in prison over this.

ʗˊǦˊ˃ ˠ˕ˑˆˑ ˕˞ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˛˟ ˅  ˕ˡ˓˟ˏˈǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˕ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏǤ 1. But if Jim wants to go out, at least Grace can look after him if she goes with him. a. keep an eye on b. take charge of c. take care of 2. Guilty or not, he’s still going to wind up in jail. b. end his days c. stay in a. arrive in 3. He stood down as the party’s leader in 2010. a. was sacked b. was elected c. resigned 4. If children can’t live up to their parents’ expectations, it only accentuates their feelings of failure. a. fulfill b. justify c. undertake 5. Joshua’s parents brought him up to be polite and respect his elders. a. bred b. raised c. cultivated 6. Many young people turn to routine drugs as a way to pass the time. a. start selling b. start producing c. start using

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9. STAGES THROUGH LIFE 7.

The project is aimed at helping children who have dropped out of school due to social or economic reasons. a. abandoned b. ceased c. rejected 8. Tony takes after his father Ȅ they both have an aptitude for science. a. follows b. inherits c. resembles 9. When my parents were growing up most of people didn’t have a TV because it was a luxury. a. developing b. maturing c. aging

h౮IIǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢˏˋǡ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˢ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˈ ː˃ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ bring up live up to look after

name after take after turn to

an explorer drugs five children

new babies one’s mother smb’s expectations

1. America __________ __________ called Amerigo Vespucci. 2. Betty has been married four times and ________ ________. 3. I think the play was quite good although it ___________ __________ not. 4. Lucy really ___________ ___________, because they both have red hair and green eyes. 5. People may ___________ ___________ to escape stress or loneliness. 6. The most difficult job in the world is _________ _________.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ 1. An assortment of foods _______ after Alexandra of Denmark when she was Princess of Wales and Queen. 2. Despite intense pressure to resign, he made it clear he had no intention of _______ down.

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PHRASAL VERBS 3. I want my daughter to _______ up in the atmosphere of love. 4. If you hang out with this street gang, you could _______ up in jail. 5. Nowadays fewer and fewer women choose to stay at home to _______ after children. 6. Pat _______ up by her aunt and uncle because her parents died in a plane crash. 7. Patsy looks like her mom, but in most ways she _______ after her dad, who is a teacher. 8. My sister _______ to religion when she had a difficult period in her life. 9. The author was worried that his third book would not _______ up to his reader’s high expectations. 10. The number of students who _______ out is reaching an alarming rate.

h౮IVǤ ʟ˃˔˒ˑˎˑˉˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˏ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˍˈ ˋ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. dropped / At / of / of / the / florist / age / Patty / to / out / become / 19 / a / college. 2. father / to / his / grew / told / up / wanted / a / when / be / that / policeman / He / he / he. 3. expectations / hopes / up / Mike / father’s / to / can / he / high / his / live. 4. afraid / people / prison / aren’t / Some / to / to / up / in / young / wind / turn / crime / and. 5. The / the / political /was / leader / after / new / named / famous / school. 6. are / up / opinions / bring / many / child / There / on / way / the / to / proper / a.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʔ˔ˎˋˑːːˈˑ˒˓˃˅ˇ˃ˈ˕ː˃˛ˋː˃ˇˈˉˇ˞ǡˏ˞˅˔ˈˆˇ˃˔ˏˑˉˈˏ ː˃ːˢ˕˟ ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˆˑǤ

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9. STAGES THROUGH LIFE ʹǤ ʛˑˌ ˄˓˃˕ ˒ˑ˛ˈˎ ˅ ˑ˕˙˃ǡ ˋ ˏ˃ˏ˃ ˄ˑˋ˕˔ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː ˕ˑˉˈ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ ˕ˡ˓˟ˏˑˌǤ ͵Ǥ ʜˋ˜ˈ˕˃ˋ˒ˎˑ˘ˑˈˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːˋˈ˕ˑˎˍ˃ˡ˕˒ˑˇ˓ˑ˔˕ˍˑ˅ː˃ ˒˓ˈ˔˕˖˒ˎˈːˋˢǤ ͶǤ ʝː ˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ˍˑˎˎˈˇˉǡ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ˖ ˚˕ˑ ˈˏ˖ ˄˞ˎˑ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˕˓˖ˇːˑ ˖˚ˋ˕˟˔ˢǤ ͷǤ ʝː ˅˞˓ˑ˔ ˅ ˏ˃ˎˈː˟ˍˑˌ ˇˈ˓ˈ˅˖˛ˍˈ ˅ ʐ˓˃ˊˋˎˋˋǤ ͸Ǥ ʝː˃ ː˃ˊ˅˃ˎ˃ ˇˑ˚˟ ˅ ˚ˈ˔˕˟ ˄˃˄˖˛ˍˋ ˔˅ˑˈˆˑ ˏ˖ˉ˃Ǥ ͹Ǥ ʝː˃˖ˇˋ˅ˋˎ˃ː˃˔ǡˊ˃ˢ˅ˋ˅ǡ˚˕ˑˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˒ˑ˔˕˅˔ˈˆˑˎˋ˛˟ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˆˑˇ˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˞Ǥ ͺǤ ʠˈˌ˚˃˔ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˕ˢˉˈˎˑ ˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟ ˇˈ˕ˈˌǤ ͻǤ ʮ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˄˞ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˒˓ˋˊː˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˃ǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˄˞ ˕˞ ˒˓ˋ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈˎ˃ ˊ˃ ˏ˃ˎ˞˛ˑˏ ʡˑˏˑˏǡ ˒ˑˍ˃ ˢ ˄˖ˇ˖ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕ˈǤ

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ ˔ ʹ Ȅ b ͵ Ȅ ˔

Ͷ Ȅ a ͷ Ȅ b ͸ Ȅ c

͹ Ȅ a ͺ Ȅ c ͻ Ȅ b

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

was named after an explorer has brought up five children didn’t live up to my expectations takes after her mother turn to drugs looking after new babies

h III. 1. was named 2. standing 3. grow

4. wind 5. look 6. was brought

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PHRASAL VERBS 7. takes 8. turned

9. live 10. drop

h IV. 1. At the age of 19 Patty dropped out of college to become a  florist. 2. He told his father that he wanted to be a policeman when he grew up. 3. Mike hopes he can live up to his father’s high expectations. 4. Some young people aren’t afraid to turn to crime and wind up in prison. 5. The new school was named after the famous political leader. 6. There are many opinions on the proper way to bring up a  child.

h V. 1. If he does not live up to our expectations, we can always hire someone else. 2. My brother took after my father and mom was afraid that he would wind up in jail too. 3. Poverty and lack of education can make teenagers turn to crime. 4. He dropped out of college because it was too difficult for him. 5. He grew up in a small village in Brazil. 6. She named her daughter after her husband’s grandmother. 7. She surprised us by announcing that she would stand down after only one year. 8. It’s difficult to bring up children nowadays. 9. I’d be grateful if you could look after little Tom while I’m at work.

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10. DAILY ROUTINES Mary and I have always been good friends so when we both got jobs in San Francisco, we decided to move in1 together. I’m a  receptionist at the Fairmont San Francisco Hotel and Mary works there as a waitress. During the week I get up2 at 6 a.m. I have to be very quiet as I don’t want to wake up3 Mary. She doesn’t get up until 1 p.m. because she starts work at 6 p.m. On weekday evenings I turn in4 quite early, about 9.30 p.m., but at weekends I  usually stay up5. On Saturday nights I wait up6 until Mary arrives. I sometimes drop off7 but she wakes me up and we have a nice chat before going to bed. Both Mary and I love sleeping in8 so on Sundays we always lie in9 until 11 or 12 a.m. We are in no hurry as we usually stay in10 on Sundays. 1

move in ˔ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 2 get up ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˒ˑˇːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˃˅˃˕˟ ȋ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˔ː˃) 3 wake up ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˄˖ˇˋ˕˟ 4 turn in ˎˈ˚˟ ˔˒˃˕˟ 5 stay up ːˈ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ 6 wait up ːˈ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ ȋˇˑ ˚˟ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇ˃) 7 drop off ˊ˃ˇ˓ˈˏ˃˕˟Ǣ ˊ˃˔ː˖˕˟ 8 sleep in ˔˒˃˕˟ ˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˑ˄˞˚ːˑˆˑ 9 lie in ˅˃ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˔˕ˈˎˋ ȋ˒ˑ ˖˕˓˃ˏ) 10 stay in ˑ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃ǡ ːˈ ˅˞˘ˑˇˋ˕˟

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PHRASAL VERBS

EXTRA EXAMPLES drop off I was sitting in the armchair watching TV when I dropped off.

ʮ ˔ˋˇˈˎ˃ ˅ ˍ˓ˈ˔ˎˈ ˋ ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈˎ˃˕ˈˎˈ˅ˋˊˑ˓ˋːˈˊ˃ˏˈ˕ˋˎ˃ǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˊ˃ˇ˓ˈˏ˃ˎ˃.

get up I hate getting up to the sounds of the alarm clock.

ʮ ːˈː˃˅ˋˉ˖ ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑˇ ˊ˅ˑː ˄˖ˇˋˎ˟ːˋˍ˃Ǥ

lie in It’s so nice to lie in at the weekends.

ʞˑ ˅˞˘ˑˇː˞ˏ ˕˃ˍ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˒ˑ˅˃ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˔˕ˈˎˋ.

move in Accommodations are expensive so Vikki and I are going to move in together.

ʠ˝˩ˏːˑˈ ˉˋˎ˟˩ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˑˈǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˢ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˡ˔˟ ˒ˑ˔ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˏˈ˔˕ˈ ˔ ʑˋˍˋǤ

sleep in Don’t wake me tomorrow, I’d like to sleep in.

ʜˈ ˄˖ˇˋ ˏˈːˢ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃ǣ ˢ ˘ˑ˚˖ ˒ˑ˔˒˃˕˟ ˒ˑˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ.

stay in Chris was tired, so he decided to stay in.

ʙ˓ˋ˔ ˖˔˕˃ˎ ˋ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ ˑ˔˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃.

stay up My sister and I stayed up all night, talking.

ʛ˞ ˔ ˔ˈ˔˕˓ˑˌ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅˃˓ˋ˅˃ˎˋ ˋ ːˈ ˎˑˉˋˎˋ˔˟ ˔˒˃˕˟ ˅˔ˡ ːˑ˚˟Ǥ

turn in I think I’ll turn in early tonight.

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ʓ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ ˢ ˎˢˆ˖ ˔˒˃˕˟ ˓˃ː˟˛ˈǤ

10. DAILY ROUTINES

wait up Please don’t wait up for me, I  may be in late.

ʞˑˉ˃ˎ˖ˌ˔˕˃ǡ ːˈ ˉˇˋ ˏˈːˢ ˋ ˎˑˉˋ˔˟ ˔˒˃˕˟Ǥ ʮ ˏˑˆ˖ ˊ˃ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǤ

wake up I like waking up to the sound of birds outside my window.

ʮ ˎˡ˄ˎˡ ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑˇ ˒ˈːˋˈ ˒˕ˋ˙ ˊ˃ ˑˍːˑˏǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞ǡ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˜ˋˈ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to fall asleep to go to bed for the night not to go to bed at the time you would normally go to bed not to go to sleep until someone comes home to remain in bed late in the morning to sleep longer than usual to spend the evening at home rather than go out to start living with someone in the same home to stop sleeping to wake and rise from one’s bed

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡˋ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Come on kids, it’s time to go to bed for the night. 2. I sometimes allow my little son not to go to bed to watch a movie. 3. I think I can work a little longer tonight and sleep longer than usual tomorrow.

IN UP IN

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PHRASAL VERBS 4. In our hotel you can remain in bed late in the morning and take advantage of a room service breakfast. 5. Jane says she stopped sleeping at six this morning. 6. Now that I’m on vacation, I don’t have any of that urgency about having to wake up and rise from my bed in the morning. 7. Now that my daughter is sixteen, I understand why my parents didn’tgo to bed and waited for me to return when I had a date. 8. Patty had to spend the evening at home to study for her Math exam. 9. There’s a rumour that Kane and Abby have started living together, but I don’t think it’s true.

IN UP

UP

UP IN IN

h౮IIIǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. Fiona has to remain in and look after her brother on Friday nights. 2. I should be going Ȅ mother will be waiting in for me. 3. I clocked in early, but Colin and Terry waited up talking and playing cards. 4. If you lie in on the weekends, it’s harder to stand up on Monday. 5. It is unusual for Jenny to get in before midday when she’s on vacation. 6. Molly is moving out with a friend from college. 7. When Stella finally dropped down it was well after midnight. 8. With two kids in the house, I don’t think you can stay in even on Sundays.

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. Carol always gets up as soon as she _______ up. a. waits b. stays c. wakes 2. Dana had a terrible headache, so she decided to stay  _______. a. in b. up c. out

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10. DAILY ROUTINES 3. I usually _______ in on Sunday mornings. a. stay b. turn c. lie 4. Rachel began staying nights and eventually _______ in with him. a. stayed b. moved c. slept 5. That night Rose _______ up, preparing work for the next day. a. waited b. got c. stayed 6. When I came home I was shocked to see everybody _______ up for me. a. waiting b. staying c. waking 7. When I’m on holiday I usually _______ in at about midnight. a. stay b. turn c. sleep 8. When Steve finally dropped _______, he had a nightmare. a. off b. down c. in

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˇˈ˓ˈ˅ːˢ˘ ˎˡˇˋ ˑ˄˞˚ːˑ ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ˔ ˅ˑ˔˘ˑˇˑˏ ˔ˑˎː˙˃Ǥ ʹǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ˢ˄˞ˎ˃ˏˑˎˑˉˈǡˢˏˑˆˎ˃ːˈˎˑˉˋˎˋ˔˟˔˒˃˕˟˅˔ˡ ːˑ˚˟ ˋ ˒˓ˋ ˠ˕ˑˏ ːˈ ˖˔˕˃˅˃˕˟Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʚˋˊ ː˃˔˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˖˔˕˃ˎ˃ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˊ˃˔ː˖ˎ˃ǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˇˑ˄˓˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˇˑ ˍ˓ˑ˅˃˕ˋǤ ͶǤ ʛ˃ˎ˞˛ ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃ˎ˔ˢ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˓˃ˊ ˊ˃ ːˑ˚˟Ǥ ͷǤ ʛˑˌ˄˓˃˕ːˈˎˡ˄ˋ˕˒ˑ˔˒˃˕˟˒ˑˇˑˎ˟˛ˈˇ˃ˉˈ˅˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˈː˟ˈǤ ͸Ǥ ʞˑˉ˃ˎ˖ˌǡ ˢ ˒ˑˌˇ˖ ˔˒˃˕˟Ǣ ˢ ːˈ ˒˓ˋ˅˞ˍˎ˃ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ ˒ˑˊˇːˑǤ ͹Ǥ ʞˑ˚ˈˏ˖˄˞ː˃ˏ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑːˈˑ˔˕˃˕˟˔ˢˇˑˏ˃ˋːˈ ˒ˑ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈ˕˟ ˕ˈˎˈ˅ˋˊˑ˓ǫ ͺǤ ʟˋ˕˃ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˄ˑˢˎ˃˔˟ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˕˟ ˓ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˢˏǡ ˚˕ˑ ˒ˈ˓ˈˈˊˉ˃ˈ˕ ˍ ʓˉˈˌˍ˖Ǥ ͻǤ ʢ ˏˈːˢ ˈ˔˕˟ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ˔˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˃ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˔˕ˈˎˋ ˒ˑˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˅ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˈː˟ˈǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͳͲǤ ʮ ːˈː˃˅ˋˉ˖ ːˈ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ ˋ ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˇˑ ͵ ːˑ˚ˋǡ ˒ˑˍ˃ ˏˑˋ ˇˈ˕ˋ ːˈ ˒˓ˋˇ˖˕ ˇˑˏˑˌ ˔ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ˋːˑˍǤ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

drop off turn in stay up wait up lie in

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to sleep in to stay in to move inȋwith somebody) to wake up to get up

h II. 1. Come on kids, it’s time to turn in. 2. I sometimes allow my little son to stay up to watch a movie. 3. I think I can work a little longer tonight and sleep in tomorrow. 4. In our hotel you can lie in and take advantage of a room service breakfast. 5. Jane says she woke up at six this morning. 6. Now that I’m on vacation, I don’t have any of that urgency about having to get up in the morning. 7. Now that my daughter is sixteen, I understand why my parents waited up for me when I had a date. 8. Patty had to stay in to study for her Math exam. 9. There’s a rumour that Kane and Abby have moved in together, but I don’t think it’s true.

h III. 1. Fiona has to stay in and look after her brother on Friday nights. 2. I should be going Ȅ mother will be waiting up for me.

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10. DAILY ROUTINES 3. I turned in early, but Colin and Terry stayed up talking and playing cards. 4. If you sleep in on the weekends, it’s harder to wake up on Monday. 5. It is unusual for Jenny to get up before midday when she’s on vacation. 6. Molly is moving in with a friend from college. 7. When Stella finally dropped off it was well after midnight. 8. With two kids in the house, I don’t think you can lie in even on Sundays.

h IV. ͳ Ȅ ˔ ʹ Ȅ a ͵ Ȅ c

Ͷ Ȅ b ͷ Ȅ c ͸ Ȅ a

͹ Ȅ b ͺ Ȅ a

h V. 1. In villages people usually get up when the sun rises. 2. When I was younger, I could stay up all night without getting tired. 3. Liz was so tired that she dropped off as soon as she got to bed. 4. The baby woke up several times during the night. 5. My brother doesn’t like sleeping in, even on Sundays. 6. I guess I’ll turn in now; I’m not used to late nights. 7. Why don’t we just stay in tonight and watch TV? 8. Rita was dreading telling her parents she was moving in with Jake. 9. Only on Sundays I have a chance to lie in. 10. I hate having to wait up till 3am for my kids to come home from parties.

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REVISION 6—10 h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˋ˕˖˃˙ˋˋǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ 1. Betty brightened up when she received an invitation to … a. a religious ceremony b. funeral ceremony c. a wedding ceremony 2. Carly is going to move in with her boyfriend. They’re going to … a. live together b. to work together c. to travel together 3. Everyone says that Terry takes after his father because he … a. drives his car b. resembles him c. wears his clothes 4. If you have fallen out with your friend over something, you  … a. are very clumsy b. got hurt c. are not on speaking terms any more 5. If you stayed up all night, you’d probably be … a. very cheerfull b. very tired c. fully rested 6. Louis felt that he’d let his parents down when he … a. failed his university entrance exams

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REVISION 6—10 b. won a scholarship c. found a good job 7. People don’t usually dress up for … a. a wedding b. a stroll in the park c. a party 8. Rachel always stands out in a crowd because she is … a. very bright b. very tall c. very shy 9. Splitting up with your partner is always … a. a useful experience b. an exciting experience c. a painful experience 10. The aouthor has a lot to live up to because his very first book was … a. a flop b. a bestseller c. average

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Chris left college after one semester to sing in nightclubs. 2. He rang me up that same evening and asked me to have a drink with him at the local pub. 3. Her experience makes Sarah much better than other candidates. 4. I can’t believe she’s having a romantic relationship with that guy who works at the pharmacy.

OUT OUT OUT

OUT

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PHRASAL VERBS 5. I hate the way my boss criticizes me the whole time. 6. I usually wear informal clothes at work, unless I’m going to a client meeting. 7. It was the first time Tim and I had had a quarrel. 8. Mike promised that he’d help me today, but he has disappointed me by not doing it again. 9. She agreed to leave her position on the committee for personal reasons. 10. When Mary’s emotion had become less strong, she apologized.

DOWN DOWN OUT DOWN DOWN DOWN

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǤ ʝ˕˅ˈ˕˟˕ˈ ː˃ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔˞ ˕ˈ˔˕˃ ˋ ˖ˊː˃ˌ˕ˈ ˔˅ˑˌ ˓ˈˊ˖ˎ˟˕˃˕Ǥ

HOW FRIENDLY ARE YOU? 1. Which of the following do you get (1) _____ _____ best of  all? a. Other people b. Animals c. Children 2. After a disagreement, how do you and your best friend make (2) _____? a. You go (3) _____ for shopping. b. The two of you go for a ride Ȅ you’ll decide the destination once you’re on the road. c. You have a super-size gossip session. 3. Do you compliment people? a. Sometimes. b. No. I pick (4) _____ them and put them (5) _____. c. Yes! 4. What do you do at a huge party? a. I try to blend (6) _____ _____ other people b. I meet new people and have a great time. c. I shy (7) _____ _____ parties.

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REVISION 6—10 5. What do you usually do in the evenings? a. Stay (8) _____ and watch TV. b. Go (9) _____ with a friend. c. Ask a friend (10) _____. 6. What do you do on weekends and holidays? a. I sleep (11) _____ until after midday and then go clubbing with all my friends. b. I stay (12) _____ as long as I can. c. I spend my time with my group, or at home. 7. Do you prefer to go (13) _____ a. with only one close friend? b. with a lot of friends? c. by yourself? 8. What do your friends say about you? a. Don’t know. b. Shows (14) _____ quite often. c. Always stands (15) _____ in a crowd.

Results Count the number of your points. 1. a Ȅ ͵ b Ȅ ͳ 2. a Ȅ ͳ b Ȅ ʹ 3. a Ȅ ʹ b Ȅ ͳ 4. a Ȅ ʹ b Ȅ ͵ 5. a Ȅ ͳ b Ȅ ʹ 6. a Ȅ ͵ b Ȅ ͳ 7. a Ȅ ʹ b Ȅ ͵ 8. a Ȅ ͳ b Ȅ ʹ

c Ȅ ʹ c Ȅ ͵ c Ȅ ͵ c Ȅ ͳ c Ȅ ͵ c Ȅ ʹ c Ȅ ͳ c Ȅ ͵

18–24 points You are most sociable and friendly. You enjoy doing things with other people.

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PHRASAL VERBS

12–17 points You are quite friendly but you also like being on your own.

Below 12 points Are you really unfriendly? Or perhaps you should try to be less unsociable.

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːː˞ˏ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ

a. _______ȋto wear clothes that are less smart than usual)

c. _______ȋto become calm after being angry) 1. down

b. _______ȋto criticize someone and make them feel stupid)

d. _______ȋto agree to leave your position, so that someone else can have a chance)

a. _______ȋto place clothing on your body in order to wear it)

c. _______ȋto put clothes or shoes on quickly and easily) 2. on

b. _______ȋto talk to someone in a way that shows you are sexually attracted to them)

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d. _______ȋto treat someone badly or unfairly, especially by blaming or criticizing them)

REVISION 6—10 c. _______ȋto leave a school or university before your course has finished)

a. _______ȋto be much better than other people) 3. out

b. _______ȋto have a romantic relationship with someone)

d. _______ȋto have a quarrel)

a. _______ȋto end a marriage or relationship)

c. _______ȋto wait for someone to return before you go to bed) 4. up

b. _______ȋto become friendly with someone again after you have had an argument)

d. _______ȋto make yourself look neat and tidy after a journey or before a meeting)

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ 1. Toˏ˃ ː˃ˊ˅˃ˎˋ ˅ ˚ˈ˔˕˟ ˇˈˇ˖˛ˍˋǡ ˋ ˑː ˄˞ˎ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˒ˑ˘ˑˉ ː˃ ːˈˆˑǤ ʑ˔ˈ ː˃ˇˈˢˎˋ˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː ˅ˑˊˆˎ˃˅ˋ˕ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡǡ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˕ˑˆˑǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˈˆˑ ˇˈˇ˖˛ˍ˃ ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕ ˔˅ˑˌ ˒ˑ˔˕. ʜˑʡˑˏːˈˑ˒˓˃˅ˇ˃ˎː˃ˇˈˉˇ˔˅ˑˈˌ˔ˈˏ˟ˋǡ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ˖˚˕ˑ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ˖ːˋ˅ˈ˓˔ˋ˕ˈ˕Ǥ ʹǤ ʛ˞ ˋˇˈˏ ˅ ˏˈ˔˕ː˞ˌ ˒˃˄ ˅˞˒ˋ˕˟ ˒ˑ ˍ˓˖ˉˍˈ ˒ˋ˅˃ǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ːˈ ː˖ˉːˑ ː˃˓ˢˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǤ ʞ˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ː˃ˇˈː˟ ˇˉˋː˔˞ ˋ ˗˖˕˄ˑˎˍ˖Ǥ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͵Ǥ ʟ˖˕ ˖ˉˈ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈˈ˘˃˕˟ ˍ ʡˈˇ˖ǡ ːˑ ːˈˑˉˋˇ˃ːːˑ ˑːˋ ˒ˑ˔˔ˑ˓ˋˎˋ˔˟ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦ˕ˑ ˒˖˔˕ˢˍ˃Ǥ ʠˈˌ˚˃˔ ʟ˖˕˒ˑˆˑ˅˃˓ˋ˅˃ˈ˕ˑ˕ˑˏǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞˓˃ˊˑ˓˅˃˕˟ˑ˕ːˑ˛ˈːˋˢ ˔  ʡˈˇˑˏǡ ːˑ ˢ ː˃ˇˈˡ˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː˃ ˔ ːˋˏ ˒ˑˏˋ˓ˋ˕˔ˢ. ͶǤ ʮ ˇˈˌ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˑ˄˓˃ˇˑ˅˃ˎ˃˔˟ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˏˑˌ ˛ˈ˗ ˇ˃ˎ ˏːˈ ː˃ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃ ˑ˕ˆ˖ˎǤ ʞˑ˚˕ˋ ˅˔ˡ ːˈˇˈˎˡ ˢ ˍ˃ˉˇ˞ˌ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ˎ˃ˇˑ˒ˑˊˇː˃ː˃ˇ˅˃ˉː˞ˏ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ˑˏǡ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃ ˏːˈ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˕˔ˢ ˒ˑ˔˒˃˕˟ ˒ˑˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ. ͷǤ ʮːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ːˈˎ˃ˇˋˎ˃˔ʬ˄˄ˋǤʝː˃˅˔ˈˆˇ˃˒˓ˋˇˋ˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˍˎˡˇˢˏˋˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍ˖ˈ˕ˋ˘Ǥʗːˑˆˇ˃ˈˈˆ˓˖˄˞ˈˍˑˏˏˈː˕˃˓ˋˋ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˔˕˃˅ˢ˕ ˏˈːˢ ˅ ˕˖˒ˋˍ.

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ ˔ ʹ Ȅ a ͵ Ȅ b Ͷ Ȅ c

ͷ Ȅ b ͸ Ȅ a ͹ Ȅ b ͺ Ȅ a

ͻ Ȅ ˔ ͳͲ Ȅ b

h II. 1. Chris dropped out of college after one semester to sing in nightclubs. 2. He rang me up that same evening and asked me out for a  drink at the local pub. 3. Her experience makes Sarah stand out from other candidates. 4. I can’t believe she’s going out with that guy who works at  the pharmacy. 5. I hate the way my boss puts me down the whole time. 6. I usually dress down at work, unless I’m going to a client meeting. 7. It was the first time Tim and I had fallen out. 8. Mike promised that he’d help me today, but he has let me down again.

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REVISION 6—10 9. She stood down from the committee for personal reasons. 10. When Mary had cooled down, she apologized.

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

along with up out on down

11. in 12. in 13. out 14. off 15. out

in with away from in out out

h IV. 1. down

a. dress

b. put

c. cool

d. stand

2. on

a. put

b. hit

c. slip

d. pick

3. out

a. stand

b. go

c. drop

d. fall

4. up

a. split

b. make

c. wait

d. freshen

h V. 1. Tom was named after his grandmother and took after him as well. Everyone hoped that he would head the company after his grandpa had stood down. But Tom didn’t live up to his family’s expectations as he had dropped out of  university. 2. We are going to the local pub for a round of beer so there’s no need to dress up. Just slip on a pair of jeans and a T-shirt. 3. Ruth was going to move in with Ted when they suddenly fell out over some trifle. Now Ruth is talking about breaking up with Ted, but I hope she’ll make up with him. 4. I really brightened up when my boss gave me a day-off tomorrow. I’ve been staying up most of the nights this week doing an important project so I feel like sleeping in tomorrow morning. 5. I have never been getting along with Abby. She’salways picking on people and putting them down. Sometimes she just takes me aback with her rude remarks.

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11. STUDYING The strategies you choose to prepare for your exam determine whether you’ll sail through1 it or just scrape through2. Here are a few exam tips to consider. t Be realistic — don’t expect that you’ll easily get through3 your exam on the basis of what you’ve picked up4 during the lectures and practical classes, buckle down5 to your revision as soon as possible. t You can’t revise what you don’t understand so keep up6 — ask your teacher for help and swot up7 on the subject you major in8. t Rather than mugging up9 on the main points, get some past or sample exam papers and test yourself to find out which material you need to brush up10. If you are happy about your exam results — congratulations! If not then work harder and try to improve next time. It’s not the end of the World, you know! 1

sail through ˖˔˒ˈ˛ːˑ ˔˒˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 2 scrape through ˔ ˕˓˖ˇˑˏ ˔ˇ˃˕˟ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː 3 get through ˅˞ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː 4 pick up ː˃˘˅˃˕˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ː˃˖˚ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑȌ ˄˞˔˕˓ˑ 5 buckle down ˔ˈ˓˟˩ˊːˑ ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ 6 keep up ˄˞˕˟ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˑ˔˅ˈˇˑˏˎˈːː˞ˏǡ ˄˞˕˟ ˅ ˍ˖˓˔ˈ 7 swot up ˖˔ˈ˓ˇːˑ ˋˊ˖˚˃˕˟ 8 major in ˔˒ˈ˙ˋ˃ˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˍ˃ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˒˓ˈˇˏˈ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˍˑˎˎˈˇˉˈ)

98

11. STUDYING 9

mug up ˊ˖˄˓ˋ˕˟ 10 brush up ˑ˔˅ˈˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˅ˈ˓˛ˈː˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋˊː˃Ǧ ːˋˢ)

EXTRA EXAMPLES brush up ȋon) sth / brush sth up I spent much of the summer brushing up on my English.

ʮ ˒˓ˑ˅ˈˎ˃ ˄ˑˎ˟˛˖ˡ ˚˃˔˕˟ ˎˈ˕˃ǡ ˔ˑ˅ˈ˓˛ˈː˔˕˅˖ˢ ˃ːǦ ˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌǤ

buckle down It’s high time you buckled down to your studies.

ʡˈ˄ˈˇ˃˅ːˑ˖ˉˈ˒ˑ˓˃˔ˈ˓˟ˈˊːˑ ˅ˊˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˖˚ˈ˄˖Ǥ

get through sth All of my group mates got through the Math exam.

ʑ˔ˈˏˑˋˑˇːˑˆ˓˖˒˒ːˋˍˋ˔ˇ˃ˎˋ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː ˒ˑ ˏ˃˕ˈˏ˃˕ˋˍˈǤ

keep up If you miss a lot of classes it’s very difficult to keep up.

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔˕ˋˎ ˏːˑˆˑ ˊ˃Ǧ ːˢ˕ˋˌǡ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˕˓˖ˇːˑ ːˈ ˑ˕˔˕˃˕˟.

major in sth Is Ruth majoring in Spanish Literature?

ʟ˖˕ ˔˒ˈ˙ˋ˃ˎˋˊˋ˓˖ˈ˕˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˋ˔˒˃ː˔ˍˑˌ ˎˋ˕ˈ˓˃˕˖˓ˈǫ

mug up sth / mug sth up Louis is mugging up on his German for his finals.

ʚ˖ˋ˔ ˊ˖˄˓ˋ˕ ːˈˏˈ˙ˍˋˌ ˒ˈǦ ˓ˈˇ ˅˞˒˖˔ˍː˞ˏˋ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː˃Ǧ ˏˋǤ

pick sth up / pick up sth Where have you picked up those words?

ʗˆˇˈ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ˕˞ː˃˘˅˃˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˕˃ˍˋ˘ ˔ˎˑ˅ǫ

99

PHRASAL VERBS

sail through / sail through sth Don’t worry! I’ll just sail through my exams as usual.

ʜˈ ˒ˈ˓ˈˉˋ˅˃ˌǡ ˢ ˔ˇ˃ˏ ˠˍˊ˃Ǧ ˏˈː˞ ˍ˃ˍ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˄ˈˊ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏ.

scrape through / scrape through sth My sister has a university degree while I just scraped through school leaving exams.

ʢˏˑˈˌ˔ˈ˔˕˓˞˖ːˋ˅ˈ˓˔ˋ˕ˈ˕Ǧ ˔ˍˋˌ ˇˋ˒ˎˑˏǡ ˃ ˈˇ˅˃ ˔ˇ˃ˎ ˅˞˒˖˔ˍː˞ˈˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː˞˅˛ˍˑǦ ˎˈǤ

swot up / swot up sth / swot sth up Maggie needs to swot up on irregular verbs.

ʛˠˆˆˋ ː˃ˇˑ ˒ˑˇ˖˚ˋ˕˟ ːˈǦ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. Cheryl learnt a few Chinese phrases without effort while staying in Beijing. 2. Harry is a good lawyer and always tries to remain informed about the latest developments in the international law. 3. Has your sister succeeded in her driving test? 4. I have to study my irregular verbs intensively before the final exam. 5. I went to summer school to improve my French before the autumn term in the Sorbonne. 6. Most students start working hard and seriously during their last year at college. 7. Owen passed the chemistry test, but he did it with difficulty. 8. Sid is busy reviewing science for his midterms.

100

11. STUDYING 9. The Spanish exam was no problem for Alice. She just passed it easily. 10. We were surprised to learn that he has chosen to study computer technology as his main subject.

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǤ 1. I haven’t spoken German for ages — I have to brush it  _______ before I go to Germany. a. on b. with c. up 2. I’m afraid this time my car won’t get _______ the annual MOT test. a. through b. past c. with 3. If her family weren’t so wellǦconnected, Janet wouldn’t have scraped _______ the entrance exam. a. through b. in c. from 4. If you don’t buckle _______ to work, you’ll be sacked. a. up b. down c. on 5. It’s strange that she should have decided to major _______ environmental planning. a. on b. with c. in 6. Mandy was too busy swotting _______ for her entrance exams to be much interested in boys. a. on b. up c. in 7. Mr Palmer covers so much in his lectures — I have difficulty keeping _______. a. with b. down c. up 8. Nikki is frantically mugging _______ on Portuguese before her trip to Lisbon. a. up b. down c. for 9. People can only pick _______ languages easily when they are fairly young. a. up b. at c. on

101

PHRASAL VERBS 10. Steve was one of the few fortunate ones to sail _______ the French exam. a. past b. under c. through

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋǦ ˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ 1. Children from bilingual families find it easier _______ languages in school. 2. I must _______ my knowledge of town history before I take the guests on excursion. 3. I was not much interested in school, so I only just _______ all the exams. 4. If you have a passion for plants, you might decide _______ biology. 5. It would be good _______ on your Spanish, as few locals speak English. 6. It’s worth _______ on all the different types of iPads before buying one. 7. Kane always manages _______ his homework in no time. 8. Linda is in the advanced class, so she has to work very hard  _______ with the other students. 9. This is the best book to help _______ the placement test. 10. Tony keeps promising _______ to his studies but he never does.

h౮IVǤ ʑ˒ˋ˛ˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑǦ ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˡ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ˑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˏˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˏˋǤ 1. ____________________

a. on one’s notes b. on the subject c. about Greece

2. ____________________

a. a job interview b. one’s homework c. the exam

102

11. STUDYING 3. ____________________

a. a language b. rude words c. a few Irish phrases

4. ____________________

a. one’s German b. one’s driving c. one’s writing skills

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˕˞ ːˈ ˅ˑˊ˟ˏˈ˛˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˒ˑ˅˕ˑ˓ˈːˋˈǡ ˕˞ ːˈ ˔ˇ˃˛˟ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː ˒ˑ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˋǤ ʹǤ ʛˑˢ˔ˈ˔˕˓˃ˊ˃˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ˒ˋ˛ˈ˕˅˔ˈ˕ˈ˔˕˞ǡ˃˅ˑ˕ˏːˈ˒˓ˋǦ ˘ˑˇˋ˕˔ˢ˅˔ˈ˕˜˃˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˖˚ˋ˕˟ǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ːˈˑ˕˔˕˃˅˃˕˟ˑ˕ ˆ˓˖˒˒˞Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʠ˃˓˃ ˈˇ˅˃ ˔ˇ˃ˎ˃ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈːǡ ˘ˑ˕ˢ ˅˔ˡ ːˑ˚˟ ˊ˖˄˓ˋˎ˃ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˈ ˇ˃˕˞ ˋ ˒ˈ˓˔ˑː˃ˎˋˋǤ ͶǤ ʮ ː˃ˇˈˢˎ˔ˢ ˑ˔˅ˈˉˋ˕˟ ˅ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ ˋ˕˃ˎ˟ˢː˔ˍˋˌǡ ːˑ ˕˃ˏ ˅˔ˈ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋˎˋ ˒ˑǦ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋǤ ͷǤ ʮ˖ˊː˃ˎ˃ˏːˑˆˑ ˋː˕ˈ˓ˈ˔ː˞˘ ˗˃ˍ˕ˑ˅ ˒˓ˑː˃˛ˆˑ˓ˑˇˑ˕ ˔˅ˑˈˆˑ˄˓˃˕˃ǡˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˌ˔˒ˈ˙ˋ˃ˎˋˊˋ˓˖ˈ˕˔ˢ˒ˑˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˋǤ

KEYS h I. 1. Cheryl picked up a few Chinese phrases while staying in Beijing. 2. Harry is a good lawyer and always tries to keep up on the latest developments in the international law. 3. Has your sister got through her driving test? 4. I have to swot up on my irregular verbs before the final exam. 5. I went to summer school to brush on my French before the autumn term in the Sorbonne. 6. Most students buckle down to studies during their last year at college.

103

PHRASAL VERBS 7. Owen passed the chemistry test, but he just scraped through it. 8. Sid is busy mugging up on science for his midterms. 9. The Spanish exam was no problem for Alice. She just sailed through. 10. We were surprised to learn that he has chosen to major in computer technology.

h౮II. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

c a a b

5 6 7 8

— — — —

с b с a

9—a 10 — с

h౮III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to pick up brush up scraped through to major in to mug up

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

swotting up to sail through to keep up get through to buckle down

h౮IV. 1. mug up 2. sail through

3. pick up 4. brush up

h౮V. 1. Unless you buckle down to revision you won’t get through your History exam. 2. My sister just sails through her tests while I have to swot up on everything to keep up with the group. 3. Sarah has just scraped through the exam though she spent all night mugging up on historic dates and personalities. 4. I had hoped to brush up my Italian but everyone spoke English there. 5. I picked up a lot of interesting facts about our city from my brother who majors in History.

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12. JOBS AND CAREERS The most important thing for you to do when you have been laid off1 is to start job hunting right away. Sooner or later you’ll find a good job you like. Here are some tips that can help you get ahead2 in a new job environment and stay ahead. t If you were taken on3 without a relevant background, you may be able to get further by brushing up on4 past courses, or taking a new one. t If you want to move up5 in the company, don’t just coast along6 — take on7 all of the assignments that you can. Remember that in some companies even the seniors are required to take over8 when there aren’t enough people to complete the tasks. t Be a team player. It’s surprising how much people can get done when they pull together9. t Don’t be shy to come up with10 ideas. Be bold and prove to the company leaders that you are just the person to take over when one of the managers decides to stand down11 and hand over12 to a younger ambitious person. 1

lay off ˅˓ˈˏˈːːˑ ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟ 2 get ahead ˒˓ˈ˖˔˒ˈ˅˃˕˟ 3 take on ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ː˃ ˔ˎ˖ˉ˄˖ 4 brush up on  ˔ˏǤ ͳͳǤ StudyingǢ p. 99 5 move up ˒ˑˎ˖˚˃˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˞˛ˈːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˑˇ˅ˋˆ˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˒ˑ ˔ˎ˖ˉ˄ˈ) 6 coast along ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˄ˈˊ ˑ˔ˑ˄˞˘ ˖˔ˋˎˋˌ

105

PHRASAL VERBS 7

take on ˄˓˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖) 8 take over ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋˇˑˎˉːˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˑ˄ˢˊ˃ːːˑ˔˕ˋȌ ˑ˕ ˇ˓˖ˆˑǦ ˆˑ 9 pull together ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˉːˑ ȋ˔ˑˑ˄˜˃) 10 come up with ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˋ˕˟ ȋˋˇˈˡǡ ˒ˎ˃ː) 11 stand down ˔ˏǤ ͻǤ Stages Through LifeǢ p. 77 12 hand over ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ˅ˎ˃˔˕˟ǡ ˍˑː˕˓ˑˎ˟ǡ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢ

EXTRA EXAMPLES coast along Many people in office jobs just coast along.

ʛːˑˆˋˈ ˑ˗ˋ˔ː˞ˈ ˓˃˄ˑ˕ːˋˍˋ ːˈ ˒˓ˋˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˡ˕ ˑ˔ˑ˄˞˘ ˖˔ˋˎˋˌˍ˅˞˒ˑˎːˈːˋˡ˔˅ˑˋ˘ ˑ˄ˢˊ˃ːːˑ˔˕ˈˌ.

come up with sth Don’t worry, Jay is sure to come up with something.

ʜˈ ˄ˈ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǡ ʓˉˈˌ ˑ˄ˢˊ˃Ǧ ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˚˕ˑǦːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ˒˓ˋˇ˖ˏ˃ˈ˕.

get ahead I shouldn’t have thought it would be so difficult to get ahead in advertising.

ʜˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ˄˞ ːˈ ˒ˑˇ˖ˏ˃ˎ˃ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˅ ˓ˈˍˎ˃ˏːˑˏ ˄ˋˊːˈ˔ˈ ˕˃ˍ ˕˓˖ˇːˑ ˒˓ˈ˖˔˒ˈ˕˟.

hand over sth / hand sth over Next month Mr Jonson will hand over to a new director.

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ʑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˈˏ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ˈ ˆˑǦ ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʓˉˑː˔ˑː ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ˃˔˕ ˔˅ˑˋ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢ ːˑ˅ˑˏ˖ ˇˋ˓ˈˍ˕ˑ˓˖Ǥ

12. JOBS AND CAREERS

lay off sb / lay sb off The company had to lay off 50 men.

ʙˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˅˓ˈˏˈːːˑ ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟ ͷͲ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍǤ

move up To move up, you’ll need further training.

ʦ˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑˎ˖˚ˋ˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˞˛ˈːˋˈǡ˕ˈ˄ˈː˖ˉːˑ˄˖ˇˈ˕˒˓ˑˌǦ ˕ˋˍ˖˓˔˞˒ˑ˅˞˛ˈːˋˢˍ˅˃ˎˋǦ ˗ˋˍ˃˙ˋˋǤ

pull together It would be better for the project if we all pulled together.

ʓˎˢ ː˃˛ˈˆˑ ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕˃ ˄˞ˎˑ ˄˞ ˎ˖˚˛ˈǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˄˞ ˏ˞ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ˎˋ ˔ˑˑ˄˜˃.

take on sth ȋsb) / take sth ȋsb) on Adam was desperate for money and took on any extra work.

ʏˇ˃ˏ ˑ˕˚˃ˢːːˑ ː˖ˉˇ˃ˎ˔ˢ ˅  ˇˈː˟ˆ˃˘ ˋ ˄˓˃ˎ˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˎˡǦ ˄˖ˡ ˇˑ˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˖ˡ ˓˃˄ˑǦ ˕˖Ǥ

We are expanding and taking on new workmen.

ʛ˞ ˓˃˔˛ˋ˓ˢˈˏ˔ˢ ˋ ˄ˈ˓ˈˏ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ːˑ˅˞˘ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋǦ ˍˑ˅Ǥ

take over / take over sth / take sth over Last week Susan took over as chief executive.

ʜ˃ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˌ ːˈˇˈˎˋ ʠ˟ˡˊˈː ˒˓ˋːˢˎ˃ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢ ˋ˔Ǧ ˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˆˑ ˇˋ˓ˈˍ˕ˑ˓˃Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋˋˎˋ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌahead, along, off, on, over, together ˋˎˋ up. 1. If I took _______ some of his duties, he would pay me more.

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PHRASAL VERBS 2. It was only after many legal battles that Mr Burney agreed to hand _______ the company. 3. Knowing and assessing your strengths and weaknesses will enable you to get _______. 4. Matthew has no ambition. He’s just coasting _______ on his college knowledge. 5. Mike couldn’t come _______ with any plausible excuse when the boss asked him why he hadn’t attended the staff meeting. 6. They are taking me _______ as a partǦtime worker, but it’s better than staying unemployed. 7. To move _______ in our company, you’ll need additional training. 8. We are currently not doing well and may have to lay some of our staff _______. 9. We must all pull _______ if we are to compete and win this grant.

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ˅ː˖ˉːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ

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The office worker

If you are young and ambitious, it’s easy (1)  _______ in my job as most of people in my position just (2) _______ and hate (3)  _______ extra work. I believe one day my boss will appreciate my attitude and (4)  _______ some really important task to me.

The scientist

In this job you have to be a good team player as we often have (5)_______ to develop different things for the betterment of the industry. If you want to make any changes or develop new things you shouldn’t be afraid (6)  _______ ideas and (7) _______ responsibility for their implementation.

12. JOBS AND CAREERS The assembly worker

I do work that is boring and extremely repetitive in nature. I’m not motivated in the least as people like me don’t have a slightest chance (8) _______. Though the industries that (9) _______ assembly workers are quite numerous, I’m constantly under the threat of (10)  _______ or even sacked if the industry should start to shrink.

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˕ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏǤ 1. A team of Japanese researchers has come up with a  revolutionary idea that could slow down climate change. a. has invented b. has suggested c. has introduced 2. Everyone will gain something if we pull together and work harder. a. cooperate b. coordinate c. contribute 3. I’ve come to realize that to get ahead, you can’t depend on others. a. promote b. accelerate c. advance 4. If you feel that you are just coasting along in your job, it’s time for a change. a. not putting enough effort into b. putting enough effort into c. wasting your time 5. Many workers in the service sector have been laid off because of the economic recession. a. have been fired b. have been downgraded c. have been suspended from employment

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PHRASAL VERBS 6. Salary is one of the reasons a person may wish to move up. a. to get a new job b. to get a better job c. to get a different job 7. Small firms are more willing to take on staff without experience. a. to fire b. to train c. to employ 8. The board forced Ms Morgan to hand over to the new director. a. to pass responsibility to b. to employ c. to support 9. When my parents died in the car accident four years ago, my uncle took over the family business. a. sold b. assumed the control of c. bankrupted

h౮IVǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ˈ ʓˉˋˎ ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋˎˋ ˋ ː˃ˊː˃˚ˋˎˋ ː˃ ˇˑˎˉːˑ˔˕˟ ˆˈːˈ˓˃ˎ˟ːˑˆˑ ˇˋ˓ˈˍ˕ˑ˓˃Ǥ ʹǤ ʓˎˢ ˕ˑˆˑ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒˓ˈ˖˔˒ˈ˕˟ ˅ ˍ˓˖˒ːˑˏ ˄ˋˊːˈ˔ˈǡ ˋːˑˆˇ˃ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇˋ˕˔ˢ ˄˞˕˟ ˉˈ˔˕ˑˍˋˏǤ ͵Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˏ˞ ˄˖ˇˈˏ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˔ˑˑ˄˜˃ǡ ˕ˑ ˔ˏˑˉˈˏ ˊ˃ˍˑːǦ ˚ˋ˕˟ ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ ˅ˑ˅˓ˈˏˢǤ ͶǤ ʜ˃ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˌ ːˈˇˈˎˈ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˢ ˑ˄˝ˢ˅ˋˎ˃ ˑ ˔˅ˑˋ˘ ˒ˎ˃Ǧ ː˃˘ ˅˓ˈˏˈːːˑ ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟ ˑˍˑˎˑ ͶͲͲ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍˑ˅ ˒ˑ ˅˔ˈˌ ˔˕˓˃ːˈǤ ͷǤ ʟˋ˕˃ Ȅ ˔ˋˏ˒˃˕ˋ˚ː˃ˢ ˋ ˇ˓˖ˉˈˎˡ˄ː˃ˢ ˇˈ˅˖˛ˍ˃ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑǦ ˓˃ˢǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˠ˕ˑ ːˈˑ˄˘ˑˇˋˏˑǡ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˆˑ˕ˑ˅˃ ˅ˊˢ˕˟ ˇˑ˒ˑˎǦ ːˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˖ˡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʡ˞ˇˑˎˉˈː˄˞ˎ˒ˑ˔ˑ˅ˈ˕ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ˔ˆˈːˈ˓˃ˎ˟ː˞ˏ˖˒˓˃˅Ǧ ˎˢˡ˜ˋˏǡ ˒˓ˈˉˇˈ ˚ˈˏ ˄˓˃˕˟ ˈˆˑ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖.

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12. JOBS AND CAREERS ͹Ǥ ʢ ː˃˔ ːˈ˕ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˈˆˑ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍ˃ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˌ ˄˞ ˒˓ˋːˢˎ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢˏˈːˈˇˉˈ˓˃ǡˍˑˆˇ˃ˆˑ˔˒ˑˇˋːʛˋˎˎˊ˖ˌˇˈ˕ ː˃ ˒ˈː˔ˋˡǤ ͺǤ ʢ ːˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞˘ ˎˡˇˈˌ ˈ˔˕˟ ˖ˇˋ˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˃ˢ ˔˒ˑ˔ˑ˄ːˑ˔˕˟ ˒˓ˈˇˎ˃ˆ˃˕˟ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˋˇˈˋǤ ͻǤ ʢ˚ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˋ˙˃ ʟˑˢ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː ːˈ ˒˓ˋˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˈ˕ ˖˔ˋˎˋˌ ˍ ˖˚ˈ˄ˈǤ ͳͲǤ ʮ ˄˞ ːˈ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ˔ˢ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ˃˕˟ ˔˅ˑˌ ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ ˍˑˏ˖Ǧːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ˍ˓ˑˏˈ ˕ˈ˄ˢǤ

KEYS hI 1. over 2. over 3. ahead

4. along 5. up 6. on

7. up 8. off 9. together

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to get ahead coast along taking on hand over to pull together

to come up with take on to move up take on being laid off

h III. 1—b 2—a 3—c

4—a 5—c 6—b

7—c 8—a 9—b

h IV. 1. Last month Jill was moved up to the position of CEO. 2. Sometimes you have to be ruthless to get ahead in big business.

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PHRASAL VERBS 3. If we all pull together, we’ll be able to finish the project on time. 4. Last week, the company announced plans to lay off about 400 staff across the country. 5. Rita is a pretty and friendly girl, always ready to take on extra work if necessary. 6. You should have consulted the general manager before taking him on. 7. We don’t have a suitable person to take over as manager when Mr Mills retires. 8. Some people have a wonderful ability to come up with the right ideas. 9. Roy’s teacher says he’s just coasting along at school. 10. I wouldn’t dare hand my project over to anyone except you.

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13. BUSINESS Nigel Smart started up1 his own business earlier than most people. He was still in his first year at the university when he set up2 a small car service center for secondǦhand cars. Now that Nigel’s profits run into3 thousands of dollars every month some people rumour that it was his father who set him up4 with this business and has been pouring money into5 it all the while. But for his help, he would have gone under6 and had to wind down7 long ago, they say. “I’m quite happy with my business,” says Nigel. “I’ve been heading it up8 for 10 years now and I’m not going to sell up9 in the near future. I’m even thinking about taking over10 one of my competitors.” 1

start up ː˃˚˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˓ˆ˃ːˋˊˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˋˊːˈ˔) 2 set up ˑ˔ːˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˇˈˎˑǡ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡ) 3 run into ˋ˔˚ˋ˔ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːːˑˌ ˔˖ˏˏˑˌ 4 set up ˒ˑˏˑ˚˟ ȋˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑȌ ˖˔˕˓ˑˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˃˕˟ ː˃ ːˑˆˋ 5 pour into ˅ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˈ ˔˖ˏˏ˞ ˇˈːˈˆ) 6 go under ˕ˈ˓˒ˈ˕˟ ːˈ˖ˇ˃˚˖ ȋ˅ ˇˈˎ˃˘Ȍǡ ˓˃ˊˑ˓ˢ˕˟˔ˢ 7 wind down Dz˔˅ˑ˓˃˚ˋ˅˃˕˟dz ȋˍ˃ˍ˖ˡǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˇˈˢ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˔˕˟) 8 head up ˅ˑˊˆˎ˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˓˖ˍˑ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˖˒˓˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ 9 sell up ˒˓ˑˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˋˊːˈ˔) 10 take over ˒ˑˆˎˑ˜˃˕˟ ȋ˗ˋ˓ˏ˖ ˒˖˕ˈˏ ˒ˑˍ˖˒ˍˋ ˍˑː˕˓ˑˎ˟ːˑˆˑ ˒˃ˍˈ˕˃ ˈˈ ˃ˍ˙ˋˌ)

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PHRASAL VERBS

EXTRA EXAMPLES go under I’m afraid my firm may go under this year.

ʐˑˡ˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˅ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˆˑˇ˖ ˏˑˢ ˗ˋ˓ˏ˃ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˓˃ˊˑ˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ.

head sth up / head up sth Mr Brown is just the person to head up our firm.

ʒˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʐ˓˃˖ː Ȅ ˔˃ˏ˞ˌ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˌ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍǡ ˇˎˢ ˕ˑˆˑ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˅ˑˊˆˎ˃˅ˋ˕˟ ː˃˛˖ ˗ˋ˓ˏ˖Ǥ

pour sth into sth Germany has been pouring thousands of euros into the company.

ʒˈ˓ˏ˃ːˋˢ ˅ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˈ˕ ˕˞Ǧ ˔ˢ˚ˋ ˈ˅˓ˑ ˅ ˠ˕˖ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡǤ

run into sth The cost of repairing my car runs into hundreds of dollars.

ʠ˕ˑˋˏˑ˔˕˟ ˒ˑ˚ˋːˍˋ ˏˑˈˌ ˏ˃˛ˋː˞ ˋ˔˚ˋ˔ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˔ˑ˕Ǧ ːˢˏˋ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅Ǥ

sell sth up / sell up sth / sell up Michael is thinking of selling up and leaving the country.

ʛ˃ˌˍˎ ˒ˑˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃ˈ˕ ˑ ˕ˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞˒˓ˑˇ˃˕˟˄ˋˊːˈ˔ˋ ˖ˈǦ ˘˃˕˟ ˋˊ ˔˕˓˃ː˞Ǥ

set sth up / set up sth The clothing chain was set up in 1956.

ʬ˕˃ ˔ˈ˕˟ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋːˑ˅ ˑˇˈˉˇ˞ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˑ˔ːˑ˅˃ː˃ ˅ ͳͻͷ͸ ˆˑˇ˖Ǥ

set sb up He gave his sonǦinǦlaw money to set him up.

ʝː ˇ˃ˎ ˊˢ˕ˡ ˇˈː˟ˆˋǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˕ˑ˕ ˔ˏˑˆ ˅˔˕˃˕˟ ː˃ ːˑˆˋ.

start sth up / start up sth / start up Kate doesn’t have the money to start up her own florist’s shop.

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ʢ ʙˈˌ˕ ːˈ˕ ˇˈːˈˆǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˕˟ ˔˅ˑˌ ˙˅ˈ˕ˑ˚ː˞ˌ ˏ˃Ǧ ˆ˃ˊˋːǤ

13. BUSINESS

take over / take over sth / take sth over We are planning to take over TU Airways.

ʜ˃˛˃ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˢ ˒ˎ˃ːˋ˓˖ˈ˕ ˒ˑˆˎˑ˕ˋ˕˟ ˃˅ˋ˃ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡ TU.

wind sth down / wind down sth / wind down Some foreign companies have already begun winding down.

ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˋːˑ˔˕˓˃ːː˞ˈ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋ ˖ˉˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˋ ˔˅ˑ˓˃˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˔˅ˑˡ ˇˈˢ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˔˕˟.

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑǦ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. It is very difficult to find money to bring a  new venture into existence. 2. Mr Aldridge gave his daughter some capital to enable her to begin her own business. 3. Our company requires an ambitious and professional person to be in control of the R&D department. 4. The cost of the programme will reach thousands of dollars. 5. The local government continues to allocate a  lot of money for its roadǦbuilding programme. 6. Under the current crisis many small farmers are going out of business and have to sell their houses and business. 7. We are fundraising to establish a special school for gifted children.

UP UP

UP INTO

INTO

UP UP

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮IIǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃Ǧ ˏˋǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑǦ ˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢˏˋǡ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˢ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˈ ː˃ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ to head up to sell up to set up

to start up to take over to wind down

a special commission

smaller companies

one’s operations

the R&D department

one’s own grocery business

the farm

1. Foreign companies have already begun ________________ _______________. 2. IBM _______________ _______________. 3. Kenneth left the company last month _________________ _________________. 4. My husband’s parents _______________ _______________ and went to live in  Auckland. 5. Steve Howard was chosen _______________________ ___________________. 6. The government decided _________________________ ___________________ to investigate the incident.

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˋˊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːː˞˘ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ˑ˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢǦ ˜ˈˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖Ǥ 1. Inability to take a loan /pay off existing debtis one of the reasons for winding down businesses. 2. It’s easier to take over an established/bankrupt business than start up a new/different one. 3. Jo & Jo Ltd doesn’t exist any moreǢ they went under after the merger/౮last year.

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13. BUSINESS 4. Mr Smith had to sell up to pay౮/ buy his son’s huge card debts running into bankruptcy / hundreds of thousands. 5. My father helped to set my brotherǦinǦlaw up in pharmacy business/as an experienced businessman. 6. Now that I’ve poured a lot of time and money/profit and investments into this project, I just can’t give up. 7. The Irish Times, an Irish daily newspaper, was set up as a retail outlet/on 29 March 1859. 8. When the board of directors announced that Mr Horne had been chosen to head up the company/the meeting, the shareholders protested.

h౮IVǤ ʟ˃˔˒ˑˎˑˉˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˏ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˍˈ ˋ ˔ˑǦ ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. pour / organizations / money / Businessmen / into /nonǦ profit / massive. 2. went / the / many / During / banks / Great / under / Depression. 3. privileged / is / in / fathers / of / them / Joel / one / up / busin ess / kids / those / whose / set. 4. many / In / likely / next / up / years / to / farmers / 10 / are / the / sell. 5. business / and / Brett / together / set / Mr / Mr / up / this / Mit chell. 6. down / existing / company / scheme / the / winding / Our / pension / is. 7. taking / be / to / Ray Motors / rumoured / Bryn’s Tyres /is / over. 8. heavily / up / people / to / own / borrow / business / start / their / Sometimes. 9. run / hundreds / The / can / even / into / thousands / fee / lawyer’s. 10. looking / head / a / dynamic / for / up / department / Department / are / Manager / to / our / We / HR.

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑˑ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˆˑ ˠˍˑːˑˏˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˑˆˑ ˍ˓ˋˊˋ˔˃ ˓˃ˊˑ˓ˋˎˑ˔˟ ˏːˑˆˑ ˏˈˎˍˋ˘ ˗ˋ˓ˏǤ ʹǤ ʓˈː˟ˆˋ ˔ˈˏ˟ˋ ˒ˑˏˑˆˎˋ ˈˏ˖ ˅˔˕˃˕˟ ː˃ ːˑˆˋ. ͵Ǥ ʔˇˋː˔˕˅ˈːː˃ˢ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋː˃ǡ ˒ˑ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˌ ˆˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʢˑ˓ˇ ˅ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˎ ˕˞˔ˢ˚ˋ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ ˅ ˏˑˡ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡǡ ˊ˃Ǧ ˍˎˡ˚˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˅ ˕ˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ ˈˈ ˒ˑˆˎˑ˕ˋ˕˟. ͶǤ ʚˡ˄ˑˌ ˒ˑ˕ˈː˙ˋ˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˒ˑˍ˖˒˃˕ˈˎ˟ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˕ ˊː˃˕˟ ˕ˑ˚Ǧ ː˖ˡ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋː˖ ˒˓ˑˇ˃ˉˋ ˄ˋˊːˈ˔˃. ͷǤ ʜ˃˛ˈ ˃ˆˈː˕˔˕˅ˑ ˒˓ˈˇˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢˈ˕ ˅˔ˈˏ ˖ːˋˍ˃ˎ˟ː˖ˡ ˅ˑˊǦ ˏˑˉːˑ˔˕˟ː˃˚˃˕˟˔˅ˑˌ˄ˋˊːˈ˔ǡːˑ˔˕ˑˋˏˑ˔˕˟ˠ˕ˑˆˑˏˑǦ ˉˈ˕ ˋ˔˚ˋ˔ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˕˞˔ˢ˚˃ˏˋ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ ˅ ˊ˃˅ˋ˔ˋˏˑ˔˕ˋ ˑ˕ ˓˃ˊˏˈ˓˃ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˖ˡ ˅˞ ˘ˑ˕ˋ˕ˈ ˑ˔ːˑ˅˃˕˟. ͸Ǥ ʞˑ˔ˎˈ˔ˏˈ˓˕ˋˆˎ˃˅˞˗ˋ˓ˏ˞ǡ˓˖ˍˑ˅ˑˇ˔˕˅ˑˈˡ˄˞ˎˑ˒ˑǦ ˓˖˚ˈːˑ ˈˆˑ ˔˕˃˓˛ˈˏ˖ ˔˞ː˖Ǥ ͹Ǥ ʣ˃˄˓ˋˍ˃ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃ˈ˕ ˑ˄˝ˈˏ˞ ˒˓ˑˋˊ˅ˑˇ˔˕˅˃ǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˢ  ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ ˑː˃ ˊ˃ˍ˓ˑˈ˕˔ˢǤ

KEYS h I. 1. It is very difficult to find money to start up a new venture. 2. Mt Aldridge gave his daughter some capital to set her up. 3. Our company requires an ambitious and professional person to head up the R&D department. 4. The cost of the programme will run into thousands of dollars. 5. The local government continues to pour money into its roadǦbuilding programme. 6. Under the current crisis many small farmers are going out of business and have to sell up. 7. We are fundraising to set up a special school for gifted children.

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13. BUSINESS h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

winding down their operations. is taking over smaller companies. to start up his own grocery business. sold up the farm to head up the R&D department to set up a special commission

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

pay off existing debt an established / new last year pay / hundreds of thousands in pharmacy business time and money on 29 March 1859 the company

h IV. 1. Businessmen pour massive money into nonǦprofit organizations. 2. During The Great Depression many banks went under. 3. Joel is one of those privileged kids whose fathers set them up in business. 4. In the next 10 years many farmers are likely to sell up. 5. Mr Mitchell and Mr Brett set up this business together. 6. Our company is winding down the existing pension scheme. 7. Ray Motors is rumoured to be taking over Bryn’s Tyres. 8. Sometimes people borrow heavily to start up their own business. 9. The lawyer’s fee can run into hundreds even thousands. 10. We are looking for a dynamic Department Manager to head up our HR department.

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PHRASAL VERBS h V. 1. Many small firms went under in the past economic crisis. 2. His family money helped him to set up. 3. Mr Ward’s only reason for pouring thousands of dollars into my company was to take it over. 4. Any potential buyer wants to know the exact reason for selling up. 5. Our agency gives everyone a unique opportunity to start up your own business but the cost of it may run into thousands of dollars depending on the size of the company you want to set up. 6. After the president’s death, his elder son was chosen to head up the company. 7. The plant is winding down production so I guess it’s going to close soon.

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14. CHANGE Our hotel did extremely well last year. Some of our rival hotels had to bump their prices up1, cut back2 on maintenance costs and lay off౮3 some of the staff but their income figures went down4 all the same. Moreover, their visitors stated to complain that the quality of their services was falling off5. But despite all difficulties, we managed to balance out6 income and costs. Last year was a hard time for our company. In February our sales started to tail off7 without any obvious reason. The tendency continued and in June we were on the point of slimming the business down8. But then towards August the sales figures levelled off9 and began to go up10 slowly till they amounted to11 the usual figures. Our analysts still can’t account for the fact! 1

bump up ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟ǡ ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ 2 cut back ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ ȋ˙ˈː˞, ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞) 3 lay off ˔ˏǤ ͳʹǤ Jobs and CareersǢ p. 105 4 go down ˒ˑːˋˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢ 5 fall off ˖˘˖ˇ˛˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢ 6 balance out ˖˓˃˅ːˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˋ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˈǡ ˍˑˏ˒ˈːǦ ˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ 7 tail off ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˖˘˖ˇ˛˃˕˟˔ˢ 8 slim down ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˑ˄˝ˈˏ) 9 level off ˅˞˓˃˅ːˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˔˕˃˄ˋˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ

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PHRASAL VERBS 10

go up ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃˔˕ˋǡ ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈǦ ˔˕˅ˈǡ ˙ˈːˈ) 11 amount to ˇˑ˔˕ˋˆ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˇˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˇˑ ȋˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅˃)

EXTRA EXAMPLES amount to sth In 2013 KRF losses amounted to over 8 million dollars.

ʑ ʹͲͳ͵ ˆˑˇ˃ ˖˄˞˕ˍˋ ˍˑˏ˒˃Ǧ ːˋˋ KRF ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋˎˋ ˒ˑ˚˕ˋ 8  ˏˋˎˎˋˑːˑ˅ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅Ǥ

balance out Daily workouts can help balance out the increased calories.

ʟˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ː˞ˈ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅ˍˋ ˏˑǦ ˆ˖˕ ˍˑˏ˒ˈː˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅ˑˊǦ ˓ˑ˔˛ˈˈ ˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˎˈːˋˈ ˍ˃ˎˑǦ ˓ˋˌǤ

bump up sth / bump sth up Increased demand bumped up prices.

ʑˑˊ˓ˑ˔˛ˋˌ ˔˒˓ˑ˔ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈˎ ˍ  ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˈːˋˡ ˙ˈːǤ

cut back / cut back sth / cut sth back Local authorities have cut back on social spending again.

ʛˈ˔˕ː˞ˈ ˅ˎ˃˔˕ˋ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋˎˋ ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞ ː˃ ˔ˑ˙ˋǦ ˃ˎ˟ː˞ˈ ː˖ˉˇ˞Ǥ

fall off The quality of their production has fallen off since last year.

ʞˑ ˔˓˃˅ːˈːˋˡ ˔ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎ˞ˏ ˆˑˇˑˏ ˍ˃˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˋ˘ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍǦ ˙ˋˋ ˖˘˖ˇ˛ˋˎˑ˔˟.

go down Seasonal stock prices go down at the end of the season.

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ʑ ˍˑː˙ˈ ˔ˈˊˑː˃ ˙ˈː˞ ː˃ ˔ˈǦ ˊˑːː˞ˌ ˕ˑ˅˃˓ ˔ːˋˉ˃ˡ˕˔ˢ.

14. CHANGE

go up Since 2001 Moscow went up from about 10 to 12 million inhabitants.

C ʹͲͲͳ ˆˑˇ˃ ˚ˋ˔ˎˑ ˉˋ˕ˈˎˈˌ ʛˑ˔ˍ˅˞ ˅˞˓ˑ˔ˎˑ ˔ ͳͲ ˇˑ 12  ˏˋˎˎˋˑːˑ˅Ǥ

level off Inflation has begun to level off at last.

ʜ˃ˍˑːˈ˙ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ ˋː˗ˎˢ˙ˋˋ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˅˞˓˃˅ːˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ.

slim down / slim down sth / slim sth down The company is slimming down the workforce.

ʙˑˏ˒˃ːˋˢ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃ˈ˕ ˚ˋ˔ˎˑ ˔˅ˑˋ˘ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍˑ˅Ǥ

tail off Last year, our sales figures tailed off to three percent.

ʑ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ ˆˑˇ˖ ˑ˄˝ˈˏ ˒˓ˑǦ ˇ˃ˉ ˖ˏˈː˟˛ˋˎ˔ˢ ˇˑ ˕˓ˈ˘ ˒˓ˑ˙ˈː˕ˑ˅Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑǦ ˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. to amount 2. to balance out 3. to bump up

4. to cut back 5. to fall off 6. to go down

a. to become equal in amount, value, or effect. b. to become more efficient by cutting staff c. to become gradually less, smaller etc, and often stop or disappear completely d. to increase in price, amount, level etc e. to add up to a particular total f. to stop increasing or decreasing and stay at the same level

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PHRASAL VERBS 7. to go up 8. to level off 9. to slim down 10. to tail off

g. to suddenly increase something by  a large amount h. to decrease or become less or fewer i. to reduce the amount, size, cost etc of something j. to become lower or less than it was

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋǦ ˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. After the 2005 transaction which earned Martin $40,000, his career began to _______. a. tail off b. level off c. slim down 2. All countries must do more to _______ carbon dioxide emissions. a. fall off b. go down c. cut back 3. Protein and carbohydrate _______ over a week if you eat a  variety of food. a. balance out b. level off c. amount to 4. Economists suggest that costs may increase further before they _______. a. bump up b. level off c. balance out 5. Government aid to population is expected to _______ $5  million this year. a. go up b. bump up c. amount to 6. Ocean Nights is a popular tour, but demand _______ in  summer. a. falls off b. slims down c. cuts back 7. Reported violent crime rate in the United States _______ to approximately 24 percent since 2000. a. has tailed off b. has gone down c. has slimmed down

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14. CHANGE 8. Since the company’s revenue has fallen, it wants to _______ its prices. a. go up b. cut back c. bump up 9. The company has carried out a sweeping reform by _______ its workforce to improve efficiency. a. levelling off b. slimming down c. going down 10. We are moving out since our monthly rent _______ from £800 to £1,300. a. has gone up b. balanced out c. tailed off

h౮IIIǤ ʠˑˈˇˋːˋ˕ˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˑ ˋ ˍˑːˈ˙ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˌǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˎǦ ːˋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǤ 1. Audience figures fell … 2. Her monthly earnings amount … 3. New Zealand banks bump … 4. Our company is trying to slim … 5. Real estate sales always tail … 6. Several major IT companies are cutting … 7. The average life expectancy in Russia has gone … 8. The diesel fuel prices are starting to level … 9. The unemployment rate in the USA went …

a. _______ from 65 to 69 since 2001. b. _______, after increasing 40 per cent over the last month. c. _______ staff at the moment. d. _______ $3,000. e. _______ the workforce. f. _______ during the third season of Dual Survival. g. _______ from 6.30% in May, 2014 to 6.10% in June, 2014. h. _______ interest rates as GDP flourishes. i. _______ when people are worried about their future.

h౮IVǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. Attendance in the seventh grade has fallen down this term.

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PHRASAL VERBS 2. Average daily consumer spending in the U.S. in May 2014 amounted at $98. 3. Current account deficit ensues if money entering is not enough to level out what is exiting. 4. Food prices were gone up by 5 percent last month. 5. Health care costs are running up every year. 6. His interest in bunji jumping levelled off over the years. 7. Food manufacturers are chopping back on sugar and fat in some products. 8. The board of directors has been thinned down to 7 members. 9. When interest rates slim down, people borrow and spend more. 10. White goods sales levelled of in June after several months of growth.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ʹͲͳ͵ ˆˑˇ˖ ˓ˈ˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˅˃ˎˑ˅ˑˌ ˅ː˖˕˓ˈːːˋˌ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍ˕ ʚ˃˕˅ˋˋ ˖ˏˈː˟˛ˋˎ˔ˢ ˇˑ ͵ǡͻ ˒˓ˑ˙ˈː˕˃Ǥ ʹǤ ʑˑ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˍ˓ˋˊˋ˔˃ ʹͲͲͺ ˆˑˇ˃ ˙ˈː˞ ː˃ ˊˑˎˑ˕ˑ ˖˒˃ˎˋ. ͵Ǥ ʑˑˊˏˑˉːˑǡ ˖ˆˑˎ˟ː˃ˢ ˒˓ˑˏ˞˛ˎˈːːˑ˔˕˟ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˈ˜ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈǤ ͶǤ ʗːˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˕˓˃˚˖ ˏːˑˆˑǡ ˋːˑˆˇ˃ ˏ˃ˎˑǢ˅ˍˑːˈ˚ːˑˏ˔˚ˈ˕ˈǡ ˏˑˋ ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞ ˖˓˃˅ːˑ˅ˈ˛ˋ˅˃ˡ˕˔ˢ. ͷǤ ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˏ ˍˎ˖˄˃ˏ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˊ˃ˍ˓˞˕˟˔ˢǡ ˕˃ˍ ˍ˃ˍ ˍˑǦ ˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˒ˑ˔ˈ˕ˋ˕ˈˎˈˌ ˖ˏˈː˟˛ˋˎˑ˔˟. ͸Ǥ ʞˈ˓ˈˇ ˒˓˃ˊˇːˋˍ˃ˏˋ ˙ˈː˞ ː˃ ːˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒˓ˑˇˑ˅ˑˎ˟Ǧ ˔˕˅ˈːː˞ˈ˕ˑ˅˃˓˞˒ˑ˅˞˛˃ˡ˕˔ˢǡ˃ˊ˃˕ˈˏ˔ːˑ˅˃˔˕˃˄ˋˎˋˊˋ˓˖ˡ˕˔ˢ. ͹Ǥ ʞ˓˃˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟˔˕˅ˑ ˇˑˎˉːˑ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞ ː˃ ˑ˄ˑǦ ˓ˑː˖Ǥ ͺǤ ʠ˕ˑˋˏˑ˔˕˟ ˓ˈˏˑː˕˃ ˏˑˈˌ ˏ˃˛ˋː˞ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ͵ͲͲͲ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅Ǥ ͻǤ ʢ˅ˈˎˋ˚ˈːˋˢ ˔˒˓ˑ˔˃ ˒˓ˋ˅ˑˇˋ˕ ˍ ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˈːˋˡ ˙ˈːǤ

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14. CHANGE

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

e a g i

5 6 7 8

— — — —

h j d f

9—b 10 —c

1 2 3 4

— — — —

a c a b

5 6 7 8

— — — —

c a b c

9—b 10 — a

h II.

h III. 1 — off — f 2 — to — d 3 — up — h

4 — down — e 5 — off — i 6 — back — c

7 — up — a 8 — off — b 9 — down — g

h IV. 1. Attendance in the seventh grade has fallen off this term. 2. Average daily consumer spending in the U.S. in May 2014 amounted to $98. 3. Current account deficit ensues if money entering is not enough to balance out what is exiting. 4. Food prices were bumped up by 5 percent last month. 5. Health care costs are going up every year. 6. His interest in bunji jumping tailed off over the years. 7. Food manufacturers are cutting back on sugar and fat in some products. 8. The board of directors has been slimmed down to 7  members.

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PHRASAL VERBS 9. When interest rates go downǡ people borrow and spend more. 10. White goods sales levelled off in June after several months of growth.

h V. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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In 2013 real GDP growth in Latvia tailed off to 3.9 percent. In the crisis of 2008 the gold price went down. The coal industry may slim down even further. Sometimes I spend a lot, sometimes little — in the end my expenses balance out. Some clubs have had to close as the attendance fell off. Before holidays some food prices go up and then level off again. The Government must cut back on defence spending. The cost of my car repair might amount to $3,000. Increased demand bumps up prices.

15. COMMUNICATION Being a meeting leader is hard job. First, you have to think of the goal of the meeting and the questions you want to bring up1 for discussion. Set an agenda and circulate it among the meeting participants well in advance. Make sure to start the meeting on time and never recap for latecomers. Always begin with a checkǦ in or just run through2 the issues you are going to deal with3  — this will encourage those present to concentrate on the meeting — and then get on to4 the heart of the matter. Be careful to control the discussion — shut down5 disruptions and offǦtopic discussions and take care not to get bogged down6 in lengthy discussion. In the case of a deadlock be ready to come up with7 a concrete solution. At the end of the meeting it’s advisable to tick off8 the list of what you’ve accomplished and spell out9 why certain issues, if any, have been left aside10 to come back to11 another time. 1

bring up ˒ˑˇːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔) 2 run through ˄˞˔˕˓ˑ ˒˓ˑ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈ˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˕˟ 3 deal with ˑ˄˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˓˃˔˔ˏ˃˕˓ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔) 4 get on to ˊ˃ːˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˇˑǦ ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 5 shut down ˒˓ˈˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˈ˔ˈˍ˃˕˟ 6 get bogged down ˖˅ˢˊː˖˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˔˕˓ˢ˕˟ 7 come up with ˔ˏǤ ͳʹǤ Jobs and CareersǢ p. 106

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PHRASAL VERBS 8

tick off ˑ˕ˏˈ˚˃˕˟ ȋˆ˃ˎˑ˚ˍˑˌȌǡ ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ˑ˕ˏˈ˕ˍ˖ 9 spell out ˓˃ˊ˝ˢ˔ːˢ˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˕ˑˎˍˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ 10 leave aside ˑ˕ˎˑˉˋ˕˟Ȁːˈ ˑ˄˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔) 11 come back to ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍ ˒˓ˈˇˏˈ˕˖ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓˃)

EXTRA EXAMPLES be / get bogged down The discussion has got bogged down over the issue of fulfillment of obligations.

ʝ˄˔˖ˉˇˈːˋˈ ˊ˃˔˕ˑ˒ˑ˓ˋˎˑ˔˟ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˊ˃˛ˎ˃ ˓ˈ˚˟ ˑ ˅˞˒ˑˎːˈːˋˋˑ˄ˢˊ˃˕ˈˎ˟˔˕˅Ǥ

bring up sth / bring sth up Mr Brown dared to bring up the question of overtime pay.

ʒˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʐ˓˃˖ː ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ˔ˢ ˒ˑˇːˢ˕˟ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˑ˒ˎ˃˕˞ ˔˅ˈ˓˘˖˓ˑ˚ː˞˘Ǥ

come back to sth We’ll come back to this question at our next meeting.

ʙ ˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔˖ ˏ˞ ˅ˈ˓ːˈˏ˔ˢ ː˃ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˈˏ ˔ˑ˄˓˃Ǧ ːˋˋǤ

deal with sth Let’s deal with each question in turn.

ʓ˃˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˓˃˔˔ˏˑ˕˓ˋˏ ˅˔ˈ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔˞ ˒ˑ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇˋǤ

get on to sth At last we got on to the subject of service payment.

ʜ˃ˍˑːˈ˙ ˏ˞ ˇˑ˄˓˃ˎˋ˔˟ ˇˑ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔˃ ˑ˄ ˑ˒ˎ˃˕ˈ ˖˔ˎ˖ˆǤ

leave aside sth / leave aside sth I’d prefer to leave the question of benefits aside for today.

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ʮ ˄˞ ˒˓ˈˇ˒ˑ˚ˎ˃ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˎ˟ˆˑ˕ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ ːˈ ˑ˄˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟.

15. COMMUNICATION

run through sth Can you run through the list of conferees again?

ʡ˞ ˏˑˉˈ˛˟ ˈ˜ˈ ˓˃ˊ ˒˓ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˕˟ ˔˒ˋ˔ˑˍ ˖˚˃˔˕ːˋˍˑ˅ ˍˑː˗ˈ˓ˈː˙ˋˋǫ

shut sth ȋsb) down / shut down sth ȋsb) He’s trying to get us offǦtrack. Just shut him down.

ʝː ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˒˞˕˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˖˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˇˋ˔ˍ˖˔˔ˋˡ˅˔˕ˑ˓ˑː˖Ǥʜˈˇ˃˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˈˏ˖ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃.

spell out sth / spell sth out Is the issue clear or do I have to spell it out?

ʑˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˒ˑːˢ˕ˈːǡ ˋˎˋ ˢ ˇˑˎǦ ˉˈː ˅˔ˈ ˒ˑˇ˓ˑ˄ːˑ ˑ˄˝ˢ˔ːˋ˕˟?

tick off sth / tick sth off / tick sth off sth The chairman ticked off the points we had already discussed.

ʞ˓ˈˇ˔ˈˇ˃˕ˈˎ˟ ˑ˕ˏˈ˕ˋˎ ˒˖ːǦ ˍ˕˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏ˞ ˖ˉˈ ˑ˄˔˖Ǧ ˇˋˎˋǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˔˒ˋ˔ˍˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˒ˑ ˕ˈˏˈ ˔ˑǦ ˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ 1. to be delayed so that no progress is made 2. to deal again with something that you were dealing with earlier 3. to explain or to read something quickly 4. to mark the things on a list with a tick to show that they have been dealt with 5. to mention a subject or topic 6. not to consider something because you want to consider something else instead 7. to say or explain something very clearly 8. to start talking about a subject

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PHRASAL VERBS 9. to stop someone from doing something 10. to take the necessary action in order to solve a problem

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ 1. A good speaker _______ ȋnever) the person down out of fear or anxiety. 2. Ann _______ off the last item on the list of assignments and sighed with relief. 3. Let’s _______ the question of who is to blame for it aside for a while. 4. The best thing to do when you encounter a controversial point is to move on and _______ back to it later. 5. The discussion got _______ down in unnecessary detail. 6. The guide _______ through the names to make sure that everyone was present. 7. The issue _______ up again at the next convention of retail merchants. 8. This new strategy _______ȋmainly) with internal policies of the European Union. 9. When the speaker _______ to the subject of religion, the audience got uneasy. 10. You’ll have _______ in detail what you plan to do with the assets.

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈǦ ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. to bring up a. a matter b. an opinion c. a suggestion 2. to come back to a. the theme b. the point c. the topic

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3. to deal with a. a problem b. an interest c. a situation 4. to get on to a. the next item b. the subject c. the affair

15. COMMUNICATION 5. to leave aside a. the discussion b. the question c. the issue

6. to run through a. the options b. the schedule c. the dispute

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋǤ aside, back, down, off, on, out, through, up ˋˎˋ with. 1. Can we come _______ to the problem of early retirement? 2. He brought _______ the question that was on the tip of everyone’s tongues. 3. If there are no questions, let’s get _______ to the next item on our agenda. 4. Leaving _______ the question of expense, do you really think his plan will help solve our problem? 5. Mildred ran _______ the list of the points she wanted to make, ticking them _______ as she found the right arguments to use. 6. The local authorities will have to spell _______ how they plan to deal _______ the problem of traffic jams in the city center. 7. The talks with the board got bogged _______ on the question of overtime.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʓ˃˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˑ˕ˎˑˉˋˏ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˑ ˓ˈˊ˖ˎ˟˕˃˕˃˘ ˋ˔˔ˎˈˇˑ˅˃ːˋˌ ˋ ˒ˑˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋˏ ˑ ˒ˈ˓˔˒ˈˍ˕ˋ˅˃˘Ǥ ʹǤ ʓˋ˓ˈˍ˕ˑ˓ ˒ˑˇːˢˎ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˑ ˅ˊˢ˕ˑ˚ːˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˈ ˔˓ˈˇˋ ˔ˑǦ ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍˑ˅Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʛ˃˓˕ˋː˖ˈ˜ˈːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ːˈ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇˋˎˑ˔˟ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈˏ ˕˃ˍˋ˘ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏǤ ͶǤ ʛːˑˆˋˈ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚ː˞ˈ ˋˇˈˋ ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˢ˕˔ˢ ˄ˡ˓ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˑˌ ˏ˃˛ˋːˑˌǤ ͷǤ ʜˈ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˢ ˇˑˎˉˈː ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˠ˕ˑ ˑ˄˝ˢ˔ːˢ˕˟. ͸Ǥ ʞ˓ˈˇ˔ˈˇ˃˕ˈˎ˟ ˒ˑ˒˞˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟ ˇˋ˔ˍ˖˔˔ˋˡǡ ːˑ ˠ˕ˑ ˈˏ˖ ːˈ ˖ˇ˃ˎˑ˔˟Ǥ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͹Ǥ ʠ˒ˈ˓˅˃ˢˇˑˎˉː˃˒˓ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˕˟˔˅ˑˈ˓˃˔˒ˋ˔˃ːˋˈː˃ˊ˃˅˕˓˃Ǥ ͺǤ ʡ˞ ˑ˕ˏˈ˕ˋˎ ʡˑˏ˃ ˅ ˔˒ˋ˔ˍˈ ˍ˃ːˇˋˇ˃˕ˑ˅ǫ ͻǤ ʦˈ˓ˈˊ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˏˋː˖˕ ˑːˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˛ˎˋ ˍ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏˈ ˔ˋǦ ˔˕ˈˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋ˘ ˒˓ˑˆ˖ˎˑ˅Ǥ ͳͲǤ ʮ ˅ˈ˓ː˖˔˟ ˍ ˅˃˛ˈˏ˖ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔˖ ˅ ˍˑː˙ˈ ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˢǤ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

be bogged down come back to run through tick off bring up

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to to to to to

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

ran will be brought will mainly deal got on to spell out

leave aside spell out get on to shut down deal with

h౮II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

will never shut ticked leave come bogged

h౮III. 1—b 2—a

3—b 4—c

5—a 6—c

h౮IV. 1. back 2. up 3. on

4. aside 5. through / off 6. out / with

7. down

h౮V. 1. Let’s leave aside the test result and talk about the prospects.

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15. COMMUNICATION 2. The director brought up the question of bribery among the staff. 3. Martin has never had to deal with problems like that. 4. Many great ideas get bogged down in bureaucracy. 5. I don’t think I have to spell it out for you. 6. The chairman tried to shut down the discussion but failed. 7. First, I have to run through my schedule for tomorrow. 8Ǥ Have you ticked off Tom’s name on the list of candidates? 9. After a few minutes they got on to the problem of absenteeism. 10. I’ll come back to your question at the end of the meeting.

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REVISION 11—15 h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ 1. Before going to Italy Oliver should brush up … b. his Italian c. his hair a. his teeth 2. I’m going to cut back her spending on clothes because I … a. am saving for a new car b. have hit the jackpot c. am going on a diet 3. If the company you work for goes under you’ll … a. get a pay rise b. get a pay cut c. lose your job 4. It’s very important to list on your CV all the subjects you majored in while at … a. kindergarten b. high school c. university 5. Joel was laid off last month, so now he has to … a. take a sick leave b. look for another job c. take an offǦjob training course 6. One of the reasons Gary is so successful at work is that he always comes up with … a. great ideas b. other colleagues c. his boss 7. The best person to deal with divorce proceedings would be  … a. a dealer b. a lawyer c. a judge 8. The boutique owner started winding down the advertising campaign because he had …

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REVISION 11—15 a. sold nearly all the new stock b. sold out the new stock c. sold up his boutique 9. The chairperson ran through the list of items on the agenda  … a. during the meeting b. after the meeting c. before the meeting 10. The number of the course dropouts has tailed off, and now there are … a. a few more than before b. very few of them c. more dropouts than before

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑǦ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Anny got into the art school by succeeding in passing the examǡ but not in a very impressive way. 2. Catering business tends to become less intensive after Christmas and Easter. 3. Eva’s got to study the Industrial Revolution intensively for tomorrow’s test. 4. Having to explain everything in detail to your staff is frustrating. 5. Martin easily passed his graduation exams at Oxford. 6. Sometimes I do the housework and sometimes my husband does — in the end our workload is equal in amount. 7. Sue and Liz gossiped heartily for a few minutes and thenstarted working hard and seriously again.

THROUGH OFF UP OUT THROUGH

OUT

DOWN

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PHRASAL VERBS 8. The secretary held her pencil ready to put a mark next to the names of the arriving guests. OFF 9. Travel agencies are expected to increase the price of package tours by 5 percent. UP 10. Under the current economic crisis many companies has begun to gradually reduce work before closing completely. DOWN

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːǦ ː˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋˋ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːː˞ˏ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ

a. _______ (to fail completely and stop operating)

1. to go

c. _________ (to increase in price, amount, level, etc)

b. _______ (to become lower in level, amount, etc)

a. _________ (to succeed in an examination, etc)

2. to get

b. _________ (to start talking about a subject)

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c. _________ (to advance or attain success)

REVISION 11—15 a. _______ (to  read something quickly)

a. _______ (to start to employ someone) 3. to run

4. to take b. _______ (to assume the control of a company)

b. _______ (to reach a particular amount)

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ

History of Apple Computer, Inc. 1. 1976 2. 1977

3. 1982 4. 1983

5. 1985

6. 1996 7. 1997

8. 1997

With $1,300, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (1)  _______ Apple Computer, Inc. Jobs recruits Regis McKenna, the owner of one of the most successful advertising and public relations firms in Silicon Valley, who (2) ________ the idea of the Apple logo. Apple becomes the first personal computer company whose annual sales (3) _______ $1 billion. With the failure of the Lisa computer, Apple’s earnings (4) _______ and its stock (5) _______ to $35, half of its sale price in 1982. Jobs and several other Apple executives leave Apple and (6) _______ NeXT Incorporated, a new computer company. Apple (7) _______ NeXT which brings Steve Jobs back to Apple as a special advisor. Steve Jobs, named interim chief executive officer, (8) _______ the business by closing plants, (9)  _________ thousands of workers, and thus ensures Apple’s recovery. Apple starts to use the additional funds to (10) __________ education and creative content markets.

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PHRASAL VERBS 9. 2000 10. 2011 11. 2011

Steve Jobs (11) _______ the company as the new CEO and Mitch Mandich, the former chief sales executive, (12) _______. Tim Cook (13) _______ from Jobs as CEO during his medical leave. Former CEO Steve Jobs dies from cancer in October.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʐ˞ˎˑ ˅˓ˈˏˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˏˑˌ ˔˞ː ˑ˕ːˑ˔ˋˎ˔ˢ ˍ ˖˚ˈ˄ˈ ˔˒˖˔˕ˢ ˓˖ˍ˃˅˃Ǣ ˅ˑ˕ ˕ˑˆˇ˃Ǧ˕ˑ ˏːˈ ˋ ˔ˎˈˇˑ˅˃ˎˑ ˊ˃˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ˈˆˑ ˔ˈ˓˟ˈˊːˑ ˅ˊˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˖˚ˈ˄˖. ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˖˚ˋ˕ˈˎˢ ˋ ˓ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˋ ːˈ ˑ˄˝ˈˇˋːˢ˕˔ˢ ˇˎˢ ˔ˑ˅ˏˈ˔˕ːˑˆˑ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˢ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏ˞ ː˃˔ˋˎˋˢ ˅ ˛ˍˑˎ˃˘ǡ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ ˛ˍˑˎ˟ːˑˌ ˒˓ˈ˔˕˖˒ːˑ˔˕ˋ ːˈ ˔ːˋˊˋ˕˔ˢ. ͵Ǥ ʖ˃˅ˑˇ ˄˞ˎ ˅˞ː˖ˉˇˈː ˔ˑˍ˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˑ˄˝ˈˏ˞ ˒˓ˑˋˊ˅ˑˇǦ ˔˕˅˃ˋ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟ʹͲͲ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋ˘Ǥʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡˑːˋ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˡ˕˔ˢ «˔˅ˈ˓ː˖˕˟» ˔˅ˑˡ ˇˈˢ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˔˕˟. ͶǤ ʜ˃˛ ːˑ˅˞ˌ ˏˈːˈˇˉˈ˓ ˒ˑ ˒˓ˑˇ˃ˉ˃ˏ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˋˎ ˔ˏˈǦ ˎ˖ˡ ˋˇˈˡǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˃ˢ ˒ˑˏˑˉˈ˕ ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˋ˕˟ ˒˓ˑˇ˃ˉˋ ˋ  ˔ːˋˊˋ˕˟ ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞ ː˃ ˓ˈˍˎ˃ˏ˖Ǥ ͷǤ ʞ˓ˋ˛ˎˑ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˆˎ˃˅ːˑˏ˖ ˋ˔˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˏ˖ ˇˋ˓ˈˍ˕ˑǦ ˓˖ ˒˓ˋːˢ˕˟ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈǣ ˑː ˇˑˎˉˈː ˋˎˋ ˖ˌ˕ˋ ˅ ˑ˕˔˕˃˅ˍ˖ ˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ˃˕˟ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢ ˏˑˎˑˇˑˏ˖ ˒ˑˍˑˎˈːˋˡǡ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉˋ˕˟ ˅ˑˊˆˎ˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡ ˋ ˒ˑˌ˕ˋ ː˃ ˓ˋ˔ˍ ˓˃ˊˑ˓ˋ˕˟ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡǤ ͸Ǥ ʤˑ˕ˢ ˗ˋ˓ˏ˃ ˋ ˔ːˋˊˋˎ˃ ˕ˈˏ˒˞ ˖˅ˑˎ˟ːˈːˋˢ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋǦ ˍˑ˅ǡ ˈˈ ˓˖ˍˑ˅ˑˇ˔˕˅ˑ ːˈ ˔˒ˈ˛ˋ˕ ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟ ˖˅ˑˎˈːǦ ː˞˘ ˎˡˇˈˌ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋˈ ˏˈ˔˕˃.

KEYS h I. 1—b 2—a

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͵ Ȅ ˔ Ͷ Ȅ ˔

5—b 6—a

REVISION 11—15 7—b 8—a

ͻ Ȅ ˔ 10 — b

h II. 1. Anny got into the art school by scraping through the exam. 2. Catering business tends to fall off after Christmas and Easter. 3. Eva’s got to swot up the Industrial Revolution for tomorrow’s test. 4. Having to spell out everything to your staff is frustrating. 5. Martin sailed through his graduation exams at Oxford. 6. Sometimes I do the housework and sometimes my husband does — in the end it all balances out. 7. Sue and Liz gossiped heartily for a few minutes and then buckled down to work again. 8. The secretary held her pencil ready to tick offthe names of the arriving guests. 9. Travel agencies are expected to bump up the price of package tours by 5 percent. 10. Under the current economic crisis many companies has begun to wind down.

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4.

to to to to

go get run take

a. a. a. a.

under through through on

b. b. b. b.

down on to into over

c. up c. ahead

h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

set up comes up with run into tail off goes down

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

start up takes over slims down laying off pour into

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PHRASAL VERBS 11. heads up 12. stands down

13. takes over

h V. 1. There was a time when my son was coasting along at school and I should have made him buckle down. 2. Unless teachers and parents pull together to deal with the school abuse problem the school crime rate won’t go down. 3. The plant has had to cut down production and lay off 200 workers. It seems they are going to wind down. 4. Our new sales manager has come up with a challenging idea on how to bump up sales and cut back advertising expenses. 5. It’s time for the present CEO to decide whether to stand down and hand over to a younger generation or go on heading up the company and run the risk of going under. 6. But even though the firm has reduced the speed at which they lay off staff, the management is in no hurry to take on people back.

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16. DRIVING I left early to avoid heavy traffic and thought that the trip would take me an hour or so but everything went wrong from the moment I set out1. When I pulled out2 onto the main road somebody cut in3 on me and I had to pull up4 to avoid an accident. I  was so excited that I decided to pull over5 and calm down a little. As I was picking up6 speed again, one of the tyres blew out7 and I had to pull in8 at the nearest garage to have it changed. In half an hour I was on my way again. By that time the rain had started, so when I saw a student who was hitch-hiking I felt sorry for him and picked him up9. We had been going only five minutes when I was flagged down10 by a police officer who warned me of a huge holdup ahead. So when the student asked me to drop him off11 at a roadside café I decided to have a cup of coffee there and check the map for a bypass road. But when I  came out, someone had blocked me in12! 1

set out ˔ˏǤ ʹǤ Travel; p. 20 2 pull out ˑ˕˝ˈˊˉ˃˕˟Ǣ ˖ˈˊˉ˃˕˟Ǣ ˅˞ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ ȋˋˊ ˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˏˈ˔˕˃) 3 cut in ˅ˍˎˋːˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ˏˋǡ ˒ˑˇ˓ˈˊ˃˕˟ ȋ˃˅Ǧ ˕ˑˏˑ˄ˋˎ˟) 4 pull up ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ 5 pull over ˔˝ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ ː˃ ˑ˄ˑ˚ˋː˖ ˋ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ 6 pick up ː˃˄ˋ˓˃˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊˆˑːˢ˕˟˔ˢ 7 blow out ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋ˛ˋː˖) 8 pull in ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˖˕ˋ)

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PHRASAL VERBS 9

pick up ˄˓˃˕˟ ˒˃˔˔˃ˉˋ˓˃ǡ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˊˋ˕˟ 10 flag down ˔ˋˆː˃ˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˡ ˔ ˕˓ˈ˄ˑ˅˃ːˋˈˏ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖ 11 drop off ˅˞˔˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˔˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˆˇˈǦˎˋ˄ˑ) 12 block in ˄ˎˑˍˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋˏ˃˛ˋː˖)

EXTRA EXAMPLES blow out The tyre blew out as I was driving to the station to meet John.

ʧˋː˃ ˎˑ˒ː˖ˎ˃ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˈ˘˃ˎ ː˃ ˔˕˃ː˙ˋˡ ˅˔˕˓ˈ˕ˋ˕˟ ʓˉˑː˃Ǥ

block sb / sth in Someone had blocked me in so I had to take a taxi to work.

ʙ˕ˑǦ˕ˑ ˊ˃˄ˎˑˍˋ˓ˑ˅˃ˎ ˏˑˡ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖ǡ ˋ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˈ˘˃˕˟ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ː˃ ˕˃ˍ˔ˋǤ

cut in I was driving up to the crossroads when this green car cut in on me.

ʮ ˒ˑˇ˝ˈˊˉ˃ˎ ˍ ˒ˈ˓ˈˍ˓ˈ˔˕ˍ˖ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˏˈːˢ ˒ˑˇ˓ˈˊ˃ˎ˃ ˠ˕˃ ˊˈˎˈː˃ˢ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃Ǥ

drop sb off I asked Stella to drop me off at the corner of the street.

ʮ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ʠ˕ˈˎˎ˖ ˅˞˔˃ˇˋ˕˟ ˏˈːˢ ː˃ ˖ˆˎ˖ ˖ˎˋ˙˞Ǥ

flag sb / sth down A police officer flagged me down.

ʛˈːˢ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˈˌ˔ˍˋˌǤ

pick sb up I never pick up hitch-hikers.

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ʮ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˉ˖ ˎˡˇˈˌǡ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅˖ˡ˜ˋ˘ ˃˅˕ˑ˔˕ˑ˒ˑˏǤ

16. DRIVING

pick up ȋspeed) Little by little, the train was gradually picking up speed.

ʞˑˈˊˇ ˒ˑ˔˕ˈ˒ˈːːˑ ː˃˄ˋ˓˃ˎ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟.

pull in Let’s pull in at this cafe and have something to eat.

ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˏ˔ˢ ˅ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˍ˃˗ˈ ˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˍ˖˔ˋˏǤ

pull over I pulled over to make a phone call.

ʮˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎ˔ˢː˃ˑ˄ˑ˚ˋːˈ, ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟Ǥ

pull up If I hadn’t pulled up, I would have had an accident.

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˄˞ ˢ ːˈ ˊ˃˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋˎ, ˕ˑ ˒ˑ˒˃ˎ ˄˞ ˅ ˃˅˃˓ˋˡǤ

pull out Don’t pull out! There’s a car coming.

ʜˈ ˅˞ˈˊˉ˃ˌ ː˃ ˇˑ˓ˑˆ˖! ʔˇˈ˕ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Carly managed to make a passing taxi stop by waving her arm at its driver. 2. Dave stood watching helplessly as her train slowly left the station. 3. I couldn’t drive out of the garage as someone had put his vehicle so close to my car that I couldn’t get out of my parking space. 4. The overloaded truck was beginning to go faster with maddening slowness. 5. Vikki rounded the corner, looking for a place to park.

FLAG PULL

BLOCK ICK PULL

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PHRASAL VERBS 6. I don’t know how long I waited at the hitching point before some old wreck of a car stopped and the driver gave me a lift. 7. Nick was going past the hospital so he promised to stop and let me get out of the car there. 8. No wonder the tyre got punctured, the driveway is covered with fragments of broken glass. 9. We had to drive to the side of the road and stop our car when a police car approached at high speed. 10. When I stopped the car in front of the office building Mel was already there waiting for me. 11. Yes, officer, we saw a green sports car move in ahead of this white Mazda.

PICK

DROP

BLOW

PULL PULL CUT

h౮IIǤ ʠˑˈˇˋːˋ˕ˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˑ ˋ ˍˑːˈ˙ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˌǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǤ 1. Don’t forget to pick Ann  … 2. Fifteen minutes later the bus pulled … 3. Grace was so scared that she had to pull … 4. I flagged … 5. John dropped me … 6. Someone has blocked  … 7. Suddenly a green Jaguar cut … 8. We decided to pull … 9. What would you do if you had a tyre blow … 10. When Dave rounded the corner a police car pulled  …

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a. _______ right in front of me forcing me to brake. b. _______ outside my apartment building. c. _______ at a small cafe just outside Leeds. d. _______ on the other side of the dirty road. e. _______ at 90 kmph? f. _______ on the open road to calm down a little. g. _______ a passing taxi and went to the airport. h. _______ in front of himǤ i. _______ my car in the underground parking. j. _______ from the train station!

16. DRIVING h౮IIIǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢˏˋǡ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˢ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˈ ː˃ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˖ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ block in pick up drop off at the kerb hitchhikers one’s neighbour’s car

pull in flag down pull over passengers to the side of the road speeders

1. Airport busses _______ on the forecourt next to the Terminal C building. 2. I had _______ to let the government motorcade pass. 3. In Cuba, _______ is obligatory for government vehicles. 4. Randy _______ and looked at the map. 5. Road police have to arrest drunk drivers and _______ . 6. There was no parking space left so I had _______.

h౮IVǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ˞ˈ˘˃˅ ˊ˃ ˒˓ˈˇˈˎ˞ ˆˑ˓ˑˇ˃ǡ ˏ˞ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ː˃˄˓˃ˎˋ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟. ʹǤ ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˏ˔ˢ ˖ ˄ˎˋˉ˃ˌ˛ˈˆˑ ˍ˃˗ˈ ˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˍ˖˔ˋˏǤ ͵Ǥ ʓˠː˃ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˈˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˋ ˑ˛˕˓˃˗ˑ˅˃ˎ ˈˆˑ ˊ˃ ˒˓ˈ˅˞˛ˈːˋˈ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕ˋǤ ͶǤ ʗˊ˒ˈ˓ˈ˖ˎˍ˃˅˞ˈ˘˃ˎˍ˓˃˔ː˞ˌBMWˋˊ˃ˇˈˎˎˈ˅ˑˈˍ˓˞ˎˑ ˏˑˈˆˑ ˃˅˕ˑˏˑ˄ˋˎˢǤ ͷǤ ʛ˃˛ˋː˞ǡ ˒˃˓ˍ˖ˡ˜ˋˈ˔ˢ ˅ˇˑˎ˟ ˖ˊˍˑˌ ʞ˃˓ˍ ˃˅ˈːˡǡ ˄ˎˑˍˋ˓˖ˡ˕ ˏ˃˛ˋː˞ ˏˈ˔˕ː˞˘ ˉˋ˕ˈˎˈˌǤ ͸Ǥ ʛ˞ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎˋ˔˟ ː˃ ˑ˄ˑ˚ˋːˈ ˋ ˒ˑ˔˃ˇˋˎˋ ˍ ˔ˈ˄ˈ ˏˑˎˑˇˑˆˑ ˒˃˓ːˢǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˌ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅ˑ˅˃ˎ ˃˅˕ˑ˔˕ˑ˒ˑˏ ˒ˑ ʏːˆˎˋˋǤ ͹Ǥ ʡ˃ˍ˔ˋ˔˕ ˅˞˔˃ˇˋˎ ˏˈːˢ ː˃ ˖ˆˎ˖ ˖ˎˋ˙˞Ǥ ͺǤ ʣˋˑː˃ ˑːˈˏˈˎ˃ ˑ˕ ˖ˇˋ˅ˎˈːˋˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˈˈ ˇˑˏˑˏ ˊ˃˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋˎ ˓ˑˊˑ˅˞ˌ ˎˋˏ˖ˊˋːǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͻǤ ʧˋː˃ ˎˑ˒ː˖ˎ˃ǡ ˋ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖ ˊ˃ːˈ˔ˎˑ ˅˒˓˃˅ˑǡ ˒˓ˢˏˑ ˅  ˒˓ˋˇˑ˓ˑˉː˞ˈ ˍ˖˔˕˞Ǥ ͳͲǤ ʮ ˈ˘˃ˎ˃ ˒ˑ ʬˎˏ ˓ˑ˖ˇǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˏˈːˢ ˒ˑˇ˓ˈˊ˃ˎ˃ ˠ˕˃ ˊˈˎˈː˃ˢ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ǡ ˋ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˊ˃˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟Ǥ

KEYS h I. 1. Carly managed to flag down a passing taxi. 2. Dave stood watching helplessly as her train slowly pulled out of the station. 3. I couldn’t drive out of the garage as someone had blocked me in my parking space. 4. The overloaded truck was picking up speed with maddening slowness. 5. Vikki rounded the corner, looking for a place to pull in. 6. I don’t know how long I waited at the hitching point before some old wreck of a car picked me up. 7. Nick was going past the hospital so he promised to drop me off there. 8. No wonder the tyre blew out, the driveway is covered with fragments of broken glass. 9. We had to pull over when a police car approached at high speed. 10. When I pulled up in front of the office building Mel was already there waiting for me. 11. Yes, officer, we saw a green sports car cut in on this white Mazda.

h II. 1 2 3 4 5

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— — — — —

up — j in — d over — f down — g off — b

6 — in — i 7 — in — a 8 — up — c 9 — out — e 10 — out — h

16. DRIVING h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

drop off passengers to pull in at the kerb picking up hitchhikers pulled over to the side of the road flag down speeders to block in my neighbour’s car

h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Once out of the city, we picked up speed again. Let’s pull in at the nearest café and have a snack. A cop flagged Dan down and gave him a speeding ticket. A red BMW pulled out from the alley and clipped the left fender of my car. The cars parking along the narrow Park Avenue block the residents in. We pulled over to pick up a young man who was hitchhiking across Britain. The cab dropped me off at the corner of the street. Fiona was dumbstruck with surprise when a pink limo pulled up outside her house. The tyre blew out and the car skidded to the right into wayside bushes. I was driving along Elm Road when this green car cut in on me, forcing me to brake.

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17. TELEPHONING From the moment you pick up1 the phone and till the time you put the receiver down2 you represent your department or company. So using proper telephone etiquette makes communication more effective. Put a smile in your voice every time you answer the phone. If you ask the caller to hold on3, always ask permission and then check back every 30 seconds or so to see if the person still wishes to continue to hold. If you transfer a call, tell the caller the name of the person you are putting him through4 to so that if the caller gets cut off5 he will know who to call back6. If the caller can’t get through7 to a certain person on your staff, take a message for him to get back to8 the caller. Do not hang up9 on the caller no matter how annoying he might seem. The person may just be phoning around10 companies and your ringing off11 may cost your company a potential customer. 1

pick up ˔ːˢ˕˟ ȋ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖) 2 put down ˒ˑ˅ˈ˔ˋ˕˟ ȋ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖) 3 hold on ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˖ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˃ 4 put through ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ ȋ˒ˑ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˖) 5 cut off ˒˓ˈ˓˅˃˕˟ ȋ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑːː˞ˌ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓Ȍǡ ˓˃ˊ˝ˈˇˋːˋ˕˟ 6 call back ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟ 7 get through ˔˅ˢˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˖ǡ ˇˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢ 8 get back to ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟ 9 hang up ˅ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖

150

17. TELEPHONING 10

phone around ˑ˄ˊ˅˃ːˋ˅˃˕˟ 11 ring off ˅ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖

EXTRA EXAMPLES call back / call sb back / call back sb I’m busy right now. Can I call you back in half an hour?

ʮ ˔ˈˌ˚˃˔ ˊ˃ːˢ˕Ǥ ʮ ˏˑˆ˖ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟ ˚ˈ˓ˈˊ ˒ˑˎǦ ˚˃˔˃ǫ

cut sb off / cut off sb I have to top-up my account or I’ll get cut off next time I make a phone call.

ʛːˈ ː˖ˉːˑ ˒ˑ˒ˑˎːˋ˕˟ ˔˚ˈ˕ǡ ˋˎˋ ˅ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˌ ˓˃ˊǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˄˖ˇ˖ ˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟ǡ ˏˈːˢ ˓˃ˊ˝ˈˇˋːˢ˕.

get back to sb Mr Smith will get back to you tomorrow.

ʒˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʠˏˋ˕ ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕ ʑ˃ˏ ˊ˃˅˕˓˃Ǥ

get through ȋto sb) I couldn’t get through to you yesterday, the line was constantly busy.

ʑ˚ˈ˓˃ ˢ ːˈ ˔ˏˑˆ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˇˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˎˋːˋˢ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˃Ǥ

hang up ȋon) sb I hate it when you hang up on me.

ʜˈː˃˅ˋˉ˖ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˕˞ ˄˓ˑ˔˃ˈ˛˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖ǡ ːˈ ˇˑ˔ˎ˖˛˃˅ ˏˈːˢ ˇˑ ˍˑː˙˃Ǥ

hold on Hold on, I have to check my organizer.

ʜˈ˅ˈ˛˃ˌ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖ǡˏːˈː˖ˉːˑˊ˃ˆˎˢː˖˕˟˅ˈˉˈˇːˈ˅ːˋˍǤ

151

PHRASAL VERBS

phone around sb Just phone around a couple of companies before you make a decision.

ʞ˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˑ˄ˊ˅ˑːˋ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˌ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˕ˈˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈǤ

pick up It’s good to pick up the phone within 10 to 15 seconds.

ʞˑˇːˋˏ˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖ ː˖ˉːˑ ˅ ˕ˈ˚ˈːˋˈ ˒ˈ˓˅˞˘ ͳͲȂͳͷ ˔ˈˍ˖ːˇǤ

put down She said good-bye and put down the phone.

ʝː˃ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˜˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˋ ˒ˑˎˑˉˋˎ˃ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖Ǥ

put sb through ȋto sb) Can you put me through to Mr Long?

ʛˑˉˈ˕ˈ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˋ˕˟ ˏˈːˢ ˔  ˆˑ˔˒ˑˇˋːˑˏ ʚˑːˆˑˏǫ

ring off Tim was very rude and I had to ring off.

ʡˋˏ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˆ˓˖˄ˋ˕˟ǡ ˋ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟˒ˑ˅ˈ˔ˋ˕˟˕˓˖˄ˍ˖.

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. A good secretary should either take the call or _______ the person within an hour. a. call back b. get through to c. phone around 2. Before I _______ I could hear him swearing. a. put down b. called back c. rang off 3. But on the tenth ring I decided to _______ the phone. a. hold on b. pick up c. cut off 4. I listened to pre-recorded message for five minutes before I  got _______. a. rung off b. held on c. cut off

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17. TELEPHONING 5. I usually _______ telephone surveys. a. hang up on b. put down

c. get through to

6. I’ll _______ you with our official response in fifteen minutes. a. call back b. get back to c. get through to 7. Mother _______ the phone and looked at me in surprise. a. rang off b. cutt off c. put down 8. Since I couldn’t _______ Liz on the phone I emailed her the next day. a. get through to b. hang up on c. bet back to 9. The secretary will _______ our customers and provide them all necessary information. a. call back b. get through to c. phone around 10. They won’t _______ ȋme) customer service. a. get through to b. put through to c. get back to 11. Will you _______, please! Your call will be answered as soon as possible. a. hold on b. call back c. ring off

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ around, back, down, off, on, through, to ˋˎˋ up. 1. Could you get _______ _______ me on the data by the end of Friday? 2. Dad put the phone _______ and passed a hand across his forehead. 3. I decided to return the call later and let the answering machine pick _______. 4. I got cut _______ right in the middle of the call to New York. 5. I have to ring _______ now, my bus is coming. 6. If there is anything urgent from the office, put it _______ _______ me right away. 7. I’ll call you _______ as soon as I get any information. 8. I’ve been phoning _______ customers all day telling them about our special offer.

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PHRASAL VERBS 9. Nicole finally got _______ _______ someone who could answer her question about refund. 10. Please hold _______, and I’ll see if Mr Barlow is available. 11. That’s how our conversation usually ends — I just hang _______ _______ her.

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˋˊ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːː˞˘ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ˑ˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖Ǥ 1. Can you ask Jill to call me back later/on the spot? 2. Don’t you dare hang up on me/your coat — I need to talk to you. 3. First, you are put through to the hotel manager/telephone operator, who asks you which city number you want. 4. Hold on a moment/tight and I’ll get the expert on the line. 5. I got cut off in mid-morning/mid-sentence. 6. I phoned around all the travel agents in the area to find the arrival time౮/cheapest prices. 7. If you can’t get through all these emails/to my home number, try my cell phone. 8. I’ll get back home౮/to you as soon as I find out the prices on our new percolator. 9. Molly flew into a rage /cheered up and rang off.

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. to hang up on a. one’s mother b. a man c. a peg 2. to put down a. the cord b. the phone c. the dial

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3. to get through to a. the office b. the house c. the building 4. to phone around a. the industries b. the services c. the shops

17. TELEPHONING h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʒˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː˃ʏˎˎˈː˃ːˈ˄˞ˎˑː˃ˏˈ˔˕ˈǡ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ˢː˃ˊ˅˃ˎ ˔˅ˑˈ ˋˏˢ ˋ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ˔ˈˍ˓ˈ˕˃˓ˢ ˏːˈ ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟. ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˄˞ ʠ˟ˡ ːˈ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˊˎ˃ ː˃ ʛ˃˓ˍ˃ǡ ˑː˃ ːˈ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎ˃ ˄˞ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖. ͵Ǥ ʗˊ˅ˋːˋ˕ˈǡ ːˑ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋˇˈ˕˔ˢ ˒˓ˈ˓˅˃˕˟ ː˃˛ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ǡ ˕˃ˍ ˍ˃ˍ ˔˅ˑˈˌ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇˋ ˉˇ˖˕ ˋ ˇ˓˖ˆˋˈ ˃˄ˑːˈː˕˞Ǥ ʜˑ ˢ  ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˡ ʑ˃ˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˒ˑˎ˖˚˖ ːˈˑ˄˘ˑˇˋˏ˖ˡ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡǤ 4. ʝ˄ˊ˅ˑːˋ˅ ˅˔ˈ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋǡ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˞ˈ ˅ ˔˗ˈ˓ˈ ˑ˄˜ˈ˔˕˅ˈːːˑˆˑ ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˢǡ ˢ ˅˞ˢ˔ːˋˎ˃ǡ ˆˇˈ ˇˈ˛ˈ˅ˎˈ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˑ˕ˏˈ˕ˋ˕˟ ˔˅ˑˌ ˇˈː˟ ˓ˑˉˇˈːˋˢǤ ͷǤ ʞˑˉ˃ˎ˖ˌ˔˕˃ǡ ːˈ ˅ˈ˛˃ˌ˕ˈ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖Ǥ ʚˋːˋˢ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˃ǡ ːˑ ˢ  ˔ˑˈˇˋːˡ ˅˃˔ ˔ ˆˑ˔˒ˑˇˋːˑˏ ʠˍˑ˕˕ˑˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˑː ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓. ͸Ǥ ʞˠ˕ ˒ˑˇːˢˎ˃ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑːː˖ˡ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖ ˋǡ ˒ˑˍˑˎˈ˄˃˅˛ˋ˔˟ ːˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢǡ ˒ˑˎˑˉˋˎ˃ ˈˈ ː˃ˊ˃ˇǤ ͹Ǥ ʠˈˆˑˇːˢ ˖˕˓ˑˏ ˢ ˒˞˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟ ʡ˃˓ˈ ˅ ˑ˗ˋ˔ǡ ːˑ ˇˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢ ːˈ ˔ˏˑˆǤ

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

5 6 7 8

a c b c

— — — —

a b c a

9—c 10 — b 11 — a

off through to back around

9. through to 10. on 11. up on

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4.

back to down up off

5. 6. 7. 8.

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PHRASAL VERBS h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

later on me telephone operator a moment mid-sentence cheapest prices to my home number to you flew into a rage

h IV. 1—a 2—b

3—a Ͷ Ȅ ˔

h V. 1. Mr Allen was out, so I gave my name and asked the secretary to call me back. 2. If Sue hadn’t been mad with Mark, she wouldn’t hung up on him. 3. Sorry, but I’ll have to cut you off now as I’ve got lots of callers waiting. But I’ll get back to you as soon as I get the necessary information. 4. Having phoned around all the catering companies I found the cheapest price for my birthday party. 5. Will you hold on, please? The line is busy but I’ll put you through to Mr Scott as soon as he rings off. 6. Pat picked up the phone, hesitated a little, and put it down. 7. I tried phoning Tara’s office this morning, but I couldn’t get through.

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18. TECHNOLOGY Learning how to operate a photocopier can be complex. Our step by step guide will help you learn how to handle it. First, plug in1 the copier into a wall jack. The device may take up2 30 to 45 seconds to warm up3. When the power light comes on4, check the paper tray to see if there’s enough paper. If more paper is needed load up5 the paper track. Place the document you want to copy face down into the copier and input the number of copies you want to run off6 on the control panel. Now press the “Copy” button and the whole thing starts up7. This model never seizes up8 when you change paper, but should copy paper get jammed inside the copier turn off9 the device, open it up10 and remove the paper stuck inside. Replace the cover and switch on11 the copier again. Remember to remove the original document after completing the copy task. 1

plug in ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ˅ ˔ˈ˕˟ǡ ˅˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ ˅ˋˎˍ˖ ˅ ˓ˑˊˈ˕ˍ˖ 2 take up ˔ˏǤ ʹǤ Travel; p. 20 2 warm up ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈ˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈ˕˟˔ˢ 3 come on ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ˈȌǢ ˊ˃ˆˑ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˎ˃ˏ˒ˑ˚ˍˈ) 4 load up ˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˉ˃˕˟ 5 run off ˒ˈ˚˃˕˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˠˍˊˈˏ˒ˎˢ˓ˑ˅) 6 start up ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ 7 seize up ˊ˃ˈˇ˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˕˓˖˜ˋ˘˔ˢ ˇˈ˕˃ˎˢ˘Ȍǡ ˊ˃˔˕˓ˈ˅˃˕˟ 8 turn off ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑ˒ˋ˕˃Ǧ ːˋˈ)

157

PHRASAL VERBS 9

open up ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˇˑ˔˕˖˒ ˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) 10 switch on ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑ˒ˋ˕˃Ǧ ːˋˈ)

EXTRA EXAMPLES come on My scan power button comes on and off all the time.

ʜ˃ ˏˑˈˏ ˔ˍ˃ːˈ˓ˈ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˕ˑ ˊ˃ˆˑ˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˕ˑ ˆ˃˔ːˈ˕ ˍːˑ˒ˍ˃ «˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˈ».

load up / load up sth / load sth up Tara is loading up the washing machine.

ʡ˃˓˃ˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˉ˃ˈ˕˔˕ˋ˓˃ˎ˟ː˖ˡ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖Ǥ

open up sth / open sth up Does anyone know how to open up a scanner without breaking the casing?

ʙ˕ˑǦːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ˊː˃ˈ˕ǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˕˟ ˔ˍ˃ːˈ˓ǡ ːˈ ˔ˎˑˏ˃˅ ˒˓ˋ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˍˑ˓˒˖˔ǫ

plug in sth / plug sth in Mother filled the kettle and plugged it in.

ʛ˃ˏ˃ː˃ˎˋˎ˃˅ˑˇ˞˅˚˃ˌːˋˍ ˋ ˅ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎ˃ ˈˆˑǡ ˅˔˕˃˅ˋ˅ ˅ˋˎˍ˖ ˅ ˓ˑˊˈ˕ˍ˖.

run off sth / run sth off Can you run off 10 copies of the agenda?

ʛˑˉˈ˕ˈ ˔ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ͳͲ ˍˑ˒ˋˌ ˒ˑ˅ˈ˔˕ˍˋǫ

seize up The engine can seize up if you don’t oil it regularly.

158

ʛˑ˕ˑ˓ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ː˃˚˃˕˟ ˊ˃ˈˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˅˞ ːˈ ˄˖ˇˈ˕ˈ ˓ˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ːˑ ˊ˃ˎˋ˅˃˕˟ ˏ˃˔ˎˑ

18. TECHNOLOGY

start up / start up sth / start sth up He turned the ignition key and started the car up.

ʝː ˒ˑ˅ˈ˓ː˖ˎ ˍˎˡ˚ ˊ˃ˉˋˆ˃ːˋˢ ˋ ˊ˃˅ˈˎ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖Ǥ

switch on sth / switch sth on / switch on / turn on sth / turn sth on Can you switch on the coffeemachine?

ʡ˞ ˏˑˉˈ˛˟ ˅ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ˍˑ˗ˈ˅˃˓ˍ˖ǫ

turn off sth / turn sth off switch off sth / switch sth off / switch off Tina had to get up and turn off the TV.

ʡˋːˈ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟˅˔˕˃˕˟ˋ ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ˕ˈˎˈ˅ˋˊˑ˓Ǥ

warm up / warm up sth / warm sth up We had to wait for the car to warm up.

ʜ˃ˏ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˒ˑˇˑˉˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˒ˑˍ˃ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈˈ˕˔ˢ.

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˈ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏ ˅ ˔˒ˋ˔ˍˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˒ˑ ˕ˈˏˈǤ 1. to become jammed 2. to begin operating or being used 3. to connect a piece of electrical equipment to the main supply of electricity 4. to fill a container with a large amount of something 5. to flash on 6. to reach a temperature high enough to allow it to operate efficiently 7. to remove the lid, cover, or fastening of a container to get access to the contents 8. to stop the operation or flow of something by means of a  tap, switch, or button

159

PHRASAL VERBS 9. to reproduce copies of a piece of writing on a machine 10. to turn on a machine, light, radio etc using a switch

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ 1. Brad went to bed at around midnight and shortly afterwards the car alarm _______ up. a. came b. started c. opened 2. I have already prepared the printed statement, just _______ off about 50 copies. a. run b. switch c. turn 3. It took me ages to find the remote control device to _______ the television on. a. come b. switch c. warm 4. Mom took the anti-mosquito repellent from the drawer and _______ it in the wall socket. a. plugged b. switched c. turned 5. The new office MFD started _______ up after only three weeks. a. warming b. loading c. seizing 6. The repair man found the main power switch and _______ it off. a. ran b. turned c. plugged 7. This appliance allows the engine to _______ up faster and reduces fuel consumption. a. warm b. open c. seize 8. To _______ up a jammed DVD drive on your computer, please, follow these instructions. a. warm b. load c. open 9. When I press the power button on my ASUS laptop all the lights _______ on. a. come b. switch c. turn 10. You can _______ up around 250 sheets of paper into the multipurpose feeder. a. seize b. load c. start

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18. TECHNOLOGY h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. to open up a. a computer case b. a paper tray c. a monitor

4. to start up a. an engine b. the light c. a generator

2. to load up a. the heating system b. a washing machine c. a dishwasher

5. to switch on a. the light b. the alarm c. water

3. to plug in a. a printer b. a hairdryer c. a keyboard

6. to warm up a. water-cannons b. a photocopier c. engines

h౮IVǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. If you install this relay certain lights will come up at different times of the day. 2. If you learn how to start up the washing machine correctly, you’ll get better laundry results. 3. If your MFD doesn’t work, make sure you’ve switched it off. 4. I’ll walk off some more copies of the agenda before the meeting. 5. It was quite chilly in the room as I had forgotten to run off the air-conditioning when leaving for work this morning. 6. Our electrical barbecue can be plugged on a household electricity supply. 7. Samsung CLP-350N Laser Printer keeps seizing down during the warm-up cycle. 8. To load the car up, put the key in the ignition and then turn it. 9. With certain models, it may take quite a time for the printer to heat up. 10. You need the right tools to break up a computer case.

161

PHRASAL VERBS h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈˇːˈˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˖ ˏˈːˢ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏ˞ ˔ ˆ˃ˊˑːˑˍˑ˔ˋˎˍˑˌ  Ȅ ˑː˃ ːˈ ˊ˃˒˖˔ˍ˃ˈ˕˔ˢ. ʹǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˏˑ˕ˑ˓ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˊ˃ˈˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˢ ˅˔˒ˑˏːˋˎǡ ˚˕ˑ ːˈ ˊ˃ˎˋˎ ˏ˃˔ˎˑǤ ͵Ǥ ʙ˔ˈ˓ˑˍ˔Ȅ˔˕˃˓˞ˌǡː˖ˉːˑːˈˏːˑˆˑ˅˓ˈˏˈːˋǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ˑː ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈˎ˔ˢ. ͶǤ ʚ˖˚˛ˈ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˒ˑ˔˖ˇˑˏˑˈ˚ː˃ˢ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ˈ˕ ˒˓ˋ ˒ˑˎːˑˌ ˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˊˍˈǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˅ˍˎˡ˚ˈːˋˈˏ ˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˊˋ˕ˈ ˈˈǤ ͷǤ ʜˈ ˖ˇˋ˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑǡ ˚˕ˑ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑ˒ˎˋ˕ˍ˃ ːˈ ˆ˓ˈˎ˃˔˟ǡ ˈˈ ːˈ  ˅ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎˋ ˅ ˔ˈ˕˟! ͸Ǥ ʜˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˍˑ˓˒˖˔ ˒˓ˋː˕ˈ˓˃ǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˑː ːˈ  ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚ˈː ˑ˕ ˔ˈ˕ˋǤ 7. ʝ˓ˆ˃ːˋˊ˃˕ˑ˓˞ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎˋˍˑːˇˋ˙ˋˑːˋ˓ˑ˅˃ːˋˈǡˋ ˅ ˊ˃ˎˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ˇ˖˛ːˑǤ ͺǤ ʠ ː˃˛ˋˏ ˍ˔ˈ˓ˑˍ˔ˑˏ ˚˕ˑǦ˕ˑ ˔ˎ˖˚ˋˎˑ˔˟ Ȅ ˍːˑ˒ˍ˃ ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˢ ːˈ ˊ˃ˆˑ˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢ. ͻǤ ʮ ˔ˇˈˎ˃ˎ˃ 200 ˍˑ˒ˋˌ ˠ˕ˑˆˑ ˑ˄˝ˢ˅ˎˈːˋˢǤ ʓ˖ˏ˃ˈ˛˟ǡ ˠ˕ˑˆˑ ˘˅˃˕ˋ˕ǫ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

seize up start up plug in load up come on

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

to to to to to

warm up open up switch off / to turn off run off switch on / to turn on

h II. 1—b 2—a

162

3—b 4—a

5—c 6—b

18. TECHNOLOGY 7—a 8—c

9—a 10 — b

1—c 2—a

3—c 4—b

h III. 5—c 6—a

h IV. 1. If you install this relay certain lights will come on at different times of the day. 2. If you learn how to load up the washing machine correctly, you’ll get better laundry results. 3. If your MFD doesn’t work, make sure you’ve switched it on. 4. I’ll run off some more copies of the agenda before the meeting. 5. It was quite chilly in the room as I had forgotten to switch off the air-conditioning when leaving for work this morning. 6. Our electrical barbecue can be plugged in a household electricity supply. 7. Samsung CLP-350N Laser Printer keeps seizing up during the warm-up cycle. 8. To start the car up, put the key in the ignition and then turn it. 9. With certain models, it may take quite a time for the printer to warm up. 10. You need the right tools to open up a computer case.

h V. 1. Lately I have had some trouble with the lawn mower — it won’t start up. 2. As the engine started seizing up I remembered that I had failed to oil it. 3. The photocopier is old; it takes a while to warm it up. 4. A full dishwasher runs best, so load it up before you switch it on.

163

PHRASAL VERBS 5. No wonder, the one-hotplate electric stove didn’t warm up, it hadn’t been plugged in! 6. Never open up a printer case unless it is unplugged! 7. The organizers had turned off the air-conditioning and the hall was stifling. 8. There’s something wrong with our photocopier — the power button light does not come on. 9. I’ve run off 200 copies of this notice. Do you think it will be enough?

164

19. COMPUTERS I’m trying to download ArchiCAD but when I get to the installment part the “please-go-to-controlpanel-to-install-configuresystem-component” pops up1. I go to control panel but I dont know where to go from there. Please, help.

For the past week or so, my computer was slowing down2 and then freezing up3 after about an hour of use. When I  opened up the system I found that the cooling fan had fallen off. I fixed it with some glue. Now, the entire computer just shuts down4 in the middle of activity. What’s the issue?

My motherboard has packed up5 but I haven’t backed up6 my files. Is there anything I can do to retrieve my files?

I have an old Toshiba laptop. I just wonder if I can hook it up8 to my newer ACER Aspire desktop to put some games, music, etc. on to my old laptop. The problem is that it doesn’t have a USB port or internet hook-ups. What should I do?

Please let me know how I can go on7 the Internet from my PC to my laptop ȋI have the Internet on the PC). What shall I buy to do this?

For some reason my keyboard is typing the wrong letters as well as numbers. When I type @ it comes up9 with ” symbol and the Caps Lock comes on when I type for no reason. What is happening?

A whole lot of data was wiped out10 when I got a virus. How can I avoid this in future?

165

PHRASAL VERBS 1

pop up ˅˞˔˅ˈ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈ 2 slow down ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ˈ) 3 freeze up ˅ˋ˔ː˖˕˟ ȋˑ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ˈ) 4 shut down ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ) 5 pack up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔ˎˑˏ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˞ˌ˕ˋ ˋˊ ˔˕˓ˑˢ ȋˑ ˏˈǦ ˘˃ːˋˊˏˈ) 6 back up ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˓ˈˊˈ˓˅ː˖ˡ ˍˑ˒ˋˡ ˗˃ˌˎ˃ 7 go on ˊ˃ˌ˕ˋ ȋ˅ ˋː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ǡ ː˃ ˔˃ˌ˕) 8 hook up ˒ˑˇˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ǡ ˒ˑˇ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ 9 come up ˒ˑˢ˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈǢ ˑ˄ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˋ) 10 wipe out ˔˕ˋ˓˃˕˟ ȋˇ˃ːː˞ˈ)

EXTRA EXAMPLES back up sth / back sth up This article explains how to back up and restore data.

ʑ ˔˕˃˕˟ˈ ˑ˄˝ˢ˔ːˢˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˓ˈˊˈ˓˅ː˖ˡ ˍˑ˒ˋˡ ˋ ˅ˑ˔˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡǤ

come up I keep having message come up saying “memory full”.

ʢˏˈːˢː˃ˠˍ˓˃ːˈ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˒ˑˢ˅ˎˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˈːˋˈ «˒˃ˏˢ˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˈː˃».

freeze up My computer freezes up when I go on the Internet.

166

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˊ˃˘ˑˉ˖ ˅ ʗː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ǡ ˏˑˌ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ ˅ˋ˔ːˈ˕.

19. COMPUTERS

go on Now go on the Internet and do a search for information we need.

ʏ ˕ˈ˒ˈ˓˟ǡ ˊ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˅ ʗː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ ˋ ː˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ː˖ˉː˖ˡ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡǤ

hook up sth / hook sth up I think Apple computers hook up to all printers.

ʮ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓˞ Apple ˏˑˉːˑ ˒ˑˇˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ˍ  ˎˡ˄˞ˏ ˒˓ˋː˕ˈ˓˃ˏǤ

pack up My laptop has packed up again!

ʛˑˌ ˎˠ˒˕ˑ˒ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˔ˎˑˏ˃ˎ˔ˢ!

pop up Why does this message keep popping up on my screen?

ʞˑ˚ˈˏ˖ ˠ˕ˑ ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˈːˋˈ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˅˞˔˅ˈ˚ˋ˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˖  ˏˈːˢ ː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈ?

shut sth down / shut down sth / shut down The main reason why most computers shut down is overheating.

ʝ˔ːˑ˅ː˃ˢ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋː˃ǡ ˒ˑ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˌ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋː˔˕˅ˑˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ˑ˅ǡˠ˕ˑ˒ˈ˓ˈˆ˓ˈ˅Ǥ

slow down My computer slows down when I use it for long hours.

ʛˑˌ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ ː˃˚ˋː˃ˈ˕ ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˢ ˇˑˎˆˑ ˊ˃ ːˋˏ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ˡǤ

wipe out sth / wipe sth out The program is designed to securely wipe all data out from any hard drive.

ʞ˓ˑˆ˓˃ˏˏ˃ ˒˓ˈˇː˃ˊː˃˚ˈː˃ ˇˎˢ ˕ˑˆˑǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˄ˈˊˑ˒˃˔ːˑ ˔˕ˋ˓˃˕˟ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ ˔ ˎˡ˄ˑˆˑ ˇˋ˔ˍ˃Ǥ

167

PHRASAL VERBS

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑǦ ˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. back up 2. come up 3. freeze up 4. go on 5. hook up 6. pack up 7. pop up 8. shut down 9. slow down 10. wipe out

a. appear on a computer screen b. connect an electronic machine to other similar machines c. start to work more slowly d. make a copy of a data file for storage in another place as a security copy e. stop operating f. get connected to g. become temporarily locked because of system problems h. accidentally remove from a computer i. stop working j. appear suddenly on a computer screen, especially when you are online

h౮IIǤ ʝ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˌ˕ˈ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ back go pop

come hook shut wipe

freeze pack slow

down on out up

1. Antivirus software can _______ your computer. 2. Before you donate your computer to charity or give it to someone else, remember _______ your personal information first. 3. I have had my PC running for about five years until it _______. Now I need to buy a new one.

168

19. COMPUTERS 4. If a message _______ it appears on the screen of your computer. 5. If the memory on your computer is very low it can _______. 6. If you double-click on this icon the menu _______. 7. If your computer _______ unexpectedly you should scan it for viruses. 8. _______ a computer file means to make a copy of it, usually onto a disk or external disk drive. 9. _______ a laptop to a printer, attach one end of the computer cable to the printer and the other end to either the USB or parallel port on the laptop. 10. Today more and more people are using cell phones _______ the Internet.

h౮IIIǤ ʟ˃˔˒ˑˎˑˉˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˏ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˍˈ ˋ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. hook / Do / how / loudspeakers / to / to / you / up / know / the / the / PC? 2. that / out / I / jpegs / a / my / virus / wiped / got / all. 3. Window / down / Is / true / over / that / it / slow / all / time / systems? 4. idea / is / a / a / back / good / to / week / least / your / It / file/ up / at / once. 5. over / going / Millions / of / right / the / the / people / now / world / are / on / all / Internet! 6. then / My / turns / screen / screen / startup / black / on / freezes / desktop / and / up / into / a. 7. up / on / arrival / My / come / has / board / just / flight / the. 8. time / air / my / winter / packs / hope / is / conditioner / Next / up / I / it / in! 9. weekend / will / power / be / The / shut / over / supply / down / the.

169

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ 1. All my apps _______ on the screen but none of them works. 2. Can I stop calendar reminders _______ on my screen? 3. I always _______ most of my files on USB stickers. 4. Could you email the information as our fax machine ______? 5. I can’t _______ ȋthem) correctly without reading the instructions. 6. My laptop _______ when I close the lid. 7. Numerous documents, pictures and files on the desktop can _______ your computer. 8. Unfortunately, all the information _______ from my laptop. 9. When I _______ the Web, the whole system _______ and changes IE homepages.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ˔ˈ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓˞ ˅ ˍˑː˗ˈ˓ˈː˙Ǧˊ˃ˎˈ ˊ˃˅ˋ˔ˎˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˈ ˑ˕ˏˈːˋˎˋǤ ʹǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˅˚ˈ˓˃ ˒ˑ˒˞˕˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˊ˃ˌ˕ˋ ˅ ʗː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ǡ ˔ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈ ˒ˑˢ˅ˋˎˑ˔˟ ˍ˃ˍˑˈǦ˕ˑ ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˈːˋˈǡ ˃ ˊ˃˕ˈˏ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎ˔ˢ. ͵Ǥ ʛˑˌ ˒˓ˋː˕ˈ˓ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˔ˎˑˏ˃ˎ˔ˢǨ ʓ˃˅ːˑ ˒ˑ˓˃ ˍ˖˒ˋ˕˟ ːˑ˅˞ˌǤ ͶǤ ʜˈˊ˃˄˞˅˃ˌ˕ˈˍ˃ˉˇ˞ˌˇˈː˟˔ˑˊˇ˃˅˃˕˟˓ˈˊˈ˓˅ː˖ˡˍˑ˒ˋˡ ˅˃ˉː˞˘ ˇ˃ːː˞˘Ǥ ͷǤ ʞˑ˔ˎˈ ˕ˑˆˑǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˢ ˒ˑˇˍˎˡ˚ˋˎ ˔˅ˑˌ ːˑ˅˞ˌ ˇˈ˔ˍ˕ˑ˒ ˍ  ˔˕˃˓ˑˏ˖ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓˖ǡ ˑː ː˃˚˃ˎ ˔ˎˈˆˍ˃ ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟. ͸Ǥ ʞ˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˅˔˕˃˅˟ ˠ˕ˑ˕ ˇˋ˔ˍ ˅ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ǡ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ ˔  ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˆˑ ˕˞ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˛˟ ˔˕ˈ˓ˈ˕˟ǡ ˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˊˋ ˈˆˑǤ ͹Ǥ ʬ˕ˑ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˈːˋˈˏˑˉˈ˕˅˓ˈˏˢˑ˕˅˓ˈˏˈːˋ˅˞˔˅ˈ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟Ǧ ˔ˢ ː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈǡ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃˜˃ˌ ː˃ ːˈˆˑ ˅ːˋˏ˃ːˋˢǤ

170

19. COMPUTERS

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

d a g f

5 6 7 8

— — — —

9—c

b i j e

10 — h

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

slow down to wipe out packed up comes up freeze up

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

will pop up shuts down To back up To hook up to go on

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Do you know how to hook up the loudspeakers to the PC? I got a virus that wiped out all my jpegs. Is it true that all Window systems slow down over time? It is a good idea to back up your files at least once a week. Millions of people all over the world are going on the Internet right now! My desktop screen freezes up on start-up and then turns into a black screen. My flight has just come up on the arrival board. Next time my air conditioner packs up I’ll hope it’s in winter! The power supply will be shut down over the weekend.

h IV. 1. come up 2. popping up 3. back up

4. has packed up 5. hook them up 6. won’t shut down

171

PHRASAL VERBS 7. slow down 8. has got wiped out

9. go on / freezes up

h V. 1. All the PC screens in the conference hall froze up and the meeting was cancelled. 2. When I tried to go on the Internet yesterday, some message came up on the screen first and then the PC just shut down. 3. My printer has packed up again! It’s time I got a new one. 4. Make sure you back up important data every day. 5. After hooking up my new desktop to the old computer, it started slowing down a little. 6. Just put this CD into the computer you want to wipe out and reboot. 7. This message can pop up from time to time, just don’t mind it.

172

20. MASS MEDIA Most of what we call “news” nowadays begins from press releases put out1 by individuals, companies or government agencies. Tips and leaks constitute the next most important source. In this way journalists can pick up2 information from well-meaning citizens present at a crime or accident scene or those who want to wise us up to3 sordid behaviours of public figures. Occasionally valuable information may leak out4 and become news. But, believe it or not, tips and leaks are always checked out5. Journalists can even sound out6 experts to verify the information obtained in this way. Sometimes reporters just happen to be present there when a news story happens, but it doesn’t happen by accident, though. Journalists may have to stake out7 their subject’s house or worm information out of8 those in the know. When it becomes impossible for reporters to root out9 a scoop they may just make it up10! 1

put out ˅˞˒˖˔ˍ˃˕˟ǡ ˋˊˇ˃˅˃˕˟ 2 pick up ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃˕˟ ȋˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ) 3 wise up to ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˋ˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˔ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˑ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ); ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ 4 leak out ˒˓ˑ˔ˑ˚ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔˕˃˕˟ ˋˊ˅ˈ˔˕ː˞ˏ 5 check out ˒ˑˇ˕˅ˈ˓ˉˇ˃˕˟ 6 sound out ˅˞ˢ˔ːˢ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˅˞˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˚ˈˏǦ ˎˋ˄ˑ) 7 stake out ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ː˃˄ˎˡˇˈːˋˈǡ ˔ˎˈˇˋ˕˟ ȋˊ˃ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˋˎˋ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ)

173

PHRASAL VERBS 8

worm out of ˅˞˅ˈˇ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅˞˒˞˕˞˅˃˕˟ 9 root out ˑ˕˞˔ˍˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍ˃˒˞˅˃˕˟ 10 make up ˒˓ˋˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅˞ˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˚ˋːˢ˕˟

EXTRA EXAMPLES check out sth / check sth out I don’t think he will check out the fact.

ʜˈ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː ˒ˑˇ˕˅ˈ˓ˇˋ˕ ˠ˕ˑ˕ ˗˃ˍ˕Ǥ

leak out The information leaked out to the newspapers and caused a scandal.

ʗː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˢ ˒˓ˑ˔ˑ˚ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˅ˆ˃ˊˈ˕˞ˋ˅˞ˊ˅˃ˎ˃˔ˍ˃ːˇ˃ˎǤ

make up sth / make sth up I’m not making it up. I saw it with my own eyes.

ʮ ːˋ˚ˈˆˑ ːˈ ˅˞ˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃ˡǡ ˢ ˅ˋˇˈˎ ˠ˕ˑ ˔˅ˑˋˏˋ ˔ˑ˄˔˕˅ˈːː˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˊ˃ˏˋǤ

pick sth up / pick up sth Tanya picked up the information from a conversation she had overheard.

ʡ˃ːˢ ˖ˊː˃ˎ˃ ˠ˕˖ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ ˋˊ ˒ˑˇ˔ˎ˖˛˃ːːˑˆˑ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓˃Ǥ

put out sth / put sth out Sometimes companies put out press releases that may be “embargoed”.

ʗːˑˆˇ˃ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˋ ˅˞˒˖˔ˍ˃ˡ˕ ˒˓ˈ˔˔Ǧ˓ˈˎˋˊ˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ː˃ˎˑˉˋ˕˟ ˊ˃˒˓ˈ˕Ǥ

root out sth / root sth out She was trying to root out the reason for his absence.

174

ʝː˃ ˒˞˕˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˑ˕˞˔ˍ˃˕˟ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋː˞ ˈˆˑ ˑ˕˔˖˕˔˕˅ˋˢǤ

20. MASS MEDIA

sound out sb / sound sb out I would sound specialist out before making a decision if I  were you.

ʜ˃ ˕˅ˑˈˏ ˏˈ˔˕ˈǡ ˢ ˄˞ ˓˃˔˔˒˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ˔˒ˈ˙ˋ˃ˎˋ˔˕ˑ˅ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˕ˈˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈǤ

stake out sth ȋsb) / stake out sth ȋsb) The police has been staking out his house.

ʞˑˎˋ˙ˋˢ ˅ˈˇˈ˕ ː˃˄ˎˡˇˈːˋˈ ˊ˃ ˈˆˑ ˇˑˏˑˏǤ

wise sb up to sth My lawyer wised me up to my ex-wife’s plans.

ʛˑˌ ˃ˇ˅ˑˍ˃˕ ˓˃˔˔ˍ˃ˊ˃ˎ ˏːˈ ˑ ˒ˎ˃ː˃˘ ˏˑˈˌ ˄˞˅˛ˈˌ ˉˈː˞Ǥ

worm sth out of sb She managed to worm some facts out of the secretary.

ʔˌ ˖ˇ˃ˎˑ˔˟ ˅˞˅ˈˇ˃˕˟ ˖ ˔ˈˍǦ ˓ˈ˕˃˓ˢ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˗˃ˍ˕ˑ˅Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʑ˒ˋ˛ˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˡ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ˑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˏˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˏˋǤ ______________________

a. references b. information c. facts

2.

______________________

a. a story b. an excuse c. news

3.

______________________

a. information b. an idea c. gossip

1.

175

PHRASAL VERBS ______________________

a. a press release b. a report c. a warning

______________________

a. a witness b. a scoop c. news

______________________

a. opinions b. experts c. government

7.

______________________

a. a building b. a territory c. an ex-convict

8.

______________________

a. the truth b. information c. details

4.

5.

6.

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ˅ː˖ˉːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ 1. After investigating his data, we found that some of his claims did not _______. 2. I guess Roger has just _______ ȋit) to illustrate his point. 3. Inform me if anyone tries to _______ ȋthis information) of you. 4. Lucy enjoys _______ celebrity gossip. 5. Our bank guarantees that none of your credit card information will _______. 6. Our reporters have _______ some interesting information on corruption. 7. Our video crews and photographers _______ the notorious night club every night.

176

20. MASS MEDIA 8. We are holding a staff meeting to _______ the opinions and mood of the workers. 9. We want to _______ȋour readers) the deceptive advertising schemes. 10. You can get a freelance job by reading the ads some companies _______.

h౮IIIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. Additional police were called in to watch secretly the abandoned warehouse. 2. I got lots of tips on home repairs from the magazine. 3. I think Neil invented the whole story to get out of trouble. 4. I’ve found some hot news about our local football team. 5. Mr Crawford advised me to find out what you think about our plan. 6. The text of the agreement became known to the press. 7. They issued a press release that stirred public opinion. 8. Though it was hard, but I succeeded in obtaining a few details from Nick. 9. We must inform the consumers about the danger of GM products. 10. You’ve got to make sure that the facts are true before you share them with other people.

h౮IVǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. After the accident the police handed a warning out to the local residents. 2. He’s good at digging out juicy scoop. 3. I just want to sound you off about vacancies. 4. I went to Aunt Betty hoping to peck up some gossip about our relatives.

177

PHRASAL VERBS 5. More details about the coup are now beginning to drain out. 6. My lawyer wised me up about all the pitfalls of the loan contract. 7. The police officers staked down the address together with the FBI agents. 8. They wouldn’t tell me anything, but I did snake some information out of them. 9. Why are you always making out stories about Mandy? 10. You should go to the library and check in the dates.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʙ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˠ˕˃ ːˑ˅ˑ˔˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˔ˑ˚ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˅ ˆ˃ˊˈ˕˞ǡ ˒ˑˍˎˑːːˋˍˋ ː˃˚˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˈˇˋ˕˟ ˊ˃ ˏˑˋˏ ˇˑˏˑˏǤ ʹǤ ʝ˕ˍ˖ˇ˃ ˕˞ ˖ˊː˃ˎ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ ˑ ˔ˎˋˢːˋˋ ˄˃ːˍˑ˅ǫ ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˅˔ˈ ˠ˕ˑ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˍ˕ˑǦ˕ˑ ˅˞ˇ˖ˏ˃ˎ. ͵Ǥ ʞˈ˓ˈˇ ˕ˈˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˏ˞ ˅˞˒˖˔˕ˋˏ ˒˓ˈ˔˔ ˓ˈˎˋˊǡ ˇ˃˅˃ˌ˕ˈ ˈ˜ˈ ˓˃ˊ ˒˓ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋˏ ˅˔ˈ ˙ˋ˗˓˞Ǥ ͶǤ ʞ˓ˈˇ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕ˈˎˢˏ ˒˓ˈ˔˔˞ ː˃ˍˑːˈ˙Ǧ˕ˑ ˖ˇ˃ˎˑ˔˟ ː˃ˌ˕ˋ ˇ˅˖˘ ˑ˚ˈ˅ˋˇ˙ˈ˅ ˃˅˃˓ˋˋǤ ͷǤ ʠˈˍ˓ˈ˕˃˓˛˃ ˅˅ˈˎ˃ ˏˈːˢ ˅ ˍ˖˓˔ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈˇːˋ˘ ˔ˑ˄˞˕ˋˌ ˅  ˑ˗ˋ˔ˈǤ ͸Ǥ ʡ˞ ˏˑˉˈ˛˟ ˓˃˔˔˒˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˏˈːˈˇˉˈ˓˃ ˒ˑ ˒ˈ˓˔ˑː˃ˎ˖ ˑ  ːˑ˅˞˘ ː˃ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢ˘ǫ ͹Ǥ ʢ ˏˈːˢ ˖˛ˎˑ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˚˃˔ˑ˅ ː˃ ˕ˑǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˅˞˅ˈˇ˃˕˟ ˖ ʟˈˌ˚ˈˎ ˅˔ˈ ˒ˑˇ˓ˑ˄ːˑ˔˕ˋ ˔ˍ˃ːˇ˃ˎ˃Ǥ

KEYS h I. 1 2

178

to check out to make up

3 4

to pick up to put out

20. MASS MEDIA 5 6

to root out to sound out

7 8

to stake out to worm out

h II. 1

check out

2

made it up

3

worm this information out

4

picking up

5

leak out

6

rooted out

7

stake out

8

sound out

9

wise up our readers to

10

put out

h III. 1. Additional police were called in to stake out the abandoned warehouse. 2. I picked up lots of tips on home repairs from the magazine. 3. I think Neil made the whole story up to get out of trouble. 4. I’ve rooted out some hot news about our local football team. 5. Mr Crawford advised me to sound you out on our plan. 6. The text of the agreement leaked out to the press. 7. They put out a press release that stirred public opinion. 8. Though it was hard, but I succeeded in worming a few details out of Nick. 9. We must wise up the consumers to the danger of GM products. 10. You’ve got to check the facts out before you share them with other people.

179

PHRASAL VERBS h IV. 1. After the accident the police put a warning out for the local residents. 2. He’s good at rooting out juicy scoop. 3. I just want to sound you out about vacancies. 4. I went to Aunt Betty hoping to pick up some gossip about our relatives. 5. More details about the coup are now beginning to leak out. 6. My lawyer wised me up to all the pitfalls of the loan contract. 7. The police officers staked out the address together with the FBI agents. 8. They wouldn’t tell me anything, but I did worm some information out of them. 9. Why are you always making up stories about Mandy? 10. You should go to the library and check out the dates.

h V. 1. Hardly had the news leaked out to newspapers when the fans started to stake out my house. 2. Where did you pick out the information about the bank merger? It seems as if someone had made it up. 3. Before we put out the press release let’s check out all the figures once more. 4. The press finally rooted out two eyewitnesses of the accident. 5. The secretary wised me up to the latest developments in the office. 6. Can you sound the HR manager out on the new appointments? 7. It took me several hours to wormall the scandal details out of Rachel.

180

REVISION 16—20

h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞˄˓˃˅ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ 1. The garage light didn’t come on automatically so I had to  … c. switch it on a. switch it over b. switch it off 2. I’ll pull in as soon as I see somewhere … a. to turn b. to park c. to brake 3. The secretary told me to hold on, so I … a. held the line b. held the receiver c. held the phone 4. Jane’s iPad packed up, so she had to … a. unpack it b. fix it c. reset it 5. Kelly is very good at making up stories. She could become … a. a bookmaker b. a make-up artist c. a writer 6. If you’re going to drop a friend of yours off at the airport, you’ll need to have … c. a car a. an airplane b. a parachute 7. If you promise to call someone back, you are going to … a. telephone this person b. email this person c. write to this person 8. If you want to plug in a kettle you need … a. a plug b. a socket c. a wire

181

PHRASAL VERBS 9. If your desktop scanner won’t work, check if it’s properly hooked up to … a. the desk b. the document c. the computer 10. If you need to check out a piece of information, you need to  … b. pay for it c. buy it a. verify it

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Airway passengers are asked to make their cell phones stop working. 2. I’m sorry I forgot to print a copy for you. 3. If this information becomes known to the newspapers, it will cause a scandal. 4. If your fax machine has got jammed and stopped workingǡ pull the jammed paper out it first. 5. More and more people are getting connected to the Internet from their mobile and cell phones. 6. Malware, adware, and spyware can cause your computer to start to work more slowly. 7. The first thing I do when I get to the office in the morning is make the air-conditioner start working. 8. The purpose of our survey is to try to find out how people feel about the problem of global warming. 9. The video card might be a reason why the screen becomes temporarily locked. 10. You can easily schedule your computer to stop operating and restart at a specific time.

182

OFF OFF OUT

UP

ON DOWN

ON

OUT UP DOWN

REVISION 16—20 h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːː˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋˋ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːː˞ˏ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ a. _______ (to stop the vehicle that you are driving)

c. _______ (to drive to a place where you can stop your car) 1. to pull d. _______ (to move to the side of or off the road)

b. _______ (to drive onto a road from another road)

a. _______ (to connect someone to someone else on the telephone)

b. _______ (to issue or broadcast something for people to read or listen to)

c. _______ (to put the telephone receiver back onto its base)

2. to put

b. _______ (to appear on a computer screen)

a. _______ (to start working)

2. to come

a. _______ (to suddenly drive in front of a moving car in a dangerous way)

b. _______ (to interrupt a telephone call by breaking the connection) 2. to cut

183

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ Developments in technology have brought about new forms of crime and abuse. Phone abuse has become a worldwide epidemic. Millions of people suffer from the effects of phone abuse. (1) _______ the phone no one expects to hear words or language of an obscene or indecent character. The only purpose of such calls is annoying people. So, do not talk back to the abuser, just (2) _______ and report the case to the police. Road rage, aggressive behavior exhibited by a driver of a vehicle, may range from verbal insults to deliberately (3) _______ speed, (4) _______, or (5) _______ on other drivers. Road rage is on the increase nowadays. Road police report (6) _______ thousands of people for dangerous driving, speeding, making calls, (7) _______ the Internet or (8) _______ some info while driving, all of which can result in injuries and even deaths. Computer crimes which involve illegal use of information technology can range from simple pranks, such as making funny messages (9) _______ on your computer screen, to illegal alteration of system critical information by means of viruses packing up computers or (10) _______ important data.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˊ˃ ˓˖ˎˈˏǡ ˢ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚˃ˡ ˏˑ˄ˋˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑːǤ ʹǤ ʙ˔ˈ˓ˑˍ˔ˊ˃ˈˎˑǡˍˑˆˇ˃ˢˇˈˎ˃ˎ˃ˍˑ˒ˋˋ˒ˑ˅ˈ˔˕ˍˋ˔ˑ˄˓˃ːˋˢǤ ʮ ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎ˃ ˍ˔ˈ˓ˑˍ˔ǡ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞ˎ˃ ˍˑ˓˒˖˔ ˋ ˇˑ˔˕˃ˎ˃ ˄˖ˏ˃ˆ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˃ˢ ˅ ːˈˏ ˊ˃˔˕˓ˢˎ˃Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʡˈ˒ˈ˓˟ǡˍˑˆˇ˃ː˃˖ˎˋ˙ˈ˔˕ˑˋ˕˕˃ˍ˃ˢˉ˃˓˃ǡˏˑˌˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚˃ˈ˕˔ˢ. ͶǤ ʮ˅˔ˈ˖˕˓ˑ˒˞˕˃ˡ˔˟ˇˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢ˅˔ˎ˖ˉ˄˖˒ˑˇˇˈ˓ˉˍˋ ˍˎˋˈː˕ˑ˅ǡ ːˑ ˎˋːˋˢ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˃Ǥ ͷǤ ʮ ˔ˎˈˇˋˎ ˊ˃ ˇˑˏˑˏ ˃ˍ˕ˈ˓˃ ˅˔ˡ ːˑ˚˟ǡ ː˃ˇˈˢ˔˟ ˔ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˔ːˋˏˍˑ˅Ǥ ʜˑ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˑː ˒ˑˢ˅ˋˎ˔ˢ ˒ˑˇ ˖˕˓ˑǡ ˑˍ˃ˊ˃ˎˑ˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˏˑˌ ˗ˑ˕ˑ˃˒˒˃˓˃˕ ˔ˎˑˏ˃ˎ˔ˢ.

184

REVISION 16—20 ͸Ǥ ʮ ˖ˉˈ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˎ˔ˢ ˔˝ˈ˘˃˕˟ ː˃ ˑ˄ˑ˚ˋː˖ ˋ ˅˞˔˃ˇˋ˕˟ ˒˃˓ːˢǡ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅˖ˡ˜ˈˆˑ ˃˅˕ˑ˔˕ˑ˒ˑˏǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˍ˃ˍˑˌǦ˕ˑ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˈˌ˔ˍˋˌ˒˓ˑ˔ˋˆː˃ˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃ˎˏːˈǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ˢˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖.

KEYS h I. ͳ Ȅ ˔ 2—b 3—a 4—b ͷ Ȅ ˔

͸ Ȅ ˔ 7—a 8—b ͻ Ȅ ˔ 10 — a

h II. 1. Airway passengers are asked to switch off their cell phones. 2. I’m sorry I forgot to run off a copy for you. 3. If this information leaks out to the newspapers, it will cause a scandal. 4. If your fax machine has seized upǡ pull the jammed paper out it first. 5. More and more people are going on the Internet from their mobile and cell phones. 6. Malware, adware, and spyware can cause your computer to slow down. 7. The first thing I do when I get to the office in the morning is turn on the air-conditioner. 8. The purpose of our survey is to sound out how people feel about the problem of global warming. 9. The video card might be a reason why the screen freezes up. 10. You can easily schedule your computer to shut down and restart at a specific time.

185

PHRASAL VERBS h III. 1. 2. 3. 4.

to to to to

pull put come cut

a. a. a. a.

up through on in

b. b. b. b.

out out up off

c. in c. down

d. over

h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

picking up ring off picking up pulling up cutting in

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

flagging down going on googling out come up wiping out

h V. 1. I always switch off my mobile phone while driving. 2. The photocopier seized up when I was running off copies of the meeting agenda. I switched it off and opened up the case to pull out the jammed paper. 3. Now that the weather is so hot, my computer keeps shutting down. 4. I’ve been trying to get through to the customer helpline all morning, but the line is busy. 5. I had been staking out the actor’s house all night hoping to take some pics. But when he showed up in the morning I found out that my camera had packed up. 6. I was about to pull over to drop off the hitchhiker, when a police officer flagged me down.

186

21. WEATHER

We had made a camping reservation at Yellowstone National Park well in advance and were looking forward to a week of exciting outdoor family activities when the rain set in1. We decided not to cancel hoping that it would brighten up2. But it never did. When we arrived at our campground the weather was still awful and the sun was blotted out3. All activities were rained off4 most days and we had to stay inside the tent listening to the rain beating down5 against the roof. Then one day it seemed to us that the storm had blown over6. The sun broke through7 the clouds and it even warmed up8 a little. So we decided to take a walk to a beautiful alpine lake that was close to our campground. But hardly had we set out9 when the rain came on10 again and the wind even picked up11. It was the last straw. We packed up our things and left. No more camping for me! 1

set in ˖˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ˄˞˚ːˑ ˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ) 2 brighten up ˒˓ˑˢ˔ːˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ) 3 blot out ˊ˃ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˕˖˚˃˘) 4 be rained off ˑ˕ˏˈːˋ˕˟ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˇˑˉˇˢ 5 beat down ˎˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˇˑˉˇˈ) 6 blow over ˏˋːˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˆ˓ˑˊˈ) 7 break through ˒˓ˑ˄ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˞ˆˎˢː˖˕˟ ȋˑ ˔ˑˎː˙ˈ) 8 warm up ˕ˈ˒ˎˈ˕˟ǡ ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˕ˈ˒ˎˈˈ ȋˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ)

187

PHRASAL VERBS 9

set out ˔ˏǤ ʹǤ Travel; p. 20 10 come on ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟˔ˢ 11 pick up ˖˔ˋˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˇˑˉˇˈǡ ˅ˈ˕˓ˈ)

EXTRA EXAMPLES beat down Hardly had I come home when the rain began to beat down.

ʜˈ ˖˔˒ˈˎ ˢ ˊ˃ˌ˕ˋ ˅ ˇˑˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˒ˑˎˋˎ ˇˑˉˇ˟.

blot sth out Dark clouds were blotting out the sun.

ʡˈˏː˞ˈ ˕˖˚ˋ ˊ˃ˍ˓˞˅˃ˎˋ ˔ˑˎː˙ˈǤ

blow over I hope the storm will soon blow over.

ʜ˃ˇˈˡ˔˟ǡ ˆ˓ˑˊ˃ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ ˒˓ˑˌˇˈ˕.

brighten up In the evening it brightened up.

ʑˈ˚ˈ˓ˑˏ ˒ˑˆˑˇ˃ ˒˓ˑˢ˔ːˋˎ˃˔˟.

break through / break through sth The sun broke through after two weeks of rain.

ʞˑ˔ˎˈ ˇ˅˖˘ ːˈˇˈˎ˟ ːˈ˒˓ˈǦ ˓˞˅ː˞˘ ˇˑˉˇˈˌ ˅˞ˆˎˢː˖ˎˑ ˔ˑˎː˙ˈǤ

come on I think the rain is coming on.

ʛːˈ ˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ː˃˚ˋː˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˇˑˉˇ˟Ǥ

pick up It seems as if the wind has picked up.

188

ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˅ˈ˕ˈ˓ ˖˔ˋˎˋˎ˔ˢ.

21. WEATHER

be rained off Two football matches were rained off this weekend.

ʑ ˠ˕ˋ ˅˞˘ˑˇː˞ˈ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˇˑˉˇˢ ˄˞ˎˋ ˑ˕ˏˈːˈː˞ ˇ˅˃ ˗˖˕˄ˑˎ˟ː˞˘ ˏ˃˕˚˃Ǥ

set in It looks as if the rain has set in.

ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˖˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˇˑǦ ˉˇˎˋ˅˃ˢ ˒ˑˆˑˇ˃Ǥ

warm up Once the weather warms upǡ we can have parties outdoors.

ʙ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˒ˑ˕ˈ˒ˎˈˈ˕ǡ ˏ˞ ˔ˏˑˉˈˏ ˖˔˕˓˃ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˅ˈ˚ˈǦ ˓ˋːˍˋ ː˃ ˖ˎˋ˙ˈǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǤ 1. A solar eclipse happens when the moon passes between the Earth and the sunǡ temporarily blotting _______ the sun. a. down b. out c. off d. in 2. As the days finally warmed _______ǡ we started eating outside more. a. down b. in c. on d. up 3. I’m worried she won’t be well again before frost sets _______. a. on b. in c. out d. down 4. In the morning we woke up to a snow storm that had come _______ before dawn. a. on b. out c. in d. forth 5. It brightened _______ a bit in the evening. a. off b. at c. up d. down

189

PHRASAL VERBS 6. The fan shop closed early as the match with Wolverhampton was rained _______. a. off b. out c. from d. by 7. The rain beat _______ so hard that we got wet in no time. a. on b. in c. under d. down 8. The sun breaking _______ the storm clouds added mystery to the stormy sunset. a. from b. behind c. through d. across 9. The wind was picking _______ driving heavy clouds across the sky. a. up b. on c. in d. at 10. We decided to set out because I thought that the snowstorm would soon blow _______. a. out b. in c. over d. at

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˊ˃ˏˈːˋ˅ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. A dense haze was hiding everything — seaǡskyǡand mountain. 2. A tropical rain finishes as unexpectedly as it starts leaving you soaking wet. 3. It was a foggy morning but at around lunch time the sun appeared from behind the clouds. 4. It was an awful morningǡwith a heavy downpour and the wind becoming stronger and stronger with every minute and howling like a wolf. 5. The snow storm raged all afternoon but by evening it had gone away. 6. The weather forecast says that the weather would become sunny towards evening. 7. We had planned to have a picnic in the countryǡbut it was cancelled because of rain. 8. Winter came early that year and it hadn’t become warmer until April.

190

21. WEATHER h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈǦ ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. sets in a. winter b. rain c. sunshine 2. brightens up a. wind b. day c. weather 3. breaks through a. sun b. wind c. moon

4. blows over a. weather b. snowstorm c. rain 5. beats down a. rain b. hail c. day 6. warms up a. weather b. rainfall c. day

h౮IVǤ ʗ˔˒˓˃˅˟˕ˈ ˑ˛ˋ˄ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘Ǥ 1. After some cloudy daysǡ the sun came through and the weather lightened up. 2. As darkness set offǡ it became quite chilly outside. 3. It usually takes a long time for the sea to warm down in May. 4. The rain had gone on just before lunchtimeǡ and as it was still raining downǡ we decided to eat in. 5. The snowstorm has lasted for a long timeǡ let’s hope it will have blow off by tomorrow morning. 6. The wind perched up as a dark cloud blotted away the sun. 7. We didn’t have anything to do as most of the festival events had been rained away.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ Ȅʡ˞ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˈ˛˟˔ˢ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈ˕˟ ˗˖˕˄ˑˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˏ˃˕˚ǫ Ȅʜˈ˕ǡ ˈˆˑ ˑ˕ˏˈːˋˎˋ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˇˑˉˇˢ. ʹǤ ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˑ˔˕˃ːˈˏ˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃ Ȅ ˇˑˉˇ˟ǡ ˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˊ˃˓ˢˇˋˎ ː˃ ˙ˈˎ˞ˌ ˇˈː˟Ǥ

191

PHRASAL VERBS ͵Ǥ ʓˉˈˌː ˊ˃˔ː˖ˎ˃ ˒ˑˇ ˛˖ˏ ˎ˟ˡ˜ˈˆˑ ː˃ ˖ˎˋ˙ˈ ˇˑˉˇˢǤ ͶǤ ʔˇ˅˃ˏ˞ ˖˔˒ˈˎˋ ː˃ˌ˕ˋ ˖˄ˈˉˋ˜ˈǡˍ˃ˍː˃ˎˈ˕ˈˎ˃ ˔˕˓˃˛Ǧ ː˃ˢ ˄˖˓ˢǤ ͷǤ ʙ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˆ˓ˑˊ˃ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋˎ˃˔˟ǡ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˕˖˚ ˅˞ˆˎˢː˖ˎˑ ˔ˑˎː˙ˈǡ ˋ ˒ˑˆˑˇ˃ ˒˓ˑˢ˔ːˋˎ˃˔˟. ͸Ǥ ʡˈˏː˃ˢ˕˖˚˃ˊ˃ˍ˓˞ˎ˃˔ˑˎː˙ˈǡˋ˔ːˑ˅˃˔˕˃ˎˑ˒˓ˑ˘ˎ˃ˇːˑǤ

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

b d b a

5 6 7 8

— — — —

c a d c

9—a 10 — c

h II. 1. A dense haze was blotting out everything — seaǡskyǡand mountain. 2. A tropical rain finishes as unexpectedly as it comes on leaving you soaking wet. 3. It was a foggy morning but at around lunch time the sun broke through. 4. It was an awful morningǡ with the rain beating down and the wind picking up with every minute and howling like a  wolf. 5. The snow storm raged all afternoon but by evening it had blown over. 6. The weather forecast says that the weather would brighten up towards evening. 7. We had planned to have a picnic in the countryǡbut it was rained off. 8. Winter set in early that year and it hadn’t warmed up until April.

192

21. WEATHER h III. 1—c 2—a

3—b 4—a

5—c 6—b

h IV. 1. After some cloudy daysǡ the sun broke through and the weather brightened up. 2. As darkness set inǡ it became quite chilly outside. 3. It usually takes a long time for the sea to warm upin May. 4. The rain had come on just before lunchtimeǡ and as it was still beating downǡ we decided to eat in. 5. The snowstorm has lasted for a long timeǡ let’s hope it will have blow over by tomorrow morning. 6. The wind picked up as a dark cloud blotted out the sun. 7. We didn’t have anything to do as most of the festival events had been rained off.

h V. 1. Are you going to watch the football match todayǫǦNo. It’s been rained off. 2. Let’s stay home — the rain seems to have set in for the day. 3. Jane fell asleep to the sound of the rain beating down outside. 4. Hardly had we found a shelter when a terrible storm came on. 5. As soon as the storm blew overǡ the sun broke through the clouds and the weather brightened up. 6. A dark cloud blotted out the sun and it became chilly again.

193

22. MEMORY It’s amazing how many memories we store up1 over the years. Most of us don’t remember what we had for dinner in 2010 in the evening of May 26thǡ but some longerǦterm memories can stick with2 us forever because they somehow have tugged at3 our heart and emotions. You look at on old photo and your thoughts flash back4 to the day when your child made his or her first step. You hear a school bell ring and it summons up5 lots of happy memoriesǡ like your promǡ or stirs up6 some sad onesǡ like the quarrel with your best friend. And a chance radio tune calls up7 the summer when you met your future spouse. Bad memories hurt us while good ones make us happy. So it’s quite natural that we tend to block out8 sad memories in order not to let them eat away at9 us and cherish the good ones. But happy or sadǡ they all come back10 one day. 1

store up ː˃ˍ˃˒ˎˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟ 2 stick with ːˈ ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ːˈ ˒ˑˍˋˇ˃˕˟Ǣ ˑ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˍˈˏǦ ˎˋ˄ˑ 3 tug at ˕˓ˑː˖˕˟ ȋ˚˟˩Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˔ˈ˓ˇ˙ˈ) 4 flash back ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟˔ˢ ˍ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ˖ 5 summon up ˅˞ˊ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟ ˅ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ 6 stir up ˅ˑ˓ˑ˛ˋ˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟ ˅ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ 7 call up ː˃˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˄˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢ 8 block out ˄ˎˑˍˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˕ˈ˓ˈ˕˟ ˋˊ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ

194

22. MEMORY 9

eat away at ˒ˑ˔˕ˈ˒ˈːːˑ ˓˃ˊ˝ˈˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊ˓˖˛˃˕˟ǡ ˆˎˑˇ˃˕˟ 10 come back ˅˔˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ː˃ ˒˃ˏˢ˕˟

EXTRA EXAMPLES block out sth / block sth out It was a memory so terrible that Liz tried to block it out.

ʑˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˖ˉ˃˔ː˞ˏǡ ˚˕ˑ ʚˋˊ ˒ˑ˔˕˃˓˃Ǧ ˎ˃˔˟ ˒˓ˑˆː˃˕˟ ˈˆˑ ˋˊ ˒˃Ǧ ˏˢ˕ˋ.

call sth up The smell of tangerines calls up New Year’s Day.

ʖ˃˒˃˘ ˏ˃ːˇ˃˓ˋːˑ˅ ː˃˒ˑˏˋː˃ˈ˕ ˏːˈ ˑ ʜˑ˅ˑˏ ˆˑˇˈǤ

come back to sb. His name won’t come back to me.

ʮ ːˋˍ˃ˍ ːˈ ˏˑˆ˖ ˅˔˒ˑˏːˋ˕˟ ˈˆˑ ˋˏˢǤ

eat away at sb He looked dispirited as if something was eating away at him.

ʝː ˅˞ˆˎˢˇˈˎ ˖ˇ˓˖˚ˈːː˞ˏǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˄˖ˇ˕ˑ ˈˆˑ ˆˎˑˇ˃ˎˑ ˍ˃Ǧ ˍˑˈǦ˕ˑ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˈǤ

flash back to sb / sth Her mind flashed back to her last trip to Paris.

ʔˌ ˅˔˒ˑˏːˋˎ˃˔˟ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈˇːˢˢ ˒ˑˈˊˇˍ˃ ˅ ʞ˃˓ˋˉǤ

stick with sb This incident will stick with me forever.

ʬ˕ˑ ˔ˑ˄˞˕ˋˈ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˔ˑ˕˓ˈ˕˔ˢ ˋˊ ˏˑˈˌ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ.

stir sth up Visiting my hometown stirred up carefree times of my childhood.

ʞ˓ˋˈˊˇ ˅ ˓ˑˇːˑˌ ˆˑ˓ˑˇ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˋˎ˅˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋˏˑˈ˄ˈˊˊ˃Ǧ ˄ˑ˕ːˑˈ ˇˈ˕˔˕˅ˑǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS

store up sth / store sth up We store up loads of memories over life.

ʖ˃˔˅ˑˡˉˋˊː˟ˏ˞ː˃ˍ˃˒ˎˋ˅˃ˈˏˏːˑˉˈ˔˕˅ˑ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃Ǧ ːˋˌǤ

summon up sth The most ordinary events can summon up old memories.

ʠ˃ˏ˞ˈ ˑ˄˞˚ː˞ˈ ˔ˑ˄˞˕ˋˢ ˏˑˆ˖˕˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˋ˕˟˅˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ ˔˕˃˓˞ˈ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢǤ

tug at sb’s heart This is a song that really tugs at your heart.

ʬ˕˃ ˒ˈ˔ːˢ ˇˈˌ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˕˓ˑˆ˃ˈ˕ ˔ˈ˓ˇ˙ˈǤ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑǦ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Memory is the quality of the mind to remember conscious processesǡ and reproduce them later. 2. My mind suddenly remembered the day we met. 3. Seeing Nicole in that white dress made me remember my wedding ceremony. 4. The lines Rita had forgotten wouldn’t return to her memory. 5. The photographs evoked some unpleasant memories. 6. Visiting my old school brought into the mind memories of my childhood.

UP BACK TO UP BACK TO UP UP

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉǦ ːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǡˋˏˈˡ˜ˋˏˋ˕ˑˉˈˊː˃˚ˈːˋˈǡ˚˕ˑˋ˗˓˃Ǧ ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘Ǥ 196

22. MEMORY accumulate evoke linger recall

destroy forget move revive

Text 1 Among all the memories that I (1) _______ (have stored up) over my ͺͲǦyearǦlong lifeǡ childhood memories are those that (2)  _______ (tug at) my heart most. I have few things left that (3) _______ (summon up) those memoriesǡ just a couple of family photos and an old teddy bear. Sometimes I just wish I could visit my childhood to convince myself that it had been real.

Text 2 One of the best childhood memories that (4) _______ (will stick with me) forever is that of my father taking me to the seashore. We swan a lot and he taught me how to dig for clams. It was fun. Every time I happen to be on the beach my mind (5) _______ (flashes back to) that day.

Text 3 My childhood memories (6) _______ (had been eating away at) me till I (7) _______ (blocked out) those things. My father never beat me but he had certain limitations that reduced my childhood to misery. Every time I hear his voice on the phoneǡ it (8) _______ (stirs up) all the distress of my childhood.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ atǡ awayǡ backǡ outǡ up ˋˎˋ with. 1. Even if you try to block _______ certain memories they are still damaging. 2. Fiona’s memory flashed _______ to the last time she saw her sister alive. 3. I can’t remember her phone number at the momentǡ but it’ll come _______ to me. 4. Kenneth summoned _______ teenǦage memories and his interest in rap music.

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PHRASAL VERBS 5. The happy childhood memories stick _______ us through all our difficulties. 6. The sight of the kids playing in the yard tugged _______ Patty’s heart. 7. The song stirred _______ her romantic memories. 8. The story has called _______ an incident in my youth. 9. The weight of my betrayal sits heavy on my heart and it’s been eating _______ at me for so long. 10. We should be conscious of the fact that our emotions are stored _______ in our mind.

h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕ǡ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˌ˒ˑ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ˍ˒˓ˈˇǦ ˎˑˉˈːˋˡǤ 1. As I walked the familiar streets that nightǡ the impressions / memories of that day came back. 2. Dieting always summons up images/౮portraits of your favourite dishes. 3. I could see that happiness/jealousy was eating away at him. 4. It was an event that has stuck with me at once౮/for ages. 5. Seeing the little boy/elderly lady crying over the broken toy tugged at my heart. 6. She stores up other people’s achievements/mistakes and uses them against such people later. 7. The incident was so exciting/horrible that the child’s memory has blocked it out. 8. The sight of him called up sad memories of her past/future. 9. The sight of the old park stirred childhood memories / mementos. 10. Tina’s brain / mind flashed back to her prom.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ʮ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˒˞˕˃ˎ˔ˢ ˔˕ˈ˓ˈ˕˟ ˋˊ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢ ˑ  ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏǤ ʙ˃ˍˋˏˋ ˄˞ ˒˓ˋˢ˕ː˞ˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˈːː˞ˏˋ ˑː ːˋ ˄˞ˎˋǡ ˑːˋ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇˢ˕ ˍˑ ˏːˈǡ ˕˓ˑˆ˃ˡ˕ ˏˑˈ ˔ˈ˓ˇ˙ˈ ˋˎˋ ˆˎˑˉ˖˕ ˏˈːˢǤ ʝːˋ ːˈ ˔˕ˋ˓˃ˡ˕˔ˢ ˋˊ ˏˑˈˌ ˒˃Ǧ

198

22. MEMORY ˏˢ˕ˋ ˋ ˒ˑˇˇˈ˓ˉˋ˅˃ˡ˕ ˏˈːˢǤ ʑˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢ ˑ ˏˑˈˌ ˒ˈ˓˅ˑˌ ˎˡ˄˅ˋˋˑ˒ˈ˓˅ˑˏ˒˓ˈˇ˃˕ˈˎ˟˔˕˅ˈ˅ˏˈ˔˕ˈ˔ˇ˓˖ˆˋˏˋ˔˚˃˔˕ˎˋǦ ˅˞ˏˋˋˆˑ˓˟ˍˋˏˋ˔ˑ˄˞˕ˋˢˏˋˏˑˈˌˉˋˊːˋː˃ˇˈˉːˑ˘˓˃ːˢ˕˔ˢ ˅ ˏˑˈˌ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋǤ

KEYS h I. 1. Memory is the quality of the mind to store up conscious processesǡ and reproduce them later. 2. My mind flashed back to the day we met. 3. Seeing Nicole in that white dress called up my wedding ceremony. 4. The lines Rita had forgotten wouldn’t come back to her. 5. The photographs stirred up some unpleasant memories. 6. Visiting my old school summoned up memories of my childhood.

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

have accumulated move revive will linger

recalls had been destroying forgot evokes

h III. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

out back back up

5 6 7 8

— — — —

with at up up

9 — away 10 — up

h IV. 1. memories 2. images

3. jealousy 4. for ages

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PHRASAL VERBS 5. little boy 6. mistakes 7. horrible

8. past 9. memories 10. mind

h V. I’ve never tried to block out the memories of the past. Pleasant or painfulǡ they keep coming back to meǡ tugging at my heart or eating away at me. They stick with me and keep me alive. Memories of my first love and first betrayal along with other happy or bitter experiences are safely stored up in my mind.

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23. DESCRIBING PLACES Though the picturesque village of Grimentz stretches out1 only 300 meters at the end of the Valaisian Val d’Anniviersǡit’s steeped in2 history and traditions. Grimentz has a population of only about 400 peopleǡbut winter and summerǡthe village is bursting with3 tourists who come there to soak up4 the atmosphere of a veritable pictureǦbook village and participate in numerous folk events. A tour of the village reveals its harmonious townscape: modern chalet hotels blend in5 well with ancient houses and don’t encroach on6 them. Innumerable window boxes with fiery red geraniums decorate house windows and set off7 the uniqueness of each building. The place is dotted with8 pleasant cafes where you can taste the famous glacier wine and rye bread from the old village bakery. 100 kilometers of biking and hiking trails branch off9 the village and wind through the natural landscape of the valley. All of these set Grimentz apart10 from other similar historic places and make it a popular tourist attraction. 1

stretch out ˋˏˈ˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˕ˢˉˈːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˋ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˔˕˓˃ːǦ ˔˕˅ˈ) 2 be steeped in ˒ˑˎː˞ˌǡ ˒˓ˑːˋˊ˃ːː˞ˌ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ ȋˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˈˌǡ ˕˓˃ˇˋ˙ˋˢˏˋ) 3 be bursting with ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟ǡ ˄˞˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˈːː˞ˏ 4 soak up ˅˒ˋ˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟

201

PHRASAL VERBS 5

blend in ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˆ˃˓ˏˑːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ 6 encroach on ː˃˓˖˛˃˕˟Ǣ ˕ˈ˔ːˋ˕˟ǡ ː˃˒ˑˎˊ˃˕˟ 7 set off ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˅˞ˆˑˇːˑ ˒ˑˇ˚˩˓ˍˋ˅˃˕˟ 8 be dotted with ˖˔ˈˢːː˞ˌ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˒ˑˎː˞ˌ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 9 branch off ˑ˕ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢǢ ˑ˕˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˑ˕ ˆˎ˃˅ːˑˆˑ ː˃˒˓˃˅ˎˈːˋˢǡ ˑ˕˅ˈ˕˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ 10 set apart ȋ˅˞ˆˑˇːˑȌ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃˕˟ ˑ˕ ˇ˓˖ˆˋ˘

EXTRA EXAMPLES be bursting with sth This street is bursting with cars day and night.

ʬ˕˃ ˖ˎˋ˙˃ ˍ˓˖ˆˎˑ˔˖˕ˑ˚ːˑ ˒ˑˎː˃ ˏ˃˛ˋːǤ

be dotted with sth On Sundays the lake is dotted with boats.

ʞˑ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˔ˈː˟ˢˏ ˑˊˈ˓ˑ ˖˔ˈˢːˑ ˎˑˇˍ˃ˏˋǤ

be steeped in The abbey is steeped in history and legends.

ʬ˕ˑ˕ ˏˑː˃˔˕˞˓˟ ˒˓ˑːˋˊ˃ː ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˈˌ ˋ ˒ˑˎˑː ˎˈˆˈːˇǤ

blend in ȋwith) sth The modern houses blend in well with the surrounding land.

ʜˑ˅˞ˈ ˇˑˏ˃ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˆ˃˓ˏˑːˋ˓˖ˡ˕ ˔ ˑˍ˓˖ˉ˃ˡ˜ˋˏ ˎ˃ːˇ˛˃˗˕ˑˏǤ

branch off Then we took a little path which branched off the main road.

202

ʞˑ˕ˑˏ ˏ˞ ˔˅ˈ˓ː˖ˎˋ ː˃ ˕˓ˑǦ ˒ˋːˍ˖ǡˑ˕˘ˑˇˋ˅˛˖ˡˑ˕ˆˎ˃˅Ǧ ːˑˌ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˋǤ

23. DESCRIBING PLACES

encroach on sth Housing developments continue to encroach on the green belt.

ʜˑ˅ˑ˔˕˓ˑˌˍˋ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃ˡ˕ ː˃˒ˑˎˊ˃˕˟ ː˃ «ˊˈˎˈː˞ˌ ˒ˑˢ˔».

set sb ȋsth) apart / set apart sb ȋsth) The university sets Oxford apart from hundreds of other English towns.

ʢːˋ˅ˈ˓˔ˋ˕ˈ˕ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃ˈ˕ ʝˍǦ ˔˗ˑ˓ˇ ˑ˕ ˔ˑ˕ˈː ˇ˓˖ˆˋ˘ ːˈǦ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋ˘ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋ˘ ˆˑ˓ˑǦ ˇˑ˅Ǥ

set sth off This blouse sets off the blue of her eyes.

ʬ˕˃ ˄ˎ˖ˊˍ˃ ˅˞ˆˑˇːˑ ˒ˑˇ˚ˈ˓ˍˋ˅˃ˈ˕ ˔ˋːˈ˅˖ ˈˈ ˆˎ˃ˊǤ

soak up sth / soak sth up We come here every year to soak up the wonderful atmosphere.

ʛ˞ ˒˓ˋˈˊˉ˃ˈˏ ˔ˡˇ˃ ˍ˃ˉǦ ˇ˞ˌ ˆˑˇǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˅˒ˋ˕˃˕˟ ˅  ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˠ˕˖ ˚˖ˇˈ˔ː˖ˡ ˃˕ˏˑ˔Ǧ ˗ˈ˓˖Ǥ

stretch out This valley stretches out towards the Ural Mountains.

ʬ˕˃ ˇˑˎˋː˃ ˕ˢːˈ˕˔ˢ ˇˑ ʢ˓˃ˎ˟˔ˍˋ˘ ˆˑ˓Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋǦ ˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. Designers want to ensure that the building _______ with the landscape. a. blends in b. is bursting with c. is dotted with

203

PHRASAL VERBS 2. I just enjoyed myself and _______ the atmosphere of the seaside town. a. blended in with b. encroached on c. soaked up 3. In August this seaside town is _______ holidaymakers. a. dotted with b. bursting with c. blending in with 4. Numerous lanes _______ the main street and lead to the coast. a. stretch out b. branch off c. encroach on 5. The day was fine and the lake was _______ sailboats. a. dotted with b. bursting with c. steeped in 6. The deserted beaches _______ as far as the eye can see. a. branch off b. encroach on c. stretch out 7. The haircut _______ her beautiful neck. a. sets apart b. sets off c. soaks up 8. The medieval spirit _______ ȋthis town) from similar landmarks. a. branches off b. sets off c. sets apart 9. They say that some of our household buildings _______ the neighbor’s land. a. encroach on b. blend in with c. soak up 10. Valle Blanche Ski Area is a French resort _______ alpine tradition. a. dotted with b. blending in with c. steeped in

h౮IIǤ ʑ˒ˋ˛ˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑǦ ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˡ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃ːˋˢ ˔ˑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˏˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˏˋǤ 1. ____________________

204

a. tourists b. customers c. visitors

23. DESCRIBING PLACES 2. ____________________

a. history b. tradition c. culture

3. ____________________

a. the atmosphere b. information c. knowledge

4. ____________________

a. the neighbour’s land b. the territory c. the surrounding fields

5. ____________________

a. the surroundings b. the landscape c. the scenery

6. ____________________

a. houses b. cafes c. shops

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ˅ː˖ˉːˑˌ˗ˑ˓ˏˈˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ Our destination is Veliko Turnovoǡ a small city that (1) _______ in the steep valley along the twisting Yantra River. Being the historical capital of the Second Bulgarian Empireǡ the city (2) _______ history and (3) _______ tourists attracted with its unique architecture. Even as an ancient cityǡ Veliko Turnovo has modern shops and hotels that (4) _______ ȋwell) medieval palaces and churches. (5) _______ the romantic atmosphere of the Old Town and Gourko Street with its numerous Revival Period houses. Built steeply above the riverǡit seems as if they (6) _______ each other. The street (7) _______ the main street (8) _______ original barsǡ cafesǡ and eateries. The most glorious historical past in Bulgaria (9) _______ ȋVeliko Turnovo) from other similar cities and makes it a popular tourist destination.

205

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IVǤ ʠˑˈˇˋːˋ˕ˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˑ ˋ ˍˑːˈ˙ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˌǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˎǦ ːˋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǤ 1. Cities continue to encroach … 2. Humans use language which sets them … 3. If you need to make small repairsǡ the patch should blend … 4. On our trip you’ll have enough time to soak … 5. The coastal region around Monemvasia is dotted … 6. The green dress sets … 7. The guide talked about the Castle as a place steeped  … 8. The shops are bursting … 9. The traffic jam stretched … 10. We took a narrow lane which branched  …

a. _______ olive trees. b. _______ for miles in each direction. c. _______ to the left off Cranberry Road. d. _______ from other animals. e. _______ the rest of the wallpaper. f. _______ wildlife habitats. g. _______ the local culture. h. _______ secrets and mystery. i. _______ her long red hair. j. _______ customers during endǦofǦseason sales.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ˅˞˘ˑ˕ˋ˕ˈ˅˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˅˔ˈ˄ˢ˃˕ˏˑ˔˗ˈ˓˖˔˓ˈˇːˈ˅ˈˍˑǦ ˅ˑˌ ʏːˆˎˋˋǡ ˒ˑ˔ˈ˕ˋ˕ˈ ˊ˃ˏˑˍ ʚˋˇ˔ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˌ ˒˓ˑːˋˊ˃ː ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˑˌ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˈˌ ˋ ˕˓˃ˇˋ˙ˋˢˏˋǤ ʹǤ ʖ˃ ˏˑ˔˕ˑˏ ˑ˕ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˋ ˑ˕˅ˈ˕˅ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˕˓ˑ˒ˋːˍ˃ǡ ˅ˈˇ˖˜˃ˢ ˅ ˘ˑˎˏ˞Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʜ˃ ʟˑˉˇˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋː˞ ˒ˑˎː˞ ˈˎˑ˚ː˞˘ ˆˋ˓ˎˢːˇ ˋ  ˋˆ˓˖˛ˈˍǤ ͶǤ ʜˑ˅˞ˌ ˉˋˎˑˌ ˍˑˏ˒ˎˈˍ˔ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˆ˃˓ˏˑːˋ˓˖ˈ˕ ˔ˑ ˔˕ˋǦ ˎˈˏ ˔ˑ˔ˈˇːˋ˘ ˇˑˏˑ˅ ː˃ ˖ˎˋ˙ˈǤ ͷǤ ʟ˃˅ːˋː˃ ˕ˢːˈ˕˔ˢ ˇˑ ˔˃ˏ˞˘ ʢ˓˃ˎ˟˔ˍˋ˘ ˆˑ˓Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʠˍˎˑː˞ ˆˑ˓˞ ˖˔ˈˢː˞ ˏ˃ˎˈː˟ˍˋˏˋ ˉˋ˅ˑ˒ˋ˔ː˞ˏˋ ˇˈǦ ˓ˈ˅˖˛ˍ˃ˏˋǤ

206

23. DESCRIBING PLACES ͹Ǥ ʥˋ˅ˋˎˋˊ˃˙ˋˢ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃ˈ˕ ː˃˔˕˖˒˃˕˟ ː˃ ˊ˃˒ˑ˅ˈˇːˋˍˋǤ ͺǤ ʧ˃˓˗ˋˍ ˒ˑˇ˚ˈ˓ˍˋ˅˃ˈ˕ ˈˈ ˆˑˎ˖˄˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˊ˃Ǥ ͻǤ ʬ˕ˑ˕ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ː ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃ˈ˕ ˋˏˈːːˑ ˕˓˃ˇˋ˙ˋˑːː˃ˢ ˃ːǦ ˆˎˋˌ˔ˍ˃ˢ ˍ˖˘ːˢǤ

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

a c b b

5 6 7 8

— — — —

a c b c

9—a 10 — c

h II. 1. be bursting with 2. be steeped in 3. to soak up

4. to encroach on 5. to blend in with 6. be dotted with

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

stretches out is steeped in is bursting with blend in well with Soak up encroach on branches off dotted with sets Veliko Turnovo apart

h IV. 1 — on — f 2 — apart — d 3 — in with — e

4 — up — g 5 — with — a 6 — off — i

207

PHRASAL VERBS 7 — in — h 8 — with — j

9 — out — b 10 — off — c

h V. 1. If you want to soak up the atmosphere of medieval Englandǡvisit the Leeds Castle which is steeped in English history and traditions. 2. Over the bridge the road branched off to the hills. 3. At Christmas time shops are bursting with Christmas lights and ornaments. 4. The new block of flats blends in well with the style of the other houses in the street. 5. The plain stretches out towards the Ural Mountains. 6. The sides of the mountain are dotted with small picturesque villages. 7. Civilization keeps encroaching on nature reserves. 8. The scarf sets off her blue eyes. 9. It is the traditional British cuisine that sets this restaurant apart.

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24. MONEY MATTERS

Dear Rogerǡ We are just back from our trip to Mexico! It was amazingǡ but set us back1 ̈́ͶǡͲͲͲǨ You knowǡ we had been putting aside2 regularlyǡbut still we had to break into3 our savings. Mexico was full of attractions and we ran through4 some ̈́ͳǡͲͲͲ without noticing it! Those gift shops really ripped us off5! We had to fork out6 for souvenirs for all of Jane’s auntsǡ unclesǡ and cousins! Our days were so packed out that we didn’t have time to shop around7ǡ so all we could do was try and knock off8 a couple of dollars here and there. Jane did really well. I should never have thought that she was so good at bargaining! Anywayǡwe’re a bit hard up now. So I was just wondering if you could lend us some three hundred dollars. We’ll square up9 with you next month. I guess Jane’s would cough up10 if we asked themǡ but I’d rather we didn’t Mel 1

set back ˔˕ˑˋ˕˟ǡ ˑ˄˘ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ 2 put aside ˑ˕ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ˇˈː˟ˆˋ ȋ˓ˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ːˑ) 3 break into ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˕˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ȋˇˈː˟ˆˋǡ ˔˄ˈ˓ˈˉˈːˋˢȌ 4 run through ˒˓ˑˏˑ˕˃˕˟ ȋˇˈː˟ˆˋ) 5 rip off ˊ˃˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˅˞˔ˑˍ˖ˡ ˙ˈː˖ǡ ˑ˄ˇˋ˓˃˕˟ 6 fork out ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ 7 shop around ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟˒ˑˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋː˃ˏȋ˅˒ˑˋ˔ˍ˃˘ː˃ˋˎ˖˚˛ˈˌ˙ˈː˞)

209

PHRASAL VERBS 8

knock off ˔˄˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ ȋ˙ˈː˖) 9 square up ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃˔˔˚ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ 10 cough up ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ

EXTRA EXAMPLES break into sth In order to pay for his mother’s operationǡ he had to break into his savings.

ʓˎˢ ˕ˑˆˑ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑ˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˑ˒ˈ˓˃˙ˋˡ ˏ˃˕ˈ˓ˋǡ ˈˏ˖ ˒˓ˋǦ ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˊ˃ˎˈˊ˕˟ ˅ ˔˅ˑˋ ˔˄ˈ˓ˈˉˈːˋˢ.

cough up Come on! Cough up! It’s your turn to pay.

ʓ˃˅˃ˌǡ ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˅˃ˌ˔ˢ! ʡ˅ˑˢ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇ˟ ˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟Ǥ

fork out sth I had to fork out $500 for a burglar alarm.

ʛːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ͷͲͲ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ ː˃ ˑ˘˓˃ːː˖ˡ ˔ˋˆː˃ˎˋˊ˃˙ˋˡǤ

knock off sth / knock sth off If you take both cupsǡ I’ll knock $3 off.

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅˞ ˅ˑˊ˟ˏˈ˕ˈ ˑ˄ˈ ˚˃˛Ǧ ˍˋǡ ˢ ˔ˍˋː˖ ˕˓ˋ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓˃Ǥ

put aside sth / put sth aside I’m trying to put a little aside each month for a new coat.

ʙ˃ˉˇ˞ˌ ˏˈ˔ˢ˙ ˢ ˔˕˃˓˃ˡ˔˟ ˒ˑːˈˏːˑˆ˖ ˑ˕ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ː˃ ːˑ˅˖ˡ ˛˖˄˖Ǥ

rip sb off / rip off sb The auto repair shop really ripped me off.

210

ʑ˃˅˕ˑˏ˃˔˕ˈ˓˔ˍˑˌˏˈːˢ˒˓˃ˍǦ ˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋ ˑ˄ˑ˄˓˃ˎˋ.

24. MONEY MATTERS

run through sth Grace ran through a lot of money last week.

ʜ˃ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˌ ːˈˇˈˎˈ ʒ˓ˈˌ˔ ˒ˑ˕˓˃˕ˋˎ˃ ˍ˖˚˖ ˇˈːˈˆǤ

set sb back The new dress set me back $200!

ʜˑ˅ˑˈ ˒ˎ˃˕˟ˈ ˑ˄ˑ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˏːˈ ˅ ˇ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅Ǩ

shop around If you had shopped around you could have got the phone a lot cheaper.

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˄˞ ˕˞ ˔ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ˒ˑ˘ˑˇˋˎ ˒ˑ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋː˃ˏǡ ˕ˑ ˏˑˆ ˄˞ ˍ˖˒ˋ˕˟ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː ˆˑ˓˃ˊˇˑ ˇˈ˛ˈ˅ˎˈǤ

square up I’ll square up when I get my next pay cheque.

ʮ ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˚˖˔˟ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˒ˑˎ˖˚˖ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜˖ˡ ˊ˃˓˒ˎ˃˕˖Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑǦ ˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. break into 2. cough up

3. 4. 5. 6.

fork out knock off put aside square up

7. rip off 8. run through

a. spend a lot of money on something b. try to find the best priceǡ qualityǡ dealǡ etc. by comparing what various different shops or companies are offering c. save money regularly d. cost someone a lot of money e. use up or spend money carelessly f. pay money for somethingǡ especially when you don’t want to g. start to use money that you have been saving h. pay someone money that you owe them

211

PHRASAL VERBS 9. set back

10. shop around

i. cheat someone by making them pay much more than the usual price for something j. reduce a price by a particular amount

h౮IIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃Ǧ ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. break into a. purse b. cash c. savings

3. rip off a. credit cards b. customers c. investments

2. cough up a. money b. price c. costs

4. run through a. wages b. income c. $500

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ ˋˎˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˖ǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˅ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈˌ ˔˕ˈ˒ˈːˋ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˕ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːǦ ː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏǤ 1. Can you square up with the waiterǫ a. pay the bill b. cash the bill c. take the bill 2. I prefer not to break into my savings unless I have to. a. stop to use b. start to use c. have 3. If you shop around you can get the laptop a lot cheaper. a. compare the quality of goods in several shops b. compare the range of goods in several shops c. compare the price in several shops 4. She needs a loan as she has run through a lot of money lately. a. earned b. wasted c. made 5. Some taxi drivers try to rip tourists off. a. overcharge b. undercharge c. give a fair price

212

24. MONEY MATTERS 6. This fur coat set me back over £2000. a. earned b. brought c. cost 7. Wholesalers usually knock something off the price if the buyer collects the merchandise himself. a. reduce the price b. increase the price c. freeze the price 8. You should always put something aside for a rainy day. a. spend b. save c. borrow 9. You’ll have to cough up around £639 for the new 128GB iPad5. a. pay eagerly b. pay quickly c. pay with reluctance

h౮IVǤ ʟ˃˔˒ˑˎˑˉˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˏ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˍˈ ˋ ˔ˑǦ ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. dinner / will / will / for / up / and / later / the / I / you / square/ pay. 2. shopping / travel / It / worth / best / around / deal / for / is / the / agencies. 3. wife / give / run / much / easily / can / through / as / as / My / I / her. 4. puts / £100 / month / next / Ruth / holiday / a / for / at / aside / her / year’s / least. 5. to / to / Sam / had / into / costs / savings / his / pay / the / break / repair. 6. just / new / The / country / is / off / government / ripping / the. 7. make / salesman / attractive / off / to / to / knock / £20 / The / more / the / agreed / price. 8. Valentino / her / dress / must / back / authentic / have / cocktail / set / ThisȀͳͲǡͲͲͲ̀Ǥ 9. have / visit / cough / the / toȀͳͳͲ̀Ȁto / You / Moulin / up / Rouge.

213

PHRASAL VERBS h౮V. ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ ˆˑˇ˖ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˊ˃ˎˈˊ˕˟ ˅ ˏˑˋ ˔˄ˈ˓ˈǦ ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑ˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˔˅˃ˇ˟˄˖ ˇˑ˚ˈ˓ˋǤ ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅ˑˊ˟ˏˈ˕ˈ ˇ˅ˈ ˅ˈ˜ˋǡ ˢ ˔ˍˋː˖ ˇˈ˔ˢ˕˟ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʙ˃ˍ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˖ˇ˃ˎˑ˔˟ ˒ˑ˕˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˕˃ˍ ˏːˑˆˑ ˇˈːˈˆ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˊ˃ ˇ˅˃ˇːˢǫʡ˅ˑˋ˅˞˘ˑˇː˞ˈ˅ˍ˓˖ˆ˖˔ˈˏ˟ˋˑ˄ˑ˛ˎˋ˔˟ˏːˈ ˅ ˒ˢ˕˟ ˕˞˔ˢ˚ ˗˖ː˕ˑ˅Ǩ ͶǤ ʛːˈ ː˖ˉːˑ ˑ˕ˎˑˉˋ˕˟ ͵ͲͲ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ ː˃ ˒ˑ˚ˋːˍ˖ ˍ˓˃Ǧ ːˑ˅Ǥ ͷǤ ʜˈ ˒ˑˍ˖˒˃ˌ ːˋ˚ˈˆˑ ˅ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˔˖˅ˈːˋ˓ːˑˏ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋːˈǡ ˑːˋ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˑ˄ˇˋ˓˃ˡ˕ ˕˖˓ˋ˔˕ˑ˅ ˍ˃ˍ ˎˋ˒ˍ˖Ǥ ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˒˓ˑˌˇˈˏ˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˄ˎˋˉ˃ˌ˛ˋˏ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋː˃ˏ ˋ ˒ˑ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˋˏǡ ˆˇˈ ˎ˖˚˛ˈ ˙ˈː˞Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʡ˞ ˇˑˎˉˈː ˏːˈ ˇ˅˃ˇ˙˃˕˟ ˄˃ˍ˔ˑ˅Ǥ ʓ˃˅˃ˌǡ ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˅˃ˌ˔ˢǨ Ȅ ʓ˃ˌ ˏːˈ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈˇˈˎˡǤ ʮ ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˚˖˔˟ǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˒ˑˎ˖˚˖ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜˖ˡ ˊ˃˓˒ˎ˃˕˖Ǥ

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

g f a j

5 6 7 8

— — — —

c h i e

9—d 10 — b

h౮II. 1—c 2—a

3—b 4—c

1—a 2—b 3—c

4—b 5—a 6—c

h III.

214

7—a 8—b 9—c

24. MONEY MATTERS h IV. 1. I’ll pay for the dinner and you will square up later. 2. It’ is worth shopping around travel agencies for the best deal. 3. My wife can easily run through as much as I give her. 4. Ruth puts at least £100 a month aside for her next year’s holiday. 5. Sam had to break into his savings to pay the repair costs. 6. The new government is just ripping off the country. 7. The salesman agreed to knock off £20 to make the price more attractive. 8. This authentic Valentino cocktail dress must have set her back ͳͲǡͲͲͲ̀Ǥ 9. You have to cough up ͳͳͲ̀ to visit the Moulin Rouge.

h V. 1. Last year I had to break into my savings to pay for my daughter’s wedding. 2. I’ll knock off $10 if you buy two of them. 3. How did you manage to run through so much money in just two daysǫ Your family weekend has set me back over £5000! 4. I need to put aside $300 for the taps to be fixed. 5. Don’t buy anything at this gift shopǡ they just rip off tourists. Let’s shop around for the best price. 6. You owe me twenty bucks. Come onǡ cough up! — Give me another week. I’ll square up when I get my next pay cheque.

215

25. EXCLAMATIONS AND WARNINGS Carol: Rachel:

Do you mind if I ask you somethingǡ Rachelǫ Come on1! Fire away2!

Sid: Fred:

I think everything is clear now that … Hold on3! I haven’t finished yet.

Colin:

She’s been blaǦblaing the whole hour! Just shut her down! Steady on4ǡ this is a public meeting.

Cheryl: Terry: Neal:

Vera: Matt:

Amy: Linda:

Do you hear Don has been put in prison for speedingǫ Oh come on5ǡdon’t talk rubbish! I saw him the other day riding his bike. It was my favourite cup and you just smashed it to into smithereens! Ohǡlighten up6ǡwill youǫI didn’t mean it! I’ll get you another oneǡ darling. LookǡI really don’t want toǡbutǡerǡit’s all about your husband. Ohǡyou are beating about the bush again! Come on! Spit it out7!

Mr Green: It’s the third time you’ve been late this weekǡ Randy! Didn’t I warn you yesterdayǫ

216

25. EXCLAMATIONS AND WARNINGS Randy:

I’m terribly sorryǡMr Greenǡbut I got stuck in a traffic jam. Mr Green: Come off it8ǡ Randyǡ I don’t believe you any more. You are fired! Sara:

Ahmed:

Sara: Ahmed:

My computer keeps shutting down by itself to a full power off. I thought software could be an issueǡ but it’s OK. Hang about9 — it sounds like it is overheating! Let’s remove the cover and see. Look out10! The lamp! Ouch! That hurts!

1

Come on! ʜ˖ǡ ˇ˃˅˃ˌǨȀʑ˒ˈ˓ˈˇǨ ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈːˋˈ)

2

Fire away! ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃ˌǨ ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈːˋˈ)

3

Hold on! ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨȀʞˑˇˑˉˇˋǨ ȋ˖ˇˋ˅ˎˈːˋˈǡ ˊ˃ˏˈ˛˃˕ˈˎ˟Ǧ ˔˕˅ˑ)

4

Steady on! ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǨ

5

Come on! ʐ˓ˑ˔˟ǨȀʓ˃ ˎ˃ˇːˑ ˕ˈ˄ˈǨ ȋːˈˇˑ˅ˈ˓ˋˈ)

6

Lighten up! ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǨȀʝ˔˕˞ː˟ǨȀʜˈ ˄ˈ˓ˋ ˅ ˆˑˎˑ˅˖Ǩ

7

Spit it out! ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˌǨȀʙˑˎˋ˔˟ǨȀʑ˃ˎˢˌǨ ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈǦ ːˋˈ)

8

Come off it! ʓ˃ ˄˓ˑ˔˟ ˕˞ǨȀʤ˅˃˕ˋ˕ ˕˓ˈ˒˃˕˟˔ˢǨ ȋːˈˇˑ˅ˈ˓ˋˈ)

9

Hang about! ʞˑˇˑˉˇˋǨȀʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ ȋˑˊ˃˓ˈːˋˈǡ ˖ˇ˃˚ː˃ˢ ˋˇˈˢ)

10

Look out! ʝ˔˕ˑ˓ˑˉːˈˈǨȀʐˈ˓ˈˆˋ˔˟Ǩ ȋ˒˓ˈˇ˖˒˓ˈˉˇˈːˋˈ)

217

PHRASAL VERBS

EXTRA EXAMPLES come off it! Come off itǡ Willie! Of what you say we don’t believe a tithe!

ʤ˅˃˕ˋ˕ ˕˓ˈ˒˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ʑˋˎˎˋǨ ʛ˞ ːˈ ˅ˈ˓ˋˏ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ːˋ ː˃ ˆ˓ˑ˛Ǩ

come on! Come onǡ boy! You can do it! Ohǡ come onǡ Greg! Jade wouldn’t say that.

ʜ˖ ˇ˃˅˃ˌǡ ˏ˃ˎ˞˛Ǩ ʢ ˕ˈ˄ˢ ˅˔ˈ ˒ˑˎ˖˚ˋ˕˔ˢǨ ʓ˃ ˎ˃ˇːˑ ˕ˈ˄ˈǡ ʒ˓ˈˆǨ ʓˉˈˌˇ ˕˃ˍˑˆˑ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ˄˞ ːˈ ˔ˍ˃ˊ˃Ǧ ˎ˃Ǥ

fire away! “Fire awayǡdz Jenna said.

«ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃ˌ»ǡ ˔ˍ˃ˊ˃Ǧ ˎ˃ ʓˉˈːː˃Ǥ

hang about! Hang about! Let’s try it this way.

ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˄˖ˈˏ ˅ˑ˕ ˕˃ˍǤ

hold on! Hold on! Who’s EvelynǫI don’t remember her.

ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ ʙ˕ˑ ˕˃ˍ˃ˢ ʬ˅ˈˎˋːǫ ʮ ˈˈ ːˈ ˒ˑˏːˡǤ

lighten up! It’s just a gameǡBarry. Lighten up!

ʝ˔˕˞ː˟ǡ ʐ˃˓˓ˋǨ ʬ˕ˑ ˅˔ˈˆˑ ˎˋ˛˟ ˋˆ˓˃Ǥ

look out! Look out! The cups are hot.

ʝ˔˕ˑ˓ˑˉːˈˈǨ ʦ˃˛ˍˋ ˆˑ˓ˢǦ ˚ˋˈǤ

spit it out! Don’t be shyǡ Danny. Spit it out!

218

ʓ˃˅˃ˌ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˌǡʓˠːːˋǨ ʜˈ ˔˕ˈ˔ːˢˌ˔ˢǤ

25. EXCLAMATIONS AND WARNINGS

steady on! Steady onǡ Howard! You are talking about my wife!

ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǡ ʒˑ˅˃˓ˇǨ ʡ˞ ˔ˈˌǦ ˚˃˔ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˛˟ ˑ ˏˑˈˌ ˉˈːˈǨ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢˏˈˉˇ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃Ǧ ˏˋˋˊ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ˕ˈˏ˞ˋˇ˃ːː˞ˏˋ˅˞˔ˍ˃ˊ˞˅˃ːˋˢˏˋǤ ʑ ːˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞˘ ˔ˎ˖˚˃ˢ˘ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉː˞ ʹ ˅˃˓ˋ˃ː˕˃Ǥ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Be careful! Don’t be so serious! Hurry up! Say it! Mind your words! Pull yourself together! Speak without hesitation! Stop trying to fool me! Wait a moment!

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈ 1. Grace began asking me leading questions and I told her to  _______ away. 2. _______ about! Where did Ken get all this money fromǫ 3. _______ on — what money are you talking aboutǫ 4. _______ out! There’s a car coming towards us! 5. Ohǡ _______ off it! You can’t be serious saying that you didn’t know anything about his arrival. 6. Ohǡ_______ up! We didn’t mean to hurt youǡit was only a joke. 7. _______ it outǡ Neil! Who did itǫ Who broke the vaseǫ 8. _______ onǡyou two! I don’t need a fight in my restaurant. 9. This task is too difficult for me. _______ onǡyou can do it!

219

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˇˋ˃ˎˑˆ˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋˋˊ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ 1. Jane: Tom: 2. Ken: Ted: 3. Roger: Louis: 4. Nikki: Tanya: 5. Pat: Liz: 6. Ruth:

Marry: 7. Ann: Bill: Ann:

Ohǡ_______! I’ve just found Tina’s home phone number. Good! We don’t have to ring the directory enquiries then! It serves him bloody well right! Next time he won’t poke his nose into our business! _______ǡ Ken! We are in a public place. Wellǡ I did write several books but … _______ǡ Rogerǡ don’t be overmodest. They sell like hot cakes. I’ve been working real hard these days! Doing whatǫ Workingǫ Ohǡ _______! You haven’t done a day’s work in your life! So they hit him on the head and pushed him out of  the window! And then … _______ǡ Pat! You mean to say it wasn’t a suicide after allǫ And then she pushed me and I spilt the coffee onto Mt Salem’s table! He flew into a rage and promised to fire me! _______ǡ Ruth! It’ll turn out all right. Honeyǡ you’ve been speeding again. Will you slow down a bit! You know how much I hate it when you bither me while I’m … _______ǡ Bill! That car’s pilling up!

h౮IVǤ ʝ˕˓ˈ˃ˆˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ː˃ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˈ ˔ˋ˕˖˃˙ˋˋǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˎˈˍ˔ˋˍ˖ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ

What would you say: 1. to a friend of yours who states that he is a better tennis player than you — and you have won this year’s school tennis tournament;

220

25. EXCLAMATIONS AND WARNINGS 2. to encourage your friend to tell you something that he is too embarrassed to say; 3. to signal to someone that you are ready to answer all of  their questions; 4. to tell someone not to take their loss in a race too close to heart; 5. to tell your friend that you have just noticed some discrepancy in his story; 6. to warn someone not to express their opinion too rudely; 7. to a child who is about to cross a busy road without looking left or right.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˕ˈˍ˔˕ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ 1. ʤ˅˃˕ˋ˕ ˕˓ˈ˒˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˓ˋˢ˕ˈˎ˟ǡ ːˈ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˄˞˕˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˕˞ ːˈ ˔ˎ˞˛˃ˎ ˠ˕˖ ˛˖˕ˍ˖ ˓˃ː˟˛ˈǤ 2. ʓ˃ˎ˃ˇːˑ˕ˈ˄ˈǨʡˑˎ˟ˍˑ˓ˈ˄ˈːˑˍ˒ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˕˅˕˃ˍ˖ˡˋ˔˕ˑǦ ˓ˋˡǨ 3. «ʛ˃˓˕ˋːǡ ˕˞ ːˈ ˅ˑˊ˓˃ˉ˃ˈ˛˟ǡ ˈ˔ˎˋ ˢ ˖ ˕ˈ˄ˢ ˍˑˈǦ˚˕ˑ ˔˒˓ˑ˛˖ǫ» «ʓ˃˅˃ˌǡ ʓˠˌ˅ǡ ˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃ˌ». 4. ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ ʟ˃ˊ˅ˈ ˠ˕ˑ ːˈ ˕˅ˑˢ ˔ˈ˔˕˓˃ ˔˕ˑˋˏ ˅ˑː ˕˃ˏǫ 5. ʟ˃˔˔ˎ˃˄˟˔ˢ ːˈˏːˑˆˑǡ ʬˎˎ˃Ǥ ʬ˕ˑ ːˈ ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔ ˉˋˊːˋ ˋ  ˔ˏˈ˓˕ˋǤ 6. ʓ˃˅˃ˌǡ ʡˋˏǡ ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˌǡ ˚˕ˑ ˕˃ˏ ˖ ˕ˈ˄ˢǨ ʮ ːˈ ˏˑˆ˖ ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˕ˈ˄ˢ ˙ˈˎ˞ˌ ˇˈː˟Ǥ 7. ʏ ː˖ ˘˅˃˕ˋ˕ǡ ˓ˈ˄ˢ˕˃Ǩ ʑ˞ ˅ ˑ˄˜ˈ˔˕˅ˈːːˑˏ ˏˈ˔˕ˈǨ ͺǤ ʡˈ˄ˈˎ˖˚˛ˈ˒ˑˑ˔˕ˈ˓ˈ˚˟˔ˢǡʐˑ˄Ǩʖ˃˕ˑ˄ˑˌ˔ˎˈˇˋ˕ˍ˃ˍˑˌǦ ˕ˑ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍǤ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Look out! Lighten up! Spit it out! Steady on!

221

PHRASAL VERBS 5. 6. 7. 8.

Come on! Fire away! Come off it! / Come on! Hang about! / Hold on!

h II. 1. fire 2. Hang 3. Hold

4. Look 5. Come 6. lighten

7. Spit 8. Steady 9. Come

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4.

hang about steady on come on come off it / come on

5. Hang on / Hold on 6. Lighten up 7. Look out

Come off it! / Come on! Spit it out! Fire away! Lighten up!

5. Hang on! / Hold on! 6. Steady on! 7. Look out!

h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4.

h V. 1. Come off it/Come onǡ manǡ you can’t have failed to hear that joke before. 2. Come on! / Come off it! Only a child would believe a story like that! 3. “Do you mind if I ask you somethingǡ Martinǫdz DzFire awayǡ DaveǤdz 4. Hold on!/Hang about! Isn’t that your sister standing over thereǫ 5. You need to lighten up a bitǡ Ella. It’s not a matter of life or death. 6. Come onǡ spit it outǡ Tim! I haven’t got all day. 7. Steady onǡ guysǡ you are in a public place! 8. You’d better watch outǡ Bob! There’s some guy following you.

222

REVISION 21—25

h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ 1. As the excursion was rained off the tourists had to … a. put on their rain coats b. wait for the rain to stop c. return to the hotel 2. As the street was dotted with small cafes we … a. easily found a place to have coffee b. had difficulty finding a place to have coffee c. couldn’t find a place to have coffee 3. I managed to knock $20 off the original price of $375. So finally I paid only … a. $375.20 b. $395 c. $355 4. I think Patsy needs to lighten up a bit. She’s … b. too heavy c. too dark a. too serious 5. I told Jill to fire away so she … a. shot at me b. asked me her question c. made a fire 6. If a passerǦby shouts “Look outǨdz at youǡ it’s because you are … a. about to get hurt b. staring at him c. irritating him

223

PHRASAL VERBS 7. Matt felt he’d been ripped off when he was charged $50 for a five minutes’ ride. He thought the taxi driver had charged him … a. too much b. too little c. a fair amount 8. Something was obviously eating away at Cheryl as she looked … a. excited b. worried c. unconcerned 9. The sound of the ambulance siren screaming stirred up a lot of … a. funny memories b. pleasant memories c. bad memories 10. The town is steeped in history so there are many … a. historical personalities there b. historical monuments there c. historical tendencies there 11. When the sun broke throughǡ the kids … a. slipped out of their coats b. put on their coats c. put up umbrellas

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑǦ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. Be reasonableǡ Tony! You’re talking to your boss! 2. Forecasters are predicting that the northern wind will increase during the next week. 3. Go to a Montmartre cafeǡ order coffeeǡ and spend some time experiencing and enjoying the atmosphere. 4. Her words will remain in my memory for the rest of my life. 5. I didn’t feel like spending a lot of moneyon an expensive meal so I decided to eat in.

224

ON UP

UP WITH OUT

REVISION 21—25 6. It didn’t take Max even a year to exhaust by wasteful spending all the money he had inherited from his aunt. THROUGHG 7. Krakov’s Rynek Glowny is full of tourists in summer. WITH 8. Now that I’m fortyǡI think I should start saving some money regularly for my retirement. ASIDE OUT 9. The rain clouds overhead has covered the sun. 10. The rising seas are gradually advancing to ON cover more of seaside territories.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːǦ ː˞ˏˋˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋˋ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːː˞ˏ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ c. _______ (to make something look more attractive by being different from them)

a. _______ (to make something or someone different and special) 1. to set b. _______ (to cost a person a particular amount of money, especially a large amount)

d. _______ (to begin and seem likely to continue for a long time)

a. _______ (to start to spend money that you did not want to spend)

b. _______ (to be able to see the sun as it has appeared from behind the clouds)

2. to break a. _______ (to start to be remembered again)

b. _______ (to start to fall — about rain or snow) 3. to come

225

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǤ This picture of the church of Santa Maria la Salute (1) _______ my two days’ trip to Venice. I (2) _______ for this trip for over a year and even had to break into my savingsǡbut it was definitely worth the money. The city center (3) _______ tourists eager to visit the Ponte Rialto and St Marco’s Square. It almost deafened me with noise and astounded with prices that would (4) _______ several hundred quids a day. As I wasn’t flush with moneyǡI resented having (5)  _______ around ͶͲ̀ for a hostel bedǡ ͳͲ̀ for a micromaveable lasagna and Ͷ̀ for an espresso. It was then that I discovered the Dorsoduro. It’s a student area (6) _______ bars and cafes offering traditional Venetian cuisine at reasonable prices. Charming old buildings (7) _______ one another and canals (8) _______ the Squero di San Trovasoǡa beautiful dockyardǡ make the Dorsoduro an ideal area (9) _______ the atmosphere of a veritable Venice. Even the drizzling rain that (10) _______ towards evening didn’t break the spell of the place. The time I spent in the Dorsoduro gave me an absolutely different view on Venice and (11) _______ me forever.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʒ˓ˑˊ˃ ː˃˚˃ˎ˃˔˟ ˔ˑ˅ˈ˓˛ˈːːˑ ːˈˑˉˋˇ˃ːːˑǡ ˋ ːˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ːˋ ˏ˃ˎˈˌ˛ˈˆˑ ˛˃ː˔˃ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː˃ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ ˒˓ˈˍ˓˃˕ˋ˕˔ˢǤ ʞˑǦ ˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ͷͲ ˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˇˑ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏˑˌ ː˃ ˕˃ˍ˔ˋǤ ʹǤ ʙ˃ˉˇ˃ˢ ˅˔˕˓ˈ˚˃ ˔ ˏˑˋˏ ˄˞˅˛ˋˏ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏ ʓˉˈˌˍˑˏ ˅˞ˊ˞˅˃ˈ˕ ˍ˓˃ˌːˈ ːˈ˒˓ˋˢ˕ː˞ˈ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢǤ ʝˇː˃ˉˇ˞ ˏːˈ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˊ˃ˎˈˊ˕˟ ˅ ˔˄ˈ˓ˈˉˈːˋˢ ː˃˛ˈˌ ˔ˈˏ˟ˋǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˟ ˈˏ˖ ˍ˓˖ˆˎˈː˟ˍ˖ˡ ˔˖ˏˏ˖ǡ˃ˑːːˈˊ˃˘ˑ˕ˈˎ ˔ˑ ˏːˑˌ ˓˃˔˔˚ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ. ͵Ǥ ʟˢˇˑˏ˔˒ˑ˒˖ˎˢ˓ː˞ˏˋ˕˖˓ˋ˔˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˏˋˇˑ˔˕ˑ˒˓ˋˏˈ˚˃Ǧ ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˔˕ˢˏˋ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˒ˑˎːˑ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅ˈːːˋˍˑ˅ ˔ˑ ˅˔ˈǦ ˆˑ ˏˋ˓˃Ǥ ʞ˓ˑːˋˊ˃ːː˞ˈ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˈˌ ˋ ˕˓˃ˇˋ˙ˋˢˏˋǡ ˑːˋ ˅˔ˈˆˇ˃ ˕˓ˑˆ˃ˡ˕ ˅˃˛ˈ ˔ˈ˓ˇ˙ˈ.

226

REVISION 21—25 4. ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǡ ˇˑ˓ˑˆ˃ˢǨ ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˠ˕ˑ˕ ˇˑˉˇ˟ ːˈː˃ˇˑˎˆˑ. ʠˍˑ˓ˑ ˓˃˔˒ˑˆˑˇˋ˕˔ˢǡ ˋ ˖ ː˃˔ ˄˖ˇˈ˕ ˇˑ˔˕˃˕ˑ˚ːˑ ˅˓ˈǦ ˏˈːˋǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˅˒ˋ˕˃˕˟ ˅ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˃˕ˏˑ˔˗ˈ˓˖ ˠ˕ˑˆˑ ˊ˃ˏˈ˚˃Ǧ ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˆˑ ˆˑ˓ˑˇˍ˃Ǥ

KEYS h I. 5 6 7 8

ͳ Ȅ ˔ 2—a ͵ Ȅ ˔ 4—a

— — — —

b a a b

9—c 10 — b 11 — a

h II. 1. Steady onǡ Tony! You’re talking to your boss! 2. Forecasters are predicting that the northern wind will pick up during the next week. 3. Go to a Montmartre cafeǡ order coffeeǡ and soak up the atmosphere. 4. Her words will stick with me for the rest of my life. 5. I didn’t feel like forking out for an expensive meal so I  decided to eat in. 6. It didn’t take Max even a year to exhaust by wasteful spending all the money he had inherited from his aunt. 7. Krakov’s Rynek Glowny is bursting with tourists in summer. 8. Now that I’m fortyǡI think I should start putting some money aside for my retirement. 9. The rain clouds overhead has blotted out the sun. 10. The rising seas are encroaching on seaside territories.

h III. 1. to set 2. to break 3. to come

a. apart a. through a. back to

b. back b. into b. on

c. off

d. in

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PHRASAL VERBS h IV 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

summons up had been putting aside was bursting with set you back to fork out dotted with encroaching on branching off to soak up set in will stick with

hV 1. The thunderstorm had set in quite unexpectedly and there was no chance that it would soon blow over. So I had to fork out $50 to get home by taxi. 2. Seeing my exǦfriend Jake always stirs up most unpleasant memories. Once I had to break into our family’s savings to lend him a pretty sum and he wouldn’t square up with me. 3. Popular tourist attractions are forever bursting with travellers from all over the world. Steep in history and traditionǡ they always tug at your heart. 4. Lighten upǡdarling! It doesn’t look as if the rain had set in forever. It’ll soon clear up and we’ll have enough time to soak up the atmosphere of this nice town.

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26. SIGNS & HEADLINES Phrasal verbs are common in English. Although phrasal verbs are more typical of informal English they can be found in a variety of styles and contexts. You may hear them in spoken language  — like look after, for example — or in songs, for example the Arabesque’s “I Stand by You”. You may find them in film titles such as “I Wake Up Screaming” and “The Empire Strikes Back”. But phrasal verbs are not limited to the spoken language only; some of them are an integral part of the language of newspapers and are very frequent in newspaper headlines. Here are just a few examples: PHOTO GALLERY: ANN ARBOR GIRLS TRY ON PROM DRESSES and MAN FIGHTS OFF SHARK WITH HIS BARE HANDS. Others are found on warning and information signs such as Please check out before midday or Please switch off your cell phones before the film starts. 1 2 3 Please hand in1 your key at the desk.

Please give up2 your seat if a woman or an elderly person needs it!

4

5

Please keep off5 the grass!

Please queue up6 for a bus.

Get your pics ready in an hour! Drop off3 the film at 2 and pick up4 your pics at 3 p.m 6 Road Works ahead! Slow down7!

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PHRASAL VERBS 7

8

9

First night sold out8 immediately. Second show added due to MASSIVE demand!

Bella Pizzas! The best in town! Eat in or take away9!

If you want to try on10 any item, please use the changing room on the ground floor.

1

hand in ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌ 2 give up ˖˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) 3 drop off ˔ˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟ 4 pick up ˊ˃˄ˋ˓˃˕˟ 5 keep off ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟ ˅ ˑ˕ˇ˃ˎˈːˋˋǡ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ˓˃˔˔˕ˑˢǦ ːˋˋȀ˒ˑˇ˃ˎ˟˛ˈ ȋˑ˕ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌ 6 queue up ˔˕ˑˢ˕˟ ˅ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇˋ 7 slow down ˔ːˋˊˋ˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟ 8 sell out ˓˃˔˒˓ˑˇ˃˅˃˕˟ 9 take away ˖ːˑ˔ˋ˕˟ǡ ˄˓˃˕˟ ˔ ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ ȋː˃˒ˋ˕ˍˋǡ ˈˇ˖) 10 try on ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓ˢ˕˟ ȋ˒ˎ˃˕˟ˈ)

EXTRA EXAMPLES drop sth off If you have a homeǦprinted boarding pass, simply drop off your bags and head through to the departure lounge.

230

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˅˞ ˓˃˔˒ˈ˚˃˕˃ˎˋ ˒ˑ˔˃Ǧ ˇˑ˚ː˞ˌ ˕˃ˎˑː ˕ˑˏ˃ǡ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˑ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˅ˈ˜ˋ ː˃ ˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓˃Ǧ ˙ˋˋ ˋ ˒˓ˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˊ˃ˎ ˅˞Ǧ ˎˈ˕˃Ǥ

26. SIGNS & HEADLINES

give up sthȀgive sth up Nowadays teenagers seldom give up seats to elderly people on the bus.

ʠˈˆˑˇːˢ ˒ˑˇ˓ˑ˔˕ˍˋ ˓ˈˇˍˑ ˖˔˕˖˒˃ˡ˕ ˒ˑˉˋˎ˞ˏ ˎˡˇˢˏ ˏˈ˔˕ˑ ˅ ˃˅˕ˑ˄˖˔ˈǤ

hand in sthȀhand sth in Eva never gives her homework in on time.

ʔ˅˃ ːˋˍˑˆˇ˃ ːˈ ˔ˇ˃ˈ˕ ˇˑǦ ˏ˃˛ːˡˡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ˅ˑ˅˓ˈˏˢǤ

keep sth offȀkeep off sth ʜˈ ˇˑ˕˓˃ˆˋ˅˃ˌ˔ˢ ˇˑ ˏˈːˢǨ

Keep your hands off me!

pick sth upȀpick up sth I’ll pick my things up from the dryǦcleaner’s later.

ʮ ˊ˃˄ˈ˓˖ ˅ˈ˜ˋ ˋˊ ˘ˋˏ˚ˋ˔˕Ǧ ˍˋ ˒ˑˊˉˈǤ

queue up Pink lipstick is popular this season. Girls are queuing up for it.

ʑ ˠ˕ˑˏ ˔ˈˊˑːˈ ˅ ˏˑˇˈ ˓ˑˊˑǦ ˅˃ˢ ˒ˑˏ˃ˇ˃Ǥ ʓˈ˅˖˛ˍˋ ˔˕ˑˢ˕ ˊ˃ ːˈˌ ˅ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇ˟ ˅˞˔˕˓˃ˋ˅˃ˡ˕˔ˢ.

slow down The road was icy and we had to slow down.

ʓˑ˓ˑˆ˃ ˑ˄ˎˈˇˈːˈˎ˃ǡ ˋ ː˃ˏ ˒˓ˋ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˔ːˋˊˋ˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟.

sell out Tonight’s show is completely sold out.

ʐˋˎˈ˕˞ ː˃ ˔ˈˆˑˇːˢ˛ːˈˈ ˅ˈǦ ˚ˈ˓ːˈˈ ˛ˑ˖ ˒ˑˎːˑ˔˕˟ˡ ˓˃˔˒˓ˑˇ˃ː˞.

take away Do you want that burger to eat here or to take away?

ʑ˞ ˄˖ˇˈ˕ˈ ˈ˔˕˟ ˆ˃ˏ˄˖˓ˆˈ˓ ˊˇˈ˔˟ ˋˎˋ ˊ˃˄ˈ˓ˈ˕ˈ ˈˆˑ ˔ ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ?

try sth onȀtry on sth Ella tried on a red dress but it was a size too big.

ʬˎˎ˃ ˒ˑˏˈ˓ˋˎ˃ ˍ˓˃˔ːˑˈ ˒ˎ˃˕˟ˈǡ ːˑ ˑːˑ ˑˍ˃ˊ˃ˎˑ˔˟ ː˃ ˓˃ˊˏˈ˓ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˈǤ

231

PHRASAL VERBS

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʙ˃ˍˋˈ ˒˓ˈˇ˖˒˓ˈˇˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈ ː˃ˇ˒ˋ˔ˋ ˋˊ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːǦ ː˞˘ ː˃ ˔˕˓Ǥ ʹʹͻȄʹ͵Ͳ ˏˑˉːˑ ˖˅ˋˇˈ˕˟ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑǦ ˉˈːː˞˘ ːˋˉˈ ˑ˄˜ˈ˔˕˅ˈːː˞˘ ˏˈ˔˕˃˘ǫ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

box office bus stop clothes shop fast food outlet park photo studio public transport reception desk road

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˆ˃ˊˈ˕ː˞˘ ˊ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ˍ˃˘ ˒ˑˇǦ ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ DROPPED OFF PICK UP SLOW DOWN GIVE UP QUEUE UP SWITCH OFF KEEP OFF SELL OUT TRY ON 1. 7 FIRST CLASS PASSENGERS _______ SEATS TO MARINES RETURNING FROM AFGANISTAN 2. BOXING DAYSALES SEE THOUSANDS _______ TO GRAB POSTǦCHRISTMAS BARGAINS 3. HULU STARTS BLOCKING VPN USERS TO _______ PIRACY RATES 4. iOS 7 BUG ALLOWES iPHONE THIEVES TO _______ FIND MY iPHONE 5. _______ THE LAWN ON FROSTY MORNINGS TO PREVENT FROST DAMAGE 6. MORBIDY OBESE͵͸ǦPOUND CAT NAMED MEATBALL _______ AT A SHELTER 7. POPE FRANCIS STOPS TO _______ HITCHHIKER

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26. SIGNS & HEADLINES 8. TICKETS FOR TIGERS OPENING DAY _______ FAST 9. UK SURGEONS _______ “SMART GLASSES” IN THE OPERATING THEATRE

h౮IIIǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˌ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎǤ 1. All local residents are required to _______ in their passports. a. check b. eat c. hand 2. Always _______ off your computer when you have finished your work. a. drop b. switch c. keep 3. I _______ up outside the box office for almost two hours. a. gave b. picked c. queued 4. Most music stores have already _______ out Beyoncé new album. a. sold b. checked c. dropped 5. On the bus, you should always _______ up your seat to any elderly, pregnant, babyǦcarrying, or injured people. a. pick b. give c. queue 6. On weekdays I usually _______ in instead of going out for dinner. a. eat b. check c. hand 7. Royal Jordanian Airlines employees were _______ in passengers. a. handing b. eating c. checking 8. Some hotels let you _______ out via your television. a. sell b. check c. switch 9. We decided to _______ off the main road to avoid heavy traffic. a. keep b. drop c. switch 10. You can _______ off your bag here and pick it up later. a. switch b. keep c. drop

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮IVǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓ˑˈ ːˈ ˑ˄˓˃ˊ˖ˈ˕ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ˔ˑ˚ˈǦ ˕˃ːˋˈ ˔ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑˏǤ 1. to give up a. a word b. a seat c. a hope

4. to keep off a. grass b. a rule c. alcohol

2. to hand in a. one’s homework b. one’s room keys c. one’s position

5. to take away a. time b. a meal c. the pain

3. to pick up a. a passenger b. economy c. a language

6. to try on a. a dress b. pyjamas c. a job

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˊˇˈ˔˟ ːˈ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢǡ ˇ˃˅˃ˌ ˊ˃ˍ˃ˉˈˏ ˈˇ˖ ˋ ˊ˃˄ˈ˓ˈˏ ˈˈ ˔ ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ. ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ˕ˈ˄ˈː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢˠ˕˃˓˖˄˃˛ˍ˃ǡ˒ˑ˚ˈˏ˖˄˞˕ˈ˄ˈˈˈːˈ ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓ˋ˕˟? ͵Ǥ ʖ˓ˢ ˏ˞ ˔˕ˑˢˎˋ ˅ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇˋ ˊ˃ ˄ˋˎˈ˕˃ˏˋǡ ˋ˘ ˖ˉˈ ˓˃˔˒˓ˑˇ˃ˎˋ. ͶǤ ʛˑˉˈ˕ˈ ˄˞˕˟ ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇː˞ˏˋǡ ˍ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˔ˇ˃ˇˋ˕ˈ ˍˑː˕Ǧ ˓ˑˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˞Ǥ ͷǤ ʛˑˉˈ˛˟ ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ˍːˋˆˋ ˊˇˈ˔˟ ˋ ˊ˃˄˓˃˕˟ ˋ˘ ˒ˑ ˒˖˕ˋ ˅  ˄ˋ˄ˎˋˑ˕ˈˍ˖Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʜˈ ˖˔˒ˈˎ˃ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ ː˃˄˓˃˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˍ˃ˍ ː˃ˏ ˒˓ˋǦ ˛ˎˑ˔˟ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟. ͹Ǥ ʡˈ˄ˈ ˎ˖˚˛ˈ ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑˇ˃ˎ˟˛ˈ ˑ˕ ˠ˕ˑˆˑ ˓˃ˌˑː˃  — ˕˃ˏ ˑ˒˃˔ːˑ ˒ˑ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓˃ˏǤ ͺǤ ʮ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˈ˕ ˖˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ˏˈ˔˕ˑ ˠ˕ˑˌ ˒ˑǦ ˉˋˎˑˌ ˉˈː˜ˋːˈǤ

234

26. SIGNS & HEADLINES

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

box office bus stop clothes shop fast food outlet park photo studio public transport reception desk road

7 5 9 8 4 3 2 1 6

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

GIVE UP QUEUE UP SLOW DOWN SWITCH OFF KEEP OFF

DROPPED OFF PICK UP SELL OUT TRY ON

h III. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

c b c a

5 6 7 8

— — — —

b a c b

9—a 10 — c

h IV. 1—a 2—c

3—b 4—b

5—a 6—c

h V. 1. If you don’t like it here, let’s order a meal and take it away. 2. If you like this shirt, why don’t you try it on?

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PHRASAL VERBS 3. It was no use queuing up for tickets — they had already been sold out. 4. You may be free as soon as you hand in your tests. 5. You can drop off your books here and pick them up on your way to the library. 6. Hardly had the car picked up speed when we had to slow down again. 7. You’d better keep off that neighborhood — it’s quite dangerous at night. 8. I think you should give up your seat to this elderly lady.

236

27. PHRASAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Ȇ Sophie and Fred aren’t on speaking terms again. Do you think it’s another falling-out1 or are they going to break up2? ȆCome on! They are just both hotǦtempered, so no wonder they keep falling out3 over trifles but they still love each other too much for a break-up4. Ȇ You should have seen Patricia wearing that posh dress on the Dress-Down5 Friday! She was just showing it off! ȆIt’s an outstanding6 example of how she always makes herself stand out7 from the corporate crowd. She’s an awful showoff8! ȆNick is good at putting on airs, but as he is a college dropout9, his good manners and confidence are all put-on10. We started a university course in San Francisco together but then he dropped out11. Ȇ I can’t believe it! He always sounds so convincing! Ȇ I quit shopping at Lincoln Road boutiques, they just rip off12 customers! The stuff there is terribly overpriced13! The strappy sandals I bought at Steven Shoes yesterday set me back $1,550! I’m all stressed-out14 now! Ȇ You can say that again! This designer label stuff is just an expensive rip-off15! 1

falling-out ˔˖˜Ǥ ˔˔ˑ˓˃ 2 break up ˆˎǤ ȋ˔ˏǤ 8. Relationships; p. 69) 3 fall out ˆˎǤ ȋ˔ˏǤ ͺ. Relationships; p. 70)

237

PHRASAL VERBS 4

break-up ˔˖˜Ǥ ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅ǡ ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇ 5 dress-down ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˑ ˔ˋ˕˖˃˙ˋˋǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˓˃ˊ˓ˈ˛˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˑˇˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˏˈːˈˈ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˃ˎ˟ːˑ 6 outstanding ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˢ˓ˍˋˌ ȋ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓Ȍǡ ˅˞ˇ˃ˡ˜ˋˌ˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍ) 7 stand out ˆˎǤ ȋ˔ˏǤ ͸Ǥ Describing People; p. 55) 8 showoff ˔˖˜Ǥ ˘˅˃˔˕˖ːǡ ˒ˑˊˈ˓ǡ ˊ˃ˇ˃˅˃ˍ˃ 9 dropout ˔˖˜Ǥ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍǡ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˅˛ˋˌ ˖˚ˈ˄˖ 10 put-on ˒˓ˋˎǤ ː˃˒˖˔ˍːˑˌ 11 drop out ˆˎǤ ȋ˔ˏǤ ͻǤ Stages Through Life; p. 76) 12 rip off ˆˎǤ ȋ˔ˏǤ ʹͶǤ Money Matters; p. 209) 13 overpriced ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˑˌ 14 stressed-out ˒˓ˋˎǤ ː˃˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˌ˔ˢ ˅ ˔ˑ˔˕ˑˢːˋˋ ˔˕˓ˈ˔˔˃ 15 rip-off ˔˖˜Ǥ ˏˑ˛ˈːːˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˆ˓˃˄ˈˉ

EXTRA EXAMPLES breakǦup It took Abby years to get over the break-up with Alan.

ʢ ʬ˄˄ˋ ˖˛ˎˑ ːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˎˈ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒˓ˋˌ˕ˋ ˅ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇ˃ ˔ ʏˎ˃ːˑˏǤ

dressǦdown In many offices, Friday is a  dress-down day.

238

ʑˑ ˏːˑˆˋ˘ ˑ˗ˋ˔˃˘ ˅ ˒ˢ˕ːˋǦ ˙˖ ˓˃ˊ˓ˈ˛˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˑˇˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˅˔ˈˇːˈ˅ː˖ˡ ˑˇˈˉˇ˖.

27. PHRASAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

dropout According to police statistics, about half of the prisoners are highǦschool dropouts.

ʠˑˆˎ˃˔ːˑ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˈˌ˔ˍˑˌ ˔˕˃Ǧ ˕ˋ˔˕ˋˍˈ ˒˓ˋ˄ˎˋˊˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˒ˑˎˑ˅ˋː˃ ˅˔ˈ˘ ˊ˃ˍˎˡ˚˩ːǦ ː˞˘  Ȅ ˠ˕ˑ ˎˡˇˋ, ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˅˛ˋˈ ˔˓ˈˇːˡˡ ˛ˍˑˎ˖.

fallingǦout He had a bitter falling-out with Laurie over money.

ʛˈˉˇ˖ ːˋˏ ˋ ʚˑ˓ˋ ˅˔˒˞˘Ǧ ː˖ˎ˃ ˖ˉ˃˔ː˃ˢ ˔˔ˑ˓˃ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˇˈːˈˆǤ

outstanding Theirs was an outstanding example of good team work.

ʗ˘ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ ˄˞ˎ˃ ˢ˓ˍˋˏ ˒˓ˋǦ ˏˈ˓ˑˏ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˈˌ ˍˑˏ˃ːˇːˑˌ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˞Ǥ

overpriced Despite good quality, their products are overpriced.

ʜˈ ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˢ ː˃ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˈˈ ˍ˃˚ˈǦ ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˋ˘ ˒˓ˑˇ˖ˍ˙ˋˢ ˅˔ˈ ˉˈ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˇˑ˓ˑˆ˃ˢ.

putǦon Martin saw that her reluctance to go out was put-on.

ʛ˃˓˕ˋː ˒ˑːˋˏ˃ˎǡ ˚˕ˑ ˈˈ ːˈǦ ˉˈˎ˃ːˋˈ ˍ˖ˇ˃Ǧːˋ˄˖ˇ˟ ˋˇ˕ˋ ˄˞ˎˑ ː˃˒˖˔ˍː˞ˏ.

ripǦoff Brad thought £45 a night for a  hostel room was a rip-off.

ʐ˓ˠˇ ˔˚ˋ˕˃ˎǡ ˚˕ˑ Ͷͷ ˗˖ː˕ˑ˅ ˊ˃ːˑ˚˟˅˘ˑ˔˕ˈˎˈȄː˃˔˕ˑˢǦ ˜ˋˌ ˆ˓˃˄ˈˉ.

showǦoff Mandy can be a real show-off at times.

ʑ˓ˈˏˈː˃ˏˋ ʛˠːˇˋ ˏˑˉˈ˕ ˄˞˕˟ ˕˃ˍˑˌ ˊ˃ˇ˃˅˃ˍˑˌ.

stressedǦout Molly always eats when she’s feeling stressedǦout.

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ʛˑˎˎˋ ˅ ˔˕˓ˈ˔˔ˑ˅ˑˏ ˔ˑ˔˕ˑˢːˋˋǡ ˑː˃ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˈ˔˕Ǥ

239

PHRASAL VERBS h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑǦ ˎ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˋ˘ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. break-up 2. dress-down 3. dropout 4. falling-out

5. outstanding 6. overpriced 7. put-on 8. rip-off 9. show-off 10. stressed-out

a. charging or charged at too high a  rate b. a quarrel or disagreement c. false; fictitious d. someone who always tries to show how clever or skilled they are so that other people will admire them e. something that is unreasonably expensive f. informal ȋabout clothes) g. so worried and tired that you cannot relax h. a divorce i. a student who fails to complete a  school or college course j. excellent; distinguished

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˖˒ˑ˕˓ˈ˄ˋ˅ ˅ˏˈ˔˕ˑ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞˘ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡǦ ˜ˋˈ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈǤ 1. Chris is constantly showing off, trying to make a really big impression. 2. He’s an awful coward — he just puts on a brave face. 3. His study of the problem really stands out. 4. I’m studying for my TOEFL exam in May and it is stressing me out. 5. Our relationship got worse and we broke up a couple months later. 6. They ripped us off at that café. 7. There are many students who dropped out because they could not afford to pay the £1,000 monthly fees. 8. They’re business partners who have fallen out over a minor problem.

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27. PHRASAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃ˏˈːˋ˕ˈ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ˘ ˔ˋːˑːˋˏ˃ˏˋ ˋˊ ˔ˎˑ˅˃˓ˢ ˕ˈˏ˞Ǥ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Divorces are on the increase in this country. I try to avoid things that can make me weary. Nicole’s friendly voice and manner are all false. She told several London newspapers that she and her fiancé have had a minor quarrel. The place was full of Rastafarians and other nonconformists. The pub has good local food, but it’s too expensive. The Yellowstone National Park is an area of remarkable beauty. This biennale is just the usual parade of braggarts.

h౮IVǤ ʟ˃˔˒ˑˎˑˉˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˅ ˒˓˃˅ˋˎ˟ːˑˏ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˍˈ ˋ ˔ˑǦ ˔˕˃˅˟˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. ifȀdoȀAnyȀwithinȀsellȀgoodsȀsixȀoverpricedȀtheyȀ notȀareȀweeks. 2. AmericanȀmeȀHisȀaȀputǦonȀirritatesȀlotȀaccent. 3. IȀIȀdoȀbeȀnotȀtooȀaȀwhereȀwantȀwouldȀjobȀ stressedǦout. 4. IȀClairȀsheȀnothingȀtoȀofȀwithȀkindȀbecauseȀhaveȀ isȀdoȀshowǦoff. 5. FridayȀisȀsportswearȀnotȀevenȀappropriateȀputȀtoȀ toȀonȀonȀofficeȀaȀtheȀdressǦdownȀIt. 6. wasȀOurȀrestaurantȀawfulȀdinnerȀthisȀanȀinȀripǦoff. 7. theȀbeenȀbreakǦupȀSinceȀmarriageȀsheȀofȀherȀhasȀ alone. 8. Sri LankaȀaȀbeautyȀcountryȀofȀoutstandingȀisȀnatural. 9. rateȀdropoutȀsomeȀhighȀatȀveryȀTheȀuniversitiesȀis. 10. numerousȀhaveȀthemȀfallingsǦoutȀbeforeȀbeenȀ ThereȀ between.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʑ˔ˢ ˈˆˑ ˒ˑ˅˔ˈˇːˈ˅ː˃ˢ ˑˇˈˉˇ˃ Ȅ ˠ˕ˑ ˇˋˊ˃ˌːˈ˓˔ˍˋˈ ˅ˈ˜ˋǤ

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PHRASAL VERBS ʹǤ ʔ˔ˎˋ˕˞˚˖˅˔˕˅˖ˈ˛˟ǡ˚˕ˑː˃˘ˑˇˋ˛˟˔ˢ˅˔˕˓ˈ˔˔ˑ˅ˑˏ˔ˑ˔˕ˑˢːˋˋǡ ˕ˈ˄ˈ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˈ˕ ˑ˄˓˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˍ ˅˓˃˚˖Ǥ ͵Ǥ ʛːˈˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ˚˕ˑͳǤͲͲͲˇˑˎˎ˃˓ˑ˅ˊ˃ˏ˃ˎˡ˔ˈː˟ˍˋˌ˗ˎ˃Ǧ ˍˑː ˇ˖˘ˑ˅ Ȅ ˠ˕ˑ ˆ˓˃˄ˈˉ! ͶǤ ʜ˃˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˢ ˊː˃ˡ ʓˉˈˌːǡ ˈˈ ˔ˍ˓ˑˏːˑ˔˕˟ Ȅ ː˃˒˖˔ˍː˃ˢ. ͷǤ ʜ˃˛˃ʠˎ˖ˉ˄˃˔ˈˏ˟ˋ˒ˑˏˑˆ˃ˈ˕ˎˡˇˢˏ˒ˈ˓ˈˉˋ˕˟ ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅˞ ˑ˕ːˑ˛ˈːˋˌ ˋ ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇ˞Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈˍˋːˑˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍˋ˔˚ˋ˕˃ˡ˕˗ˑːʡ˓ˋˈ˓˃ˉˈːˑːˈǦ ː˃˅ˋ˔˕ːˋˍˑˏ ˋ ˒ˑˊˈ˓ˑˏ. ͹Ǥ ʝːˋ ː˃ˍˑːˈ˙Ǧ˕ˑ ˒ˑˏˋ˓ˋˎˋ˔˟ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˔˅ˑˈˌ ˔˔ˑ˓˞ ͺǤ ʞˑǦˏˑˈˏ˖ǡ «ʬˆˑˋ˔˕» — ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˑˌ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋːǤ ͻǤ ʤˑ˕ˢ ˑː ˋ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋˎ ˖ːˋ˅ˈ˓˔ˋ˕ˈ˕ǡ ˑː ˇˑ˄ˋˎ˔ˢ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋ˘ ˖˔˒ˈ˘ˑ˅ ˅ ˄ˋˊːˈ˔ˈǤ ͳͲǤ ʬ˕˃ ˒˓ˈˏˋˢ ˒˓ˋ˔˖ˉˇ˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˊ˃ «˅˞ˇ˃ˡ˜ˋˌ˔ˢ ˅ˍˎ˃ˇ ˅  ː˃˖ˍ˖».

KEYS h I. 1 2 3 4

— — — —

h f i b

5 6 7 8

— — — —

j a c e

9—d 10 — g

h II. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Chris is a show-off trying to make a really big impression. He’s an awful coward — his brave face is just put-on. His study of the problem is really outstanding. I’m studying for my TOEFL exam in May and I’m stressedout. 5. Our relationship got worse and there followed a break-up a couple months later.

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27. PHRASAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 6. That café was a rip-off. 7. There are many dropouts because they could not afford to pay the £1,000 monthly fees. 8. They’re business partners who have had a falling-out over a minor problem.

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4.

BreakǦups stressedǦout putǦon fallingǦout

5. 6. 7. 8.

dropouts overpriced outstanding showǦoffs

h IV. 1. Any goods are overpriced if they do not sell within six weeks. 2. His putǦon American accent irritates me a lot. 3. I do not want a job where I would be too stressedǦout. 4. I have nothing to do with Clair because she is kind of showǦ off. 5. It is not appropriate to put on sportswear to the office even on a dressǦdown Friday. 6. Our dinner in this restaurant was an awful ripǦoff. 7. Since the breakǦup of her marriage she has been alone. 8. Sri Lanka is a country of outstanding natural beauty. 9. The dropout rate at some universities is very high. 10. There have been numerous fallingsǦout between them before.

h V. 1. 2. 3. 4.

His dress-down clothes are all designer things. You should see a doctor if you are feeling stressed-out. I think $1,000 for a tiny bottle of perfume is a rip-off! As far as I know Jane, her modesty is just put-on.

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PHRASAL VERBS 5. Our Family Service helps people go through marriage and relationship break-ups. 6. Some film critics consider von Trier a womanǦhater and a  show-off. 7. They have finally made it up after their little falling-out. 8. In my opinion Egoist is an overpriced store. 9. Though a university dropoutǡ he’s been very successful in business. 10. The award is given for “an outstanding contribution to science”.

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28. IDIOMS USING PHRASAL VERBS Hi, Phil! How about a round of beer tonight? I need to let off steam1! Holly has told me that she’s going to divorce me! She took the sting out of it2 by saying that we have drifted apart after so many years of marriage but I’m sure she’s seeing someone. My mother has never liked her and always urged me to wake up and smell the coffee3, but I wouldn’t listen to her, you know. She says I got off on the wrong foot4 by giving Holly too much freedom, but you remember we got on like a house on fire5 and I just couldn’t but trust her completely! My dad says he’ll pull out all the stops6 to ruin her career. My brother Neil is beginning to turn on the heat7 and insists on starting divorce proceedings immediately. But I’m just afraid that yielding to their advice might be cutting off my nose to spite my face8 as I still hope that Holly and I can turn back the clock9. Anyway, I can’t make up my mind10 and badly need your advice. See you tonight, Owen 1

let off steam ˑ˕˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˇ˖˛˖ǡ ˅˞˒˖˔˕ˋ˕˟ ˒˃˓ 2 take the sting out of sth ˔˕˃˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ˏˢˆ˚ˋ˕˟ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ 3 wake up and smell the coffee ˓˃˔ˍ˓˞˕˟ ˆˎ˃ˊ˃ 4 get off on the wrong foot ːˈ˖ˇ˃˚ːˑ ː˃˚˃˕˟ 5 get on like a house on fire ˎ˃ˇˋ˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˆ ˔ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏǡ ˉˋ˕˟ ˇ˖˛˃ ˅ ˇ˖˛˖

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PHRASAL VERBS 6

pull out all the stops ːˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˚ˈˏ ːˈ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˖˔˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˑ ˅˔ˈ ˕ˢˉˍˋˈ 7 turn on the heat ˑˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟ ˔ˋˎ˟ːˑˈ ˇ˃˅ˎˈːˋˈǡ ː˃ˉ˃˕˟ 8 cut off one’s nose to spite one’s face ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˔ˈ˄ˈǡ ˉˈˎ˃ˢ ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏ˖ 9 turn back the clock ˅ˈ˓ː˖˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˈ 10 make up one’s mind ˓ˈ˛ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˓ˋːˢ˕˟ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈ

EXTRA EXAMPLES cut off one’s nose to spite one’s face “The next time he makes me work overtime, I’m just going to quit.” “Isn’t that like cutting off your nose to spite your face?”

«ʑ ˔ˎˈˇ˖ˡ˜ˋˌ ˓˃ˊǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˑː ˊ˃˔˕˃˅ˋ˕ ˏˈːˢ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˔˅ˈ˓˘˖˓ˑ˚ːˑǡ ˢ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˖˅ˑǦ ˎˡ˔˟». «ʡˈ˄ˈːˈˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ˚˕ˑˉˈˎ˃ˢ ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˈˏ˖, ˕˞ ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˛˟ ˔ˈ˄ˈ?»

get off on the wrong foot I got off on the wrong foot with my colleagues.

ʛˑˋ ˅ˊ˃ˋˏˑˑ˕ːˑ˛ˈːˋˢ ˔ ˍˑˎˎˈˆ˃ˏˋ˔˔˃ˏˑˆˑː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ˔ˎˑˉˋˎˋ˔˟ ːˈ˖ˇ˃˚ːˑ.

get on like a house on fire My grandparents got on like a house on fire.

ʛˑˋ ˄˃˄˖˛ˍ˃ ˋ ˇˈˇ˖˛ˍ˃ ˅˔ˡ ˉˋˊː˟ ˒˓ˑˉˋˎˋ ˇ˖˛˃ ˅ ˇ˖˛˖.

let off steam I’m sorry I shouted at you. I  just needed to let off steam.

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ʗˊ˅ˋːˋǡ ˕ˑ ː˃ˍ˓ˋ˚˃ˎ ː˃ ˕ˈ˄ˢǤ ʛːˈ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˄˞ˎˑ ː˖ˉǦ ːˑ ˅˞˒˖˔˕ˋ˕˟ ˒˃˓.

28. IDIOMS USING PHRASAL VERBS

make up one’s mind I haven’t made up my mind where to go on holiday yet.

ʮ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎǡ ˍ˖ˇ˃ ˒ˑǦ ˈ˘˃˕˟ ˅ ˑ˕˒˖˔ˍǤ

pull all the stops out Rose’s father pulled out all the stops for his daughter’s promotion.

ʝ˕ˈ˙ʟˑˊ˞ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊˑ˅˃ˎ˅˔ˈ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ˔˕ˋǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑǦ ˏˑ˚˟ ˈˌ ˒ˑˎ˖˚ˋ˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˞˛ˈǦ ːˋˈǤ

take the sting out of sth The flexitime policy will take the sting out of the pay cut.

ʑ˅ˈˇˈːˋˈ ˆˋ˄ˍˑˆˑ ˆ˓˃˗ˋˍ˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˞ ˔ˏˢˆ˚ˋ˕ ˒ˑ˔ˎˈˇ˔˕˅ˋˢ˔ːˋˉˈːˋˢˊ˃˓˃˄ˑ˕ːˑˌ ˒ˎ˃˕˞Ǥ

turn the clock back If only Joshua could turn the clock back and do things differently!

ʔ˔ˎˋ˄˞˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑʓˉˑ˛˖˃ˏˑˆ ˒ˑ˅ˈ˓ː˖˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˅˔˒ˢ˕˟ ˋ  ˒ˑ˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ˒ˑǦˇ˓˖ˆˑˏ˖Ǩ

turn on the heat I am too far behind in my studies and the teachers are turning on the heat.

ʮ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˊ˃˒˖˔˕ˋˎ˃ ˖˚ˈ˄˖ǡ ˋ  ˖˚ˋ˕ˈˎˢ ˖ˉˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˋ ː˃ˉˋˏ˃˕˟ ː˃ ˏˈːˢǤ

wake up and smell the coffee Wake up and smell the coffee! Claire is scheming for your job!

ʟ˃˔ˍ˓ˑˌ ˆˎ˃ˊ˃Ǩ ʙˎˈ˓ ˕ˈ˄ˢ ˒ˑˇ˔ˋˉˋ˅˃ˈ˕Ǩ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʑ˞˄ˈ˓ˋ˕ˈ ː˃ˋ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˈˈ ˔ˎˑ˅ˑ ˋ ˊ˃ˍˑː˚ˋǦ ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǤ 1. A lot of people are afraid of the future and try to _______ the clock back to a time when they were more comfortable. a. rush b. turn c. wind d. put

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PHRASAL VERBS 2. Airline employees are planning to turn up the _______ on their bosses by holding a oneǦday strike. a. fever b. steam c. heat d. fire 3. Everyone worried that they wouldn’t stand each other but they’re getting on like a _______ on fire. a. house b. tree c. log d. building 4. For the manager firing this experienced employee would be like cutting off his _______ to spite his face. a. ears b. lips c. nose d. hair 5. I lift weights or going jogging after work to let off some  _______. a. heat b. fire c. fever d. steam 6. Mr Ritz pulled all the _______ out for his son’s concert but it went flop. a. stops b. strings c. ropes d. lines 7. Mrs Valentine’s new assistant got off on the wrong _______ by being rude to customers. a. hand b. boot c. leg d. foot 8. Some parents just deny their teenage children are having addiction problems, and they’d better wake up and smell the _______. a. tea b. milk c. coffee d. juice 9. To some extent humour can take the _______ out of any unpleasant situation. a. sting b. thorn c. pin d. needle

h౮IIǤ ʖ˃ˏˈːˋ˕ˈ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˞ǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˋˇˋˑˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈǦ ˔ˍˋˏˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. A oneǦday walkout will be a chance for the workers to get rid of their anger and strong emotions. 2. He’s an excellent scientist but he obviously makes a bad start at the relationship with his colleagues.

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28. IDIOMS USING PHRASAL VERBS 3. Let us return to a situation that used to exist and pretend we are living in the past century. 4. The management thinks that a pay bonus will make the tax increase less unpleasant. 5. The parliamentary candidate decided to spare no effort and campaign in every district. 6. The police increased the intensity of measures taken against public disturbers. 7. They met only a month ago, and because they were both into bungee jumping they have a very good and friendly relationship. 8. Things have changed around here, Margaret! Face up to this unpleasant reality! 9. Torn between two loves, medicine and chemistry, I could’t decide which school to choose.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˇˋ˃ˎˑˆˋ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˋˇˋˑˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˏˋ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢˏˋǤ 1. Tim: Sam: 2.

3.

4.

5.

I’m going to propose to Nikki. Oh, come on! She’s been going out with Max! __________________! Pat: Oh, I wish I were twenty years younger! I would change my life completely! Liz: That would be nice, but as ill luck would have it we can’t _________________. Rose: This red dress looks nice but the green one fits me better. Shall I buy the green one, Bill? Bill: Rose, you are wasting my time! Rose: Don’t rush me, Bill. I haven’t ________________ yet. Lucy: I’ve decided to have some revenge on Phil for being rude to me again! Kate: What are you going to do? Lucy: I’m going to infect his PC with a virus!. Kate: Isn’t that your PC too? Aren’t you _______________? Steve: Do you like your roommate? Carl: Yeah! We both like football and rap. So we  _______________.

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PHRASAL VERBS 6. Grace: How is your new job? Carol: I was fifteen minutes late this morning! Grace: Oh, dear! You certainly _________________.

h౮IVǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ ˋ ˋˇˋˑˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǤ ͳǤ ʞˑ˔ˎˈ ˇˎˋːːˑˌ ˒ˑˈˊˇˍˋ ː˃ ˏ˃˛ˋːˈ ˇˈ˕ˋ ˑ˕˅ˑˇˋˎˋ ˇ˖˛˖ǡ ˄ˈˆ˃ˢ ˒ˑ ˎ˖ˉ˃ˌˍˈǤ ʹǤ ʑ˓ˈˏˢˑ˕˅˓ˈˏˈːˋː˃ˏ˅˔ˈˏ˘ˑ˚ˈ˕˔ˢ˒ˑ˅ˈ˓ː˖˕˟˅˓ˈˏˢ ˅˔˒ˢ˕˟. ͵Ǥ ʝː ːˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˚ˈˏ ːˈ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˓˃ˇˋ ˔˅˃ˇ˟˄˞ ˔˅ˑˈˌ ˇˑ˚ˈ˓ˋǤ ͶǤ ʢ ˏˈːˢ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ː˃˒˓ˢˉˈːː˃ˢ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ǡ ˒ˑˠ˕ˑˏ˖ ˢ ˑ˕˅ˑˉ˖ ˇ˖˛˖ǡ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˎˢˢ˔˟ ː˃ ˅˞˘ˑˇː˞ˈ ˅ ˒ˑ˘ˑˇǤ ͷǤ ʓˉˋˎ ˑ˚ˈː˟ ˖˒˓ˢˏ˃Ǥ ʔ˔ˎˋ ˑː˃ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ˃ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˔ˇˈǦ ˎ˃˕˟ǡ ˈˈ ːˈ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟Ǥ 6. C˟ˡ ˖ˎ˞˄ː˖ˎ˃˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˔ˏˢˆ˚ˋ˕˟ ˔˅ˑˌ ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ ˔˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˍ˖ˇ˃Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˔ˑ ˏːˑˌǤ ͹Ǥ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˢ ˒ˑˊː˃ˍˑˏˋˎ˔ˢ ˔ ˔ˈˏ˟ˈˌ ˏˑˈˌ ˇˈ˅˖˛ˍˋǡ ˢ ˔ ˔˃ˏˑˆˑ ː˃˚˃ˎ˃ ˒˓ˑˋˊ˅ˈˎ ˒ˎˑ˘ˑˈ ˅˒ˈ˚˃˕ˎˈːˋˈǡ ˒ˑ˕ˑˏ˖ ˚˕ˑ ˒˓ˋ˒˃˓ˍˑ˅˃ˎ˔ˢ ː˃ ˋ˘ ˎ˖ˉ˃ˌˍˈǤ

KEYS h I. 1—b 2—c 3—a

4—c 5—d 6—a

h II. 1. let off steam 2. gets off on the wrong foot 3. turn back the clock

250

7—d 8—c 9—a

28. IDIOMS USING PHRASAL VERBS 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

will take the sting out of the tax increase to pull out all the stops turned on the heat on get on like a house on fire Wake up and smell the coffee! make up my mind

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

wake up and smell the coffee turn the clock back made up my mind cutting off your nose to spite your face get on like a house on fire get off on the wrong foot

h IV. 1. After the long car trip the children were letting off steam running about the lawn. 2. At times we all wish we could turn the clock back. 3. He will pull out all the stops for their daughter’s wedding. 4. I have a very stressful job so I let off steam by going hiking at weekends. 5. Jill is very stubborn. There is nothing to stop her once she has made up her mind to do something. 6. Sue smiled to take the sting out of her refusal to go out with me. 7. When I met my girlfriend’s family, I got off on the wrong foot because I had parked my car on their lawn.

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29. NEW PHRASAL VERBS New phrasal verbs are entering English all the time. But where do they come from? We live in a world that is constantly changing and developing. New concepts arise while old ones add new meanings. The Internet and computers are particularly productive in generating new phrasal verbs. We can tech up1 an institution ȋi.e. provide it with new computers, Internet access, etc.), Google out2 a websiteȋfind it using the Google search engine), or bump off3 the Internet ȋmeaning ‘lose Internet connection’). Many new phrasal verbs come from the world of business. An employee can get binned off4 ȋthat is ‘be dismissed from a job or position’) or skilled up5 ȋmeaning ‘be provided with the skills necessary to be better at their job). Certain phrasal verbs may receive new meanings and retain the original ones. If someone kicks off6, he doesn’t necessarily start a football match; he may just as well start making trouble. Mass media use phrasal verbs to attract our attention. Thus, rather than writing ‘raise one’s intellectual and cultural values’ journalists are likely to say ‘dumb up7’ and instead of ‘make something more interesting or exciting’ they are sure to use ‘sex up8’. Informal and spoken language is yet another source of new phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs like zone out9 ȋstop thinking about anything) and veg out10ȋrelax in an inert and passive way) are especially popular with young people. 1

tech up ˕ˈ˘ːˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˑ˔ː˃˔˕ˋ˕˟ 2 Google out ː˃ˌ˕ˋ ˅ ʒ˖ˆˎˈǡ «ː˃ˆ˖ˆˎˋ˕˟» 3 bump off ˖˕˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˈːˋˈ ˔ ʗː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ˑˏ 4 bin off ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟

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29. NEW PHRASAL VERBS 5

skill up ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˍ˅˃ˎˋ˗ˋˍ˃˙ˋˡȀ˒˓ˑ˗ˈ˔˔ˋˑː˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ 6 kick off ˔˕˃˕˟ ˋ˔˕ˑ˚ːˋˍˑˏ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏ 7 dumb up ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˋː˕ˈˎˎˈˍ˕˖˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ 8 sex up ˒˓ˋ˖ˍ˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ 9 zone out ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ːˈ˅ːˋˏ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏ 10 veg out ˄ˈˊˇˈˎ˟ːˋ˚˃˕˟

EXTRA EXAMPLES bin sb off They binned him off for bribery.

ʔˆˑ˖˅ˑˎˋˎˋˊ˃˅ˊˢ˕ˑ˚ːˋ˚ˈǦ ˔˕˅ˑǤ

beȀget bumped off I got bumped off the Internet after a few minutes online.

ʑ˔ˈˆˑˎˋ˛˟˚ˈ˓ˈˊːˈ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˏˋː˖˕ ˋː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˈːˋˈ ˒˓ˈ˓˅˃ˎˑ˔˟.

dumb up sthȀdumb sth up His example always inspires me to dumb up.

ʔˆˑ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ˅ˇˑ˘Ǧ ːˑ˅ˎˢˈ˕ ˏˈːˢ ˋː˕ˈˎˎˈˍ˕˖˃ˎ˟ːˑ ˓˃ˊ˅ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ.

Google sth out I’ve Googled out a cool site.

ʮ «ː˃ˆ˖ˆˎˋˎ» ˍˎˈ˅˞ˌ ˔˃ˌ˕Ǥ

kick off If they don’t keep the music down I’ll kick off and call the police.

ʔ˔ˎˋ ˑːˋ ːˈ ˒˓ˋˍ˓˖˕ˢ˕ ˏ˖Ǧ ˊ˞ˍ˖ǡ ˢ ˅˞ˊˑ˅˖ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˋˡ ˋ ˖˔˕˓ˑˡˋˏːˈ˒˓ˋˢ˕ːˑ˔˕ˋ.

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PHRASAL VERBS

sex up sthȀsex sth up Reporters usually sex up news to attract readers.

ʟˈ˒ˑ˓˕ˈ˓˞ ˚˃˔˕ˑ ˒˓ˋ˖ˍ˓˃˛ˋ˅˃ˡ˕ ːˑ˅ˑ˔˕ˋ ˇˎˢ ˒˓ˋǦ ˅ˎˈ˚ˈːˋˢ ˚ˋ˕˃˕ˈˎˈˌǤ

skill up sbȀskill sb up Our seminar offers estate agents a chance to skill up.

ʜ˃˛ ˔ˈˏˋː˃˓ ˒˓ˈˇˎ˃ˆ˃ˈ˕ ˓ˋˈˎ˕ˑ˓˃ˏ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ˔˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˔˅ˑˌ ˒˓ˑ˗ˈ˔˔ˋˑː˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟.

tech up sthȀtech sth up Local authorities have been teching up village schools.

ʛˈ˔˕ː˞ˈ ˅ˎ˃˔˕ˋ ˑ˄ˑ˓˖ˇ˖ˡ˕ ˔ˈˎ˟˔ˍˋˈ ˛ˍˑˎ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ːˑˌ ˕ˈ˘ːˋˍˑˌ.

veg out I feel like vegging out in front of the television this evening.

ʠˈˆˑˇːˢ ˅ˈ˚ˈ˓ˑˏ ˏːˈ ˘ˑ˚ˈ˕Ǧ ˔ˢ ˒ˑ˄ˈˊˇˈˎ˟ːˋ˚˃˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˕ˈˎˈ˅ˋˊˑ˓ˑˏǤ

zone out When she starts lecturing me I  just zone out.

ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˑː˃ ː˃˚ˋː˃ˈ˕ ˏˈːˢ ˅ˑ˔˒ˋ˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˢ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚˃ˡ˔˟.

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓Ǧ ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ ˕˃ˍˋˏ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑˏǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑːˋ ˔ˑˇˈ˓Ǧ ˉ˃ˎˋ˔ˎˑ˅˃ǡː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡˋ˔ˑǦ ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. From now on I’m going to spend more time relaxing to the point of complete inertia. 2. He was dismissed for incompetence. 3. I lose Internet connection when using uTorrent.

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VEG BIN BUMP

29. NEW PHRASAL VERBS 4. News must be made more interesting to attract audience. 5. The film was so boring that I stopped paying attention to it in ten minutes. 6. The new producer has really made the show more intellectual. 7. The process of providing the factory with new equipment is rather painful and expensive. 8. We mustn’t forget about the older generation in our desire to provide the nation with the skills necessary to be better at their jobs. 9. When I don’t know what something is, I just find it using the Google search engine. 10. You’d have become very angry if you had been delayed by two hours on your journey.

SEX ZONE DUMB

TECH

SKILL GOOGLE KICK

h౮IIǤ ʠˑˈˇˋːˋ˕ˈ ː˃˚˃ˎˑ ˋ ˍˑːˈ˙ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˌǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˎǦ ːˋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋǤ 1. Employees should skill … 2. He deliberately sexed … 3. He was promoted to manager when Lewis was binned  … 4. I don’t have many people I can kick … 5. I keep getting bumped … 6. I vegged … 7. I was so tired that I must have zoned … 8. If you want to tech … 9. It will take generations to dumb… 10. Nowadays more and more people are Googling …

a. _______ with and then apologize. b. _______ my iPod while playing Angry Birds. c. _______ for cheap holidays. d. _______ popular culture. e. _______ business you’ll need huge investments. f. _______ to develop their careers. g. _______ for mucking up the project. h. _______ on the sofa, and watched Bridget Jone’s Diary. i. _______ for a minute. j. _______ the experiment results in order to get more funding.

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋǦ ˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǤ 1. A lot of startǦups are planning to _______ staff to handle more complicated tasks. a. tech up b. skill up c. dumb up 2. I’ve _______ the babyǦsitter for being negligent. a. binned off b. kicked off c. bumped off 3. If you have a problem with a virus you may get ________ every few minutes. a. kicked off b. bumped off c. binned off 4. It took me quite a long time to _______ the right site. a. veg out b. zone out c. Google out 5. I’ve just been _______ for the past 3 days, so there isn’t really much to write about. a. vegging out b. kicking off c. zoning out 6. The show’s success proves his theory that popular culture is _______. a. sexing up b. teching up c. dumbing up 7. There is much attempt to _______ things for modern audience. c. tech up a. sex up b. skill up 8. These guys started asking me for a fag and then one of them started to ______. a. zone out b. bump off c. kick off 9. When she plays the piano it’s so boring that I _______ immediately. a. veg out b. zone out c. kick off

h౮IVǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʓˉˑˈˎ˃ ˖˅ˑˎˋˎˋ ˊ˃ ˔ˋ˔˕ˈˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˈ ˒˓ˑˆ˖ˎ˞Ǥ ʹǤ ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ʬˎˎ˃ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚ˋˎ˃˔˟ ˋ ˖˔ː˖ˎ˃ ˒˓ˢˏˑ ː˃ ˔ˈ˓ˈǦ ˇˋːˈ ˇˑˍˎ˃ˇ˃Ǥ

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29. NEW PHRASAL VERBS ͵Ǥ ʛːˈ ˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢ ˢ «ː˃ˆ˖ˆˎˋˎ» ˑ˕ˎˋ˚ː˞ˌ ˑ˕ˈˎ˟ Ȅ ˇˑ˔˕˃Ǧ ˕ˑ˚ːˑ ˇˈ˛ˈ˅˞ˌ ˋ ˍˑˏ˗ˑ˓˕˃˄ˈˎ˟ː˞ˌǤ ͶǤ ʜ˃ˏ ː˖ˉːˑ ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˗ˈ˔˔ˋˑː˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ ˛˕˃˕ː˞˘ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍˑ˅ǡ ˃ ːˈ ː˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟ ːˑ˅˞˘ ˒˓ˑ˗ˈ˔Ǧ ˔ˋˑː˃ˎˑ˅Ǥ ͷǤ ʜˈˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˃˅˕ˑ˓˞ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋ˘ ˓ˑˏ˃ːˑ˅ ˔ˍˎˑːː˞ ˒˓ˋ˖ˍ˓˃˛˃˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˈǤ ͸Ǥ ʞ˓ˋˏˈ˓ːˑ ͷ ˓˃ˊ ˅ ˇˈː˟ ˄ˈˊ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːːˑˌ ˒˓ˋ˚ˋː˞ ˖  ˏˈːˢ ˒˓ˈ˓˞˅˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˋː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˈːˋˈ. ͹Ǥ ʞ˓ˑ˙ˈ˔˔ ˕ˈ˘ːˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˑˆˑ ˒ˈ˓ˈˑ˔ː˃˜ˈːˋˢ ˔ˈˎ˟˔ˍˋ˘ ˄ˑˎ˟ːˋ˙ ˅˔ˈ ˈ˜ˈ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃ˈ˕˔ˢǤ ͺǤ ʢ˚ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ ˒˓ˈˇ˖˒˓ˈˇˋˎ ˏˈːˢǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˢ ːˈ ˇˈˎ˃ˎ ˔˅ˑˌ ˇˑˍˎ˃ˇ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˊ˃˖ˏː˞ˏ. ͻǤ ʮ˄˞˒˓ˈˇ˒ˑ˚ˈˎǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞˕˞ːˈ˒˓ˋˆˎ˃˛˃ˎʛ˃ˍ˔˃Ȅˢːˈ ˘ˑ˚˖ǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˑː ː˃ˏ ˖˔˕˓˃ˋ˅˃ˎ ˕˖˕ ːˈ˒˓ˋˢ˕ːˑ˔˕ˋ. ͳͲǤ ʮ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˚˕ˑ ˒ˈ˓˅˖ˡ ːˈˇˈˎˡ ˑ˕˒˖˔ˍ˃ ˢ ˄˖ˇ˖ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˄ˈˊˇˈˎ˟ːˋ˚˃˕˟.

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

From now on I’m going to spend more time vegging out. He was binned off for incompetence. I get bumped off when using uTorrent. News must be sexed up to attract audience. The film was so boring that I zoned out in ten minutes. The new producer has really dumbed the show up. The process of teching up the factory is rather painful and expensive. 8. We mustn’t forget about the older generation in our desire to skill up the nation. 9. When I don’t know what something is, I just Google it out. 10. You’d have kicked off if you had been delayed by two hours on your journey.

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PHRASAL VERBS h II. 1 2 3 4 5

— — — — —

up up off off off

— — — — —

6 — out — h 7 — out — i 8 — up — e 9 — up — d 10 — out — c

f j g a b

h III. 1—b 2—a 3—b

4—c 5—a 6—c

7—a 8—c 9—b

h IV. 1. Joel was binned off for absenteeism. 2. Ella seemed to have zoned out and fallen asleep right in  the middle of the report. 3. I guess I’ve Googled out a nice hotel — quite cheap and comfortable. 4. We need to skill up the existing staff instead of hiring new  professionals. 5. Some historical novelists tend to sex up the past. 6. I keep getting bumped of the Internet around 5 times a  day for no reason. 7. The process of teching up rural hospitals is still underway. 8. My teacher warned me not to dumb up my report. 9. I’d rather you didn’t invite Max — I don’t want him kicking off around here. 10. I think I’ll just veg out during the first week of my vacation.

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30. INFORMAL LANGUAGE Dear Fiona, Strange things have been happening in the office lately. It seems to me that people out there have ganged up1 on me and are trying to boot me out2. Now, judge for yourself. Janet and Cathy just swan around3 the office doing nothing and when I rebuke them they just pretend they can’t cotton on4 to what I want. Last week Ted mucked up5 the project I had been beavering away6 at for three months. But when I was explaining the whole thing to Mr Roy yesterday he just barged into7 and said that it was me who had messed up8 the job and went on to putting me down9 in front of him! No one talks to me anymore. When I enter the room everyone just clams up10. I really feel like jacking this job in11! I need your advice badly! Write soon, Jill 1

gang up ˔ˆˑ˅˃˓ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˑ˄˝ˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ ˔ˋˎ˞ 2 boot out ˅˞ˆˑːˢ˕˟ 3 swan around ˔ˎˑːˢ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˄˓ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˄ˈˊ ˇˈˎ˃ 4 cotton on ˒ˑːˋˏ˃˕˟ 5 muck up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋ˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ǡ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː) 6 beaver away ˍˑ˓˒ˈ˕˟ː˃ˇ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǡ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ːˈ˒ˑˍˎ˃ˇ˃ˢ˓˖ˍ 7 barge into ˅ˏˈ˛ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˓ˈ˅˃˕˟ ˅ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓

259

PHRASAL VERBS 8

mess up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋ˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ǡ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː) 9 put down ˔ˏǤ ͹Ǥ Feelings; p. 62 10 clam up ˊ˃ˏˑˎ˚˃˕˟ 11 jack in ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖)

EXTRA EXAMPLES barge intoȀbarge into sth It was rude of you to barge into our conversation yesterday.

C˕˅ˑˈˌ˔˕ˑ˓ˑː˞˄˞ˎˑˆ˓˖˄ˑ ˅ˎˈˊ˃˕˟ ˅˚ˈ˓˃ ˅ ː˃˛ ˓˃ˊˆˑǦ ˅ˑ˓Ǥ

beaver away I have a team of architects beavering away at the design of my new house.

ʜ˃ˇ ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ˑˏ ˏˑˈˆˑ ːˑ˅ˑˆˑ ˇˑˏ˃ ːˈ ˒ˑˍˎ˃ˇ˃ˢ ˓˖ˍ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃ˈ˕˙ˈˎ˃ˢˍˑˏ˃ːˇ˃˃˓˘ˋǦ ˕ˈˍ˕ˑ˓ˑ˅Ǥ

boot out sbȀboot sb out Kenneth has been booted out of the house again.

ʙˈːːˈ˕˃ ˔ːˑ˅˃ ˅˞ˆː˃ˎˋ ˋˊ ˇˑˏ˃Ǥ

clam up As soon as I told them my name, they clammed up.

ʙ˃ˍ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˢ ˒˓ˈˇ˔˕˃˅ˋˎ˔ˢǡ ˑːˋ ˊ˃ˏˑˎ˚˃ˎˋ.

cotton on Haven’t you cottoned on yet?

ʡ˞ ˚˕ˑǡ ˅˔ˈ ˈ˜ˈ ːˈ ˒ˑːˢˎ, ˅  ˚ˈˏ ˇˈˎˑǫ

gang up All the boys in my class seemed to gang up on me.

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ʙ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˅˔ˈ ˏ˃ˎ˟˚ˋ˛Ǧ ˍˋ ˏˑˈˆˑ ˍˎ˃˔˔˃ ˑ˄˝ˈˇˋːˋˎˋ˔˟ ˒˓ˑ˕ˋ˅ ˏˈːˢǤ

30. INFORMAL LANGUAGE

jack sth inȀjack in sth Gary is going to jack his present job in.

ʒ˃˓˓ˋ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖Ǥ

mess up sthȀmess sth up I’ve messed up an important project, I think I’ll be fired.

ʮ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋˎ ˅˃ˉː˞ˌ ˒˓ˑˈˍ˕ǡ ˇ˖ˏ˃ˡǡ ˏˈːˢ ˖˅ˑˎˢ˕Ǥ

muck up sthȀmuck sth up My sister mucked up her exams.

ʛˑˢ ˔ˈ˔˕˓˃ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋˎ˃ ˠˍˊ˃Ǧ ˏˈː˞Ǥ

swan aroundȀswan around sth Dana says she’s terribly busy but she just swans around the office doing nothing.

ʓ˃ː˃ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋ˕ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˖ˉ˃˔ːˑ ˊ˃ːˢ˕˃ǡ ˃ ˔˃ˏ˃ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˔ˎˑːˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˄ˈˊ ˇˈˎ˃ ˒ˑ ˑ˗ˋ˔˖Ǥ

PRACTICE h౮IǤ ʜ˃ˌˇˋ˕ˈ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˇ˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈǦ ːˋˢˏˋ ˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˒ˑ ˕ˈˏˈǤ 1. to begin to understand something 2. to enjoy yourself and behave in a relaxed way that is annoying to other people 3. to force someone to leave a place, job, or organization, especially because they have done something wrong 4. to join together, typically in order to intimidate someone 5. to rudely interrupt someone 6. to spoil or do something badly, so that you fail to achieve something 7. to stop doing something 8. to suddenly stop talking, especially when you are nervous or shy 9. to work very hard, especially at writing or calculating something

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮IIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ˘ ˚˃˔˕ˋ˙˃ˏˋ ȋː˃˓ˈ˚ˋˢˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋȌ around, away, in, into, on, out ˋˎˋ up. 1. At that moment, Sandra barged _______ my room without knocking. 2. I get depressed in my current job so I’m thinking about jacking it _______. 3. I hate it when Dan and Mike are together; they always gang  _______ on younger boys. 4. I never volunteer for challenging tasks as I’m constantly afraid that I may muck something _______ badly. 5. If a foreigner should break the law he will be booted _______ of the country. 6. It took me ages to get this grant so I won’t have you mess it _______. 7. Large stores have at last cottoned _______ to the fact that some physically challenged people have difficulty in coping with stairs. 8. We’ve been beavering _______ while Jane, who normally does this job, has been swanning _______ the office. 9. When he finds himself surrounded with people he doesn’t know he just clams _______ completely.

h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃ˏˈːˋ˕ˈ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏ ˗˓˃ˊˑǦ ˅˞ˈˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ǡˑ˕ːˑ˔ˢ˜ˋˈ˔ˢˍ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ːˑˏ˖˔˕ˋˎˡǡ ˋ˘ ːˈˌ˕˓˃ˎ˟ːˑǦ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ː˞ˏˋ ˠˍ˅ˋ˅˃ˎˈː˕˃ˏˋǤ dismiss rudely interrupt stop talking

understand unite against working hard

1. According to psychologists, a lot of people just clam up when they are having emotional problems. 2. Five employees have been booted out for insubordination this month. 3. Only after you have evaluated the project thoroughly you will be able to cotton on to its sustainability threshold.

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30. INFORMAL LANGUAGE 4. Some of the protesters barged into the meeting and demanded to speak with the manager. 5. The software will allow individuals to coǦoperate on projects instead of beavering away in isolation. 6. There are alarming signs that the two biggest companies are ganging up on the rest.

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃ˏˈːˋ˕ˈ ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏ ˔ˎˑ˅˃ ˋ ˗˓˃ˊ˞ǡ ˑ˕ːˑ˔ˢ˜ˋˈ˔ˢ ˍ ːˈˌ˕˓˃ˎ˟ːˑǦ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ːˑǦ ˏ˖ ˔˕ˋˎˡǡ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅˖ˡ˜ˋˏˋ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑǦ ˎ˃ˏˋǡ ˑ˕ːˑ˔ˢ˜ˋˏˋ˔ˢ ˍ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ːˑˏ˖ ˔˕ˋˎˡǤ beaver away at clam up cotton on to

jack in muck up swan around

1. After Bill left the teaching job, he got herself a good position with a travel agency. 2. Dave has been working slowly and perseveringly on his project for months. 3. Ella soon realised what I was trying to tell her. 4. If Patty fails her driving test again, I doubt if she’ll ever dare to take it again. 5. The last thing I need tonight is Sophie wandering idly looking like a pop prinsess. 6. The teacher asked who had smashed a stone through the window, but the class kept silent.

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞Ǥ ͳǤ ʒˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː ʤˋˍ˔ ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋˎ ˖ˉˈ ˇˈ˔ˢ˕˟ ˏˋː˖˕ǡ ˃ ˢ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ː˃˚˃ˎ ˒ˑːˋˏ˃˕˟ǡ ˑ ˚˩ˏǤ ʹǤ ʛˈːˢ ˓˃ˊˇ˓˃ˉ˃ˈ˕ ˕ˑǡ ˚˕ˑ ˑː˃ ˄ˈ˔˙ˈˎ˟ːˑ ˔ˎˑːˢˈ˕˔ˢ ˒ˑ  ˑ˗ˋ˔˖ ˒ˑ˔˓ˈˇˋ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˈˆˑ ˇːˢǤ ͵Ǥ ʛ˞ˊ˃ˏˈ˕ˋˎˋǡ˚˕ˑʜˋˍˋˊ˃ˏˑˎˍˎ˃ǡˍ˃ˍ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ˒ˑˢ˅ˋˎǦ ˔ˢ ˠ˕ˑ˕ ˏ˖ˉ˚ˋː˃Ǥ ͶǤ ʛ˞ ˍˑ˓˒ˋˏ ː˃ˇ ˠ˕ˑˌ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏˑˌ ˖ˉˈ ːˈˇˈˎˡǡ ːˑ ˒ˑˍ˃ ˚˕ˑ ˄ˈˊ ˑ˔ˑ˄ˑˆˑ ˖˔˒ˈ˘˃Ǥ

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PHRASAL VERBS ͷǤ ʝː˄˞ˎˑ˚ˈː˟˓ˑ˄ˍˋˏˋːˋ˚ˈˆˑːˈˏˑˆ˒ˑˇˈˎ˃˕˟˔˕ˈˏǡ ˚˕ˑ ˈˆˑ ˑˇːˑˍˎ˃˔˔ːˋˍˋ ˒ˑ˔˕ˑˢːːˑ ˅˞ˆˑːˢˎˋ ˈˆˑ ˋˊ ˍˎ˃˔˔˃Ǥ ͸Ǥ ʞ˃˕˕ˋ ˒ˑˉ˃ˎˑ˅˃ˎ˃˔˟ǡ ˚˕ˑ ˈˈ ˍˑˎˎˈˆˋ ˔ˆˑ˅ˑ˓ˋˎˋ˔˟ ˒˓ˑ˕ˋ˅ ːˈˈǤ ͹Ǥ ʞ˓ˋˈˊˇ ˕ˈ˜ˋ ː˃˓˖˛ˋˎ ˅˔ˈ ˏˑˋ ˒ˎ˃ː˞Ǥ ͺǤ ʡˈ˄ˈ ːˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ːˈˑ˄˘ˑˇˋˏˑ˔˕ˋ ˅ˎˈˊ˃˕˟ ˔ˑ ˔˅ˑˋˏˋ ˆˎ˖Ǧ ˒˞ˏˋ ˍˑˏˏˈː˕˃˓ˋˢˏˋǤ ͻǤ ʮ˄˞ˎ˒ˑ˚˕ˋ˖˅ˈ˓ˈːǡ˚˕ˑʐˑ˄˅˔ˈˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕ǡːˑǡ˅˔ˈˉˈǡ ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ ˇ˃˕˟ ˈˏ˖ ˛˃ː˔Ǥ

KEYS h I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to to to to to

cotton on swan around boot out gang up barge into

6. 7. 8. 9.

to to to to

muck upȀto mess up jack in clam up beaver away

h౮II. 1 2 3 4 5

— — — — —

into in up up out

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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stop talking have been dismissed understand rudely interrupted working hard are uniting against

6 7 8 9

— — — —

up on awayȀaround up

30. INFORMAL LANGUAGE h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

jacked in has been beavering away at cottoned on to mucks up swanning around clammed up

h V. 1. Mr Hicks had been speaking for ten minutes half before I  cottoned on. 2. Her swanning around the office in the middle of the working day annoys me. 3. We noticed that Nikki clammed up as soon as that man appeared. 4. We’ve been beavering away at this problem for a week already but so far without much success. 5. He was very timid and couldn’t help being booted out of the class by his classǦmates. 6. Patty complained that her colleagues had ganged up on her. 7. My motherǦinǦlaw’s visit really messed up all my plans. 8. There was no need for you to barge into with your stupid comments. 9. I was pretty sure Bob would muck the whole thing up but still decided to give him a chance.

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REVISION 26—30 h౮IǤ ʖ˃ˍˑː˚ˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˈ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊ˞Ǥ 1. Carol is a real showǦoff. She enjoys … a. distracting people b. attracting everybody’s attention c. showing people around 2. I think Laurel’s sympathy for Jill is all putǦon. Laurel is not being … b. friendly c. clever a. sincere 3. If a piece of news has been sexed up it has been made … a. mere sexually attractive b. more interesting c. more indecent 4. If someone is going to veg out, he’s likely to … a. grow vegetables b. become a vegetarian c. relax 5. If someone lets off steam he may … b. smile at you c. stare at you a. shout at you 6. If you have mucked up your driving exam, you … a. have passed it b. will have to take it again c. will get your driver’s license 7. If your boss is turning on the heat he is … a. turning the central heating on b. exerting pressure on you c. heating up some coffee

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REVISION 26—30 8. If your colleagues have ganged up on you, they have … a. invited you to join an informal group b. set a local gang on you c. decided to oppose you 9. The shop has already sold out those sneakers; they should have ordered … a. more b. less c. the same amount 10. When you’ve finished the assignment, please hand in your  … c. notebooks a. answer sheets b. textbooks

h౮IIǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˗˓˃ˊˋ˓˖ˌ˕ˈ˔ˎˑ˅˃ˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ˅˞ˇˈˎˈːː˞ˈ ˉˋ˓ː˞ˏ˛˓ˋ˗˕ˑˏǡ˕˃ˍǡ˚˕ˑ˄˞ˑːˋ˔ˑˇˈ˓ˉ˃ˎˋ˔ˎˑǦ ˅˃ǡ ː˃˒ˋ˔˃ːː˞ˈ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˏˋ ˄˖ˍ˅˃ˏˋǡ ˋ ˔ˑ˘˓˃ːˢˎˋ ˒˓ˈˉːˋˈ ˊː˃˚ˈːˋˢǤ 1. After such a hard day I feel like giving this job up. 2. Chris is working hard to keep his repair shop running smoothly. 3. Household wastes are collected in our neighbourhood on Thursdays. 4. I changed the settings but lost Internet connection again, almost immediately. 5. I really wanted a tuna and cheese sandwich and ordered one to eat outside. 6. In the middle of the party Phil rudely interrupted our cosy evening. 7. Oliver likes to go around the office with no real purpose while others are working. 8. Roadwork is reducing the speed of traffic on the San Bernardino freeway. 9. Some fans had to join a line of people waiting all day for their turn just to get in. 10. The secretary confused the appointments and disrupted the whole procedure.

IN AWAY UP OFF AWAY INTO AROUND DOWN UP UP

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PHRASAL VERBS h౮IIIǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋǡ ˍˑ˕ˑ˓˞ˈ ˏˑˆ˖˕ ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˖ˍ˃ˊ˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˆ˃ˏˋ ˋ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕Ǧ ˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˒˓ˋ˅ˈˇˈːː˞ˏ ˅ ˔ˍˑ˄ˍ˃˘ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːˋˢˏǤ a. _______ (to put or leave in a particular place without ceremony or formality)

c. _______ (to become very angry and start an argument or fight) 1. off

b. _______ (to remove smb from a job or position)

d. _______ (to avoid encroaching on or touching)

a. _______ (to force smb to leave a place or job because they have done sth wrong)

c. _______ (to stop thinking or noticing what is going around you) 2. out

b. _______ (to search for sth on the Internet using the Google ™ search engine)

d. _______ (to relax to the point of complete inertia)

a. _______ (to suddenly stop talking, because you are nervous or shy)

c. _______ (to provide smb with the skills necessary to be better at their job) 3. up

b. _______ (to make something appear more intellectual)

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d. _______ (to let smb else have something because they need it more than you)

REVISION 26—30 a. _______ (to begin to understand something)

4. on

b. _______ (to put on an item of clothing to see if it fits or suits one)

h౮IVǤ ʖ˃˒ˑˎːˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˑ˒˖˔ˍˋ ˅ ˕ˈˍ˔˕˃˘ ˒ˑˇ˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˏˋ ˒ˑ ˔ˏ˞˔ˎ˖ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˏˋ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˃ˏˋ ˅ ː˖ˉːˑˌ ˗ˑ˓ˏˈǡ ˋˇˋˑˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˏˋ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢˏˋǡ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞Ǧ ˏˋ ˋˎˋ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏˋǡ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːː˞ˏˋ ˋˊ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ Hi, Sue I haven’t heard from you for a while, so I’m a bit worried. How are you? How’s Tony? I couldn’t believe it when I heard about his (1)  _______ with Linda. They were such a nice couple, weren’t they? I hope he isn’t all too (2) _______. Give him love, sis. Anyway, I’m on vacation now but with all my near and dear I don’t have time just to (3) _______ in front of the TV or (4)  _______ the house. The twins have started to (5) _______. Quite until recently they used to (6) _______, but now they are constantly fighting each other. Every time Mike or I try to talk to them they just (7) _______ and won’t listen to us! We know it’s their awkward age, but we are none the happier for knowing it. Lucy spends her days (8) _______ at her desk and (9) _______ for her graduation exams. She knows that we (10) _______ to find her a good job and she doesn’t want to fail us. Well, are you coming to Brighton soon? I miss you, sis! Phone or email me, OK? Love, Nina XXX

h౮VǤ ʞˈ˓ˈ˅ˈˇˋ˕ˈ ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˈːˋˢ ː˃ ˃ːˆˎˋˌ˔ˍˋˌ ˢˊ˞ˍǡ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊ˖ˢ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞ˈ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎ˞ǡ ˋˇˋˑˏ˃˕ˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋˈ ˅˞˓˃ˉˈːˋˢǡ ˒˓ˋˎ˃ˆ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˈ ˋˎˋ ˔˖˜ˈ˔˕˅ˋ˕ˈˎ˟Ǧ ː˞ˈǡ ˑ˄˓˃ˊˑ˅˃ːː˞ˈ ˋˊ ˗˓˃ˊˑ˅˞˘ ˆˎ˃ˆˑˎˑ˅Ǥ 269

PHRASAL VERBS ͳǤ ʓˑ˓ˑˉːˑˌ ˒ˑˎˋ˙ˋˋ ˇ˃˅ːˑ ˒ˑ˓˃ ː˃˚˃˕˟ ˄ˑ˓˟˄˖ ˔ ˄ˈˊǦ ˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˈːː˞ˏˋ ˅ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˢˏˋǤ ʹǤ ʛːˈ ˍ˃ˉˈ˕˔ˢǡ ˚˕ˑ ˒˓ˈˇ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕ˈˎˋ ˔˓ˈˇ˔˕˅ ˏ˃˔˔ˑ˅ˑˌ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˋ ː˃ˏˈ˓ˈːːˑ ˔ˆ˖˜˃ˡ˕ ˍ˓˃˔ˍˋ ˅ ːˑ˅ˑ˔˕ˢ˘ ˋ  ˖˔ˎˑˉːˢˡ˕ ˢˊ˞ˍǤ ͵Ǥ ʜ˃ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˌ ːˈˇˈˎˈ ˆˑ˔˒ˑˇˋː˃ ʏˇ˃ˏ˔˃ ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˋˎˋ ː˃ ˒ˈː˔ˋˡǡ ˋ «ˊˑˎˑ˕ˑˈ ˓˖ˍˑ˒ˑˉ˃˕ˋˈ» ˅ ˅ˋˇˈ ˅˞˘ˑˇːˑˆˑ ˒ˑ˔ˑ˄ˋˢ ˄˞ˎˑ ˒˓ˈˇː˃ˊː˃˚ˈːˑ ˕ˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˇˎˢ ˕ˑˆˑǡ ˚˕ˑ˄˞ ˒ˑ˔˕˃˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ˏˢˆ˚ˋ˕˟ ˠ˕ˑ ˔ˑ˄˞˕ˋˈǤ ʜ˃ ˔˃ˏˑˏ ˇˈˎˈǡ ˈˆˑ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˖˅ˑˎˋˎˋ. ͶǤ ʞˎ˃˕˟ˈ ˄˞ˎˑ ːˈ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˋˏǡ ˠ˕ˑ ˄˞ˎ ː˃˔˕ˑˢ˜ˋˌ ˆ˓˃˄ˈˉǨ ʙˑˆˇ˃ ˇˑ ˏˑˈˆˑ ˏ˖ˉ˃ ˇˑˌˇˈ˕, ˔ˍˑˎ˟ˍˑ ˢ ˊ˃ ːˈˆˑ ˊ˃˒ˎ˃˕ˋˎ˃ǡ ˑː ˄˖ˇˈ˕ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑ ˅ːˈ ˔ˈ˄ˢǤ ͷǤ ʮ˅˔ˈˈ˜ˈːˈ˓ˈ˛ˋˎ, ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ˎˋˏːˈˏˑˡ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ˋˎˋ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃˕˟ ˕˃ˏ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ǡ ːˈ ˒ˑˍˎ˃ˇ˃ˢ ˓˖ˍ.

KEYS h I. 1—b 2—a 3—b Ͷ Ȅ ˔

5—a 6—b 7—b ͺ Ȅ ˔

9—a 10 — a

h II. 1. After such a hard day I feel like jacking this job in. 2. Chris is beavering away to keep his repair shop running smoothly. 3. Household wastes are picked up in our neighbourhood on Thursdays. 4. I changed the settings but got bumped off again, almost immediately.

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REVISION 26—30 5. I really wanted a tuna and cheese sandwich and ordered one to take away. 6. In the middle of the party Phil barged into our cosy evening. 7. Oliver likes to swan around while others are working. 8. Roadwork is slowing down traffic on the San Bernardino freeway. 9. Some fans had to queue up all day just to get in. 10. The secretary messed up the appointments and disrupted the whole procedure.

h III. 1. 2. 3. 4.

off out up on

a. a. a. a.

to to to to

drop boot clam cotton

b. b. b. b.

to to to to

bin Google dumb try

c. to kick c. to zone c. to skill

d. to keep d. to veg d. to give

h IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

breakǦup stressedǦout veg out swan around kick off get on like a house on fire zone out beavring away swotting up have pulled all the stops out

h V. 1. It’s time road police should turn on the heat on reckless drivers.

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PHRASE VERBS 2. It seems to me that mass media people deliberately sex up news and dumb up its language. 3. Mr Adams was pensioned off last week and the golden handshake was meant only to take the sting out of it. In fact, he was just binned off. 4. The dress wasn’t just overpriced, it was a real rip-off! When my husband cottons on to how much I paid for it, he’ll just go mad. 5. I haven’t made up my mind yet whether to jack in my present job or go on beavering away.

VOCABULARY A amount to sth ˇˑ˔˕ˋˆ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˇˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˇˑ ȋˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅˃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ ask sb out ː˃ˊː˃˚˃˕˟ ˔˅ˋˇ˃ːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˋˆˎ˃˛˃˕˟ ȋˍ˖ˇ˃Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ

B back up sth or back sth up ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˓ˈˊˈ˓˅ː˖ˡ ˍˑ˒ˋˡ ˗˃ˌˎ˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ balance out ˖˓˃˅ːˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˋ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˔ˑˑ˕˅ˈ˕˔˕˅ˋˈǡ ˍˑˏ˒ˈː˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ barge into or barge into sth ˅ˏˈ˛ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˓ˈ˅˃˕˟ ˅ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ be / get bogged down ˖˅ˢˊː˖˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˔˕˓ˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ be / get bumped off ˖˕˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˈːˋˈ ˔ ʗː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ˑˏ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ be bursting with sth ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟ǡ ˄˞˕˟ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˈːː˞ˏ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ be dotted with sth ˖˔ˈˢːː˞ˌ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˒ˑˎː˞ˌ ȋ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ be into sb ˋː˕ˈ˓ˈ˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ be pressed for sth ːˈ ˘˅˃˕˃˕˟ ȋ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ be rained off ˑ˕ˏˈːˋ˕˟ ˋˊǦˊ˃ ˇˑˉˇˢǢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ be steeped in ˒ˑˎː˞ˌǡ ˒˓ˑːˋˊ˃ːː˞ˌ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑǢ ˋ˔˕ˑ˓ˋˈˌǡ ˕˓˃ˇˋ˙ˋˢˏˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ be taken aback ˊ˃˘˅˃˕ˋ˕˟ ˅˓˃˔˒ˎˑ˘Ǣ ˒ˑ˓˃ˊˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ beat down ˎˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˇˑˉˇˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ beaver away ˍˑ˓˒ˈ˕˟ ȋː˃ˇ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ːˈ ˒ˑˍˎ˃ˇ˃ˢ ˓˖ˍ . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ bin sb off ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ

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PHRASAL VERBS black out ː˃ ˏˆːˑ˅ˈːˋˈ ˕ˈ˓ˢ˕˟ ˔ˑˊː˃ːˋˈ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ blend in ȋwith) sth aȌ ːˈ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˕ˑˎ˒ˈȌǡ ˔ˏˈ˛˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˕ˑˎ˒ˑˌ); bȌ ˅ˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˍˑˎˎˈˍ˕ˋ˅). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ blend in ȋwith) sth ˔ˑ˚ˈ˕˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˆ˃˓ˏˑːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ block out sth or block sth out ˄ˎˑˍˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˕ˈ˓ˈ˕˟ ˋˊ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ block sb ȋsth) in ˄ˎˑˍˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋˏ˃˛ˋː˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ blot sth out ˊ˃ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˕˖˚˃˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ blow out ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋ˛ˋː˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ blow over ˏˋːˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˆ˓ˑˊˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ boot out sb or boot sb out ˅˞ˆˑːˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ branch off ˑ˕ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢǢ ˑ˕˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˑ˕ ˆˎ˃˅ːˑˆˑ ː˃˒˓˃˅ˎˈːˋˢǡ ˑ˕˅ˈ˕˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ break into sth ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˕˓˃˕ˋ˕˟ ȋˇˈː˟ˆˋǡ ˔˄ˈ˓ˈˉˈːˋˢ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ break off ˓˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ˕ːˑ˛ˈːˋˢ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ break out in sth ˒ˑˍ˓˞˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˒ˑ˕ˑˏǡ ˔˞˒˟ˡ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ break through or break through sth ˒˓ˑ˄ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˞ˆˎˢː˖˕˟ ȋˑ ˔ˑˎː˙ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ break up ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ break-up ˔˖˜Ǥ ˓˃ˊ˓˞˅ǡ ˓˃ˊ˅ˑˇ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ brighten up ͳȌ ˓˃ˇˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˇˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹  ʹȌ ˒˓ˑˢ˔ːˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ bring forward sth or bring sth forward ˒ˈ˓ˈːˈ˔˕ˋ ː˃ ˄ˑˎˈˈ ˓˃ːːˋˌ ˔˓ˑˍ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ bring up sb or bring sb up ˅ˑ˔˒ˋ˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ bring up sth or bring sth up ˒ˑˇːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ brush up ȋon) sth or brush sth up ˑ˔˅ˈˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˅ˈ˓˛ˈː˔˕˅ˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋˊː˃ːˋˢ) . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ

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VOCABULARY buckle down ˔ˈ˓˟ˈˊːˑ ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˊ˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ build up sth or build sth up ː˃˓˃˜ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˏ˖˔ˍ˖ˎ˞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ bump up sth or bump sth up ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟ǡ ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ burn off sth or burn sth off ˔ˉˋˆ˃˕˟ ȋˍ˃ˎˑ˓ˋˋȌ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ

C call back or call sb back or call back sb ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ call sth up ː˃˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˄˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˅ˑ˔˒ˑˏˋː˃ːˋˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ check in ˓ˈˆˋ˔˕˓ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˆˑ˔˕ˋːˋ˙ˈǡ ː˃ ˓ˈˌ˔). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ check out sth or check sth out ˒ˑˇ˕˅ˈ˓ˉˇ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ check out ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˋ ˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟ ːˑˏˈ˓ ˅ ˆˑ˔˕ˋːˋ˙ˈ. . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ clam up ˊ˃ˏˑˎ˚˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ clock in ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˖˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˎˈːːˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢ); ˗ˋˍ˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇ˃ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍ˃ ː˃ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ clock out ˊ˃ˍ˃ː˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˖˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˎˈːːˑˈ ˅˓ˈˏˢ); ˗ˋˍ˔ˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˕ˑ ˅˓ˈˏˢǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˔ˑ˕˓˖ˇːˋˍ ˊ˃ˍ˃ː˚ˋ˅˃ˈ˕ ˓˃˄ˑ˚ˋˌ ˇˈː˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ coast along ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌ ˄ˈˊ ˑ˔ˑ˄˞˘ ˖˔ˋˎˋˌ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ come back to sb. ˅˔˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ː˃ ˒˃ˏˢ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ come back to sth ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍ ˒˓ˈˇˏˈ˕˖ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓˃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ come down with sth ˊ˃˄ˑˎˈ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ come off it! «ʓ˃ ˄˓ˑ˔˟ ˕˞Ǩ»: «ʤ˅˃˕ˋ˕ ˕˓ˈ˒˃˕˟˔ˢǨ» ȋːˈˇˑ˅ˈ˓ˋˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ come on ͳȌ ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ˈȌǢ ˊ˃ˆˑ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˎ˃ˏ˒ˑ˚ˍˈ). . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ  ʹȌ ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ come on! 1) «ʜ˖ǡ ˇ˃˅˃ˌǨ»: «ʑ˒ˈ˓ˈˇǨ» ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈːˋˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ 2) «ʐ˓ˑ˔˟Ǩ»: «ʓ˃ ˎ˃ˇːˑ ˕ˈ˄ˈǨ» ȋːˈˇˑ˅ˈ˓ˋˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ

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PHRASAL VERBS come up with sth ˒˓ˈˇˎˑˉˋ˕˟ ȋˋˇˈˡǡ ˒ˎ˃ː) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ come up ˒ˑˢ˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈǢ ˑ˄ ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ cool down ͳȌ ˑ˔˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˖˔˒ˑˍ˃ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹  ʹȌ ˑ˘ˎ˃ˉˇ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˑ˔˕˞˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ cotton on ˒ˑːˋˏ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ cough up ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ cut back or cut back sth or cut sth back ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ ȋ˙ˈː˞ǡ ˓˃˔˘ˑˇ˞). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ cut down sth or cut sth down or cut down ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ cut in ˅ˍˎˋːˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˏˈˉˇ˖ ˏ˃˛ˋː˃ˏˋǡ ˒ˑˇ˓ˈˊ˃˕˟ ȋ˃˅˕ˑˏˑ˄ˋˎ˟) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ cut off one’s nose to spite one’s face ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˔ˈ˄ˈǡ ˉˈˎ˃ˢ ː˃˅˓ˈˇˋ˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏ˖ ʹͺ cut out sth or cut sth out ˋ˔ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ͳ cut sb off or cut off sb ˒˓ˈ˓˅˃˕˟ ȋ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑːː˞ˌ ˓˃ˊˆˑ˅ˑ˓Ȍǡ ˓˃ˊ˝ˈˇˋːˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹

D deal with sth ˑ˄˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˓˃˔˔ˏ˃˕˓ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ dress down ˑˇˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˑȀ˒ˑ˒˓ˑ˜ˈ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ dress up ː˃˓ˢˉ˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ dress-down ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˑ ˔ˋ˕˖˃˙ˋˋǡ ˍˑˆˇ˃ ˓˃ˊ˓ˈ˛˃ˈ˕˔ˢ ˑˇˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˏˈːˈ ˗ˑ˓ˏ˃ˎ˟ːˑ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ drop off ˊ˃ˇ˓ˈˏ˃˕˟Ǣ ˊ˃˔ː˖˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ drop out ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ȋ˖˚˩˄˖ǡ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ drop sb off ˅˞˔˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˔˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˆˇˈǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ drop sth off ˑ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ)

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VOCABULARY dropout ˔˖˜Ǥ ˚ˈˎˑ˅ˈˍǡ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˅˛ˋˌ ˖˚˩˄˖ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ dumb up sth or dumb sth up ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˋː˕ˈˎˎˈˍ˕˖˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ

E ease off ˑ˔ˎ˃˄ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ eat away at sb ˒ˑ˔˕ˈ˒ˈːːˑ ˓˃ˊ˝ˈˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊ˓˖˛˃˕˟ǡ ˆˎˑˇ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ eat in ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ eat out ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅ːˈ ˇˑˏ˃ ȋ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˓ˈ˔˕ˑ˓˃ː) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ encroach on sth ː˃˓˖˛˃˕˟Ǣ ˕ˈ˔ːˋ˕˟ǡ ː˃˒ˑˎˊ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵

F fall off ˖˘˖ˇ˛˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ fall out ˔˔ˑ˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ falling-out ˔˖˜Ǥ ˔˔ˑ˓˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ fight off sth or fight sth off ˄ˑ˓ˑ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˄ˑˎˈˊː˟ˡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ fire away! «ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃ˌǨ» ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈːˋˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ fit in sth or fit sth in ː˃˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅˓ˈˏˢ ȋˇˎˢ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ flag sb ȋsth) down ˔ˋˆː˃ˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ ˅ˑˇˋ˕ˈˎˡ ˔ ˕˓ˈ˄ˑ˅˃ːˋˈˏ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟ ˏ˃˛ˋː˖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ flare up ˅˔˒˞˘ː˖˕˟ ˔ːˑ˅˃ǡ ˑ˄ˑ˔˕˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ flash back to sb ȋsth) ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟˔ˢ ˍ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˏ˖ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ forge ahead ˏˈˇˎˈːːˑ ˋ ˓˃˅ːˑˏˈ˓ːˑ ˒˓ˑˇ˅ˋˆ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˅˒ˈ˓˩ˇ. . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ fork out sth ˓˃˔ˍˑ˛ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ freeze up ˅ˋ˔ː˖˕˟ ȋˑ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ freshen up ˒˓ˋ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˓ˢˇˑˍǡ ˑ˔˅ˈˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸

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PHRASAL VERBS

G gang up ˔ˆˑ˅˃˓ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˑ˄˝ˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ ˔ˋˎ˞ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ get ahead ˒˓ˈ˖˔˒ˈ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ get along ˎ˃ˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˖ˉˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ get away ˅ˊˢ˕˟ ˑ˕˒˖˔ˍǡ ˖ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ get back to sb ˒ˈ˓ˈˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ get carried away ˖˅ˎˈˍ˃˕˟Ǣ ˑ˘˅˃˕˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˚˖˅˔˕˅ˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ get off on the wrong foot ːˈ˖ˇ˃˚ːˑ ː˃˚˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ get on like a house on fire ˎ˃ˇˋ˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˆ ˔ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˏǡ ˉˋ˕˟ ˇ˖˛˃ ˅ ˇ˖˛˖ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ get on to sth ˊ˃ːˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ȋˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ), ˇˑ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˇˑ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ get over sth ˒ˑ˄ˈˉˇ˃˕˟ǡ ˑˇˑˎˈ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˑˎˈˊː˟). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ get through ȋto sb) ˔˅ˢˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˖ǡ ˇˑˊ˅ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ get through sth ͳȌ ˋ˔˒ˑˎ˟ˊˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔˝ˈˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˑˏ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ  ʹȌ ˅˞ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ get up ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˒ˑˇːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˃˅˃˕˟ ȋ˒ˑ˔ˎˈ ˔ː˃) . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ give in ˔ˇ˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖˔˕˖˒˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ give up sth or give sth up 1) ˑ˕ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˄˓ˑ˔ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ  ʹȌ ˖˔˕˖˒ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ go about sth ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡˇˈˎ˃˕˟ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǢ ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ˒˓ˋ˔˕˖˒˃˕˟ȋˍ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑȌ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ go down ˒ˑːˋˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ go for sb ˎˡ˄ˋ˕˟ǡ ː˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ go on ˊ˃ˌ˕ˋ ȋ˅ ˋː˕ˈ˓ːˈ˕ǡ ː˃ ˔˃ˌ˕). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ go out with sb ˅˔˕˓ˈ˚˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ

278

VOCABULARY go under ˕ˈ˓˒ˈ˕˟ ːˈ˖ˇ˃˚˖ ȋ˅ ˇˈˎ˃˘Ȍǡ ˓˃ˊˑ˓ˢ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ go up ˖˅ˈˎˋ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃˔˕ˋǡ ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˈǡ ˙ˈːˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ Google sth out ː˃ˌ˕ˋ ˅ ʒ˖ˆˎˈǡ ː˃ˆ˖ˆˎˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ grow up ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˊ˓ˑ˔ˎ˞ˏǡ ˅ˊ˓ˑ˔ˎˈ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ

H hand in sth or hand sth in ˔ˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˅ˑˊ˅˓˃˜˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ hand over sth or hand sth over ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ˅ˎ˃˔˕˟ǡ ˍˑː˕˓ˑˎ˟ǡ ˒ˑˎːˑˏˑ˚ˋˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ hang about! «ʞˑˇˑˉˇˋǨ»; «ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ» ȋˑˊ˃˓ˈːˋˈǡ ˖ˇ˃˚ː˃ˢ ˋˇˈˢ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ hang out ȋinformal) ˕˖˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˆˇˈǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ hang up ȋon) sb ˅ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ head sth up or head up sth ˅ˑˊˆˎ˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˓˖ˍˑ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˖˒˓˃˅ˎˢ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ hit on sb ː˃ˊˑˌˎˋ˅ˑ ˖˘˃ˉˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˋ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ hold on ˉˇ˃˕˟ ˖ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ hold on! «ʞˑˆˑˇˋǨ»; «ʞˑ˔˕ˑˌǨ» ȋ˖ˇˋ˅ˎˈːˋˈǡ ˊ˃ˏˈ˛˃˕ˈˎ˟˔˕˅ˑ) . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ hold sb up or hold up sb ˊ˃ˇˈ˓ˉˋ˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ hook up sth or hook sth up ˒ˑˇˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ǡ ˒ˑˇ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ

J jack sth in or jack in sth ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ

K keep sth off or keep off sth ˇˈ˓ˉ˃˕˟ ˅ ˑ˕ˇ˃ˎˈːˋˋ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ keep up ˄˞˕˟ ˘ˑ˓ˑ˛ˑ ˑ˔˅ˈˇˑˏˎˈːː˞ˏǡ ˄˞˕˟ ˅ ˍ˖˓˔ˈ . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ kick off ˔˕˃˕˟ ˋ˔˕ˑ˚ːˋˍˑˏ ˒˓ˑ˄ˎˈˏ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ

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PHRASAL VERBS knock off sth or knock sth off ˔˄˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˔ːˋˉ˃˕˟ ȋ˙ˈː˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ

L lay off sb or lay sb off ˅˓ˈˏˈːːˑ ˖˅ˑˎˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ leak out ˒˓ˑ˔ˑ˚ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔˕˃˕˟ ˋˊ˅ˈ˔˕ː˞ˏ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ leave aside sth or leave sth aside ˑ˕ˎˑˉˋ˕˟ǡ ːˈ ˑ˄˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˅ˑ˒˓ˑ˔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ let off steam ˑ˕˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ˇ˖˛˖ǡ ˅˞˒˖˔˕ˋ˕˟ ˒˃˓ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ let sb down or let down sb ˓˃ˊˑ˚˃˓ˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ level off ˅˞˓˃˅ːˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˔˕˃˄ˋˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ lie in ˅˃ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒ˑ˔˕ˈˎˋ ȋ˒ˑ ˖˕˓˃ˏ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ lighten up! «ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǨ»; «ʝ˔˕˞ː˟Ǩ»; «ʜˈ ˄ˈ˓ˋ ˅ ˆˑˎˑ˅˖Ǩ» . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ live on sth ˒ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˉˋ˕˟ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ live up to sth ˑ˒˓˃˅ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ȋː˃ˇˈˉˇ˞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ load up or load up sth or load sth up ˊ˃ˆ˓˖ˉ˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ look after sb ˊ˃˄ˑ˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˍˑˏǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˒˓ˋ˔ˏ˃˕˓ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˊ˃ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ look out! «ʝ˔˕ˑ˓ˑˉːˈˈǨ»; «ʐˈ˓ˈˆˋ˔˟Ǩ» ȋ˒˓ˈˇ˖˒˓ˈˉˇˈːˋˈ). . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ

M major in sth ˔˒ˈ˙ˋ˃ˎˋˊˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˒ˑ ˍ˃ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˒˓ˈˇˏˈ˕˖ ȋ˅ ˍˑˎˎˈˇˉˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ make up one’s mind ˓ˈ˛ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˓ˋːˢ˕˟ ˓ˈ˛ˈːˋˈ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ make up sth or make sth up ˒˓ˋˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅˞ˇ˖ˏ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑ˚ˋːˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ make up ˏˋ˓ˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ max out ˅˞ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˇˑ˔˕ˋˆ˃˕˟ ˒˓ˈˇˈˎ˃ ˅ˑˊˏˑˉːˑ˔˕ˈˌ . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ

280

VOCABULARY mess up sth or mess sth up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋ˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ǡ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ move in ˔ˈˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ move up ˒ˑˎ˖˚˃˕˟ ˒ˑ˅˞˛ˈːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˑˇ˅ˋˆ˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˒ˑ ˔ˎ˖ˉ˄ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ muck up sth or muck sth up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˅˃ˎˋ˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖ǡ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ mug up sth or mug sth up ˊ˖˄˓ˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ

N name sb after sb ː˃ˊ˞˅˃˕˟ ˅ ˚ˈ˔˕˟ ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ O

open up sth or open sth up ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˇˑ˔˕˖˒ ˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ outstanding ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˢ˓ˍˋˌ ȋ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ overpriced ˒˓ˋˎǤ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˇˑ˓ˑˆˑˌ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹

P pack sth out ˊ˃˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟ǡ ˒ˈ˓ˈ˒ˑˎːˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ pack up ˋ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔ˎˑˏ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˞ˌ˕ˋ ˋˊ ˔˕˓ˑˢ ȋˑ ˏˈ˘˃ːˋˊˏˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ phone around sb ˑ˄ˊ˅˃ːˋ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ pick on sb ˒˓ˋˇˋ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑǡ ˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ pick sb up ˄˓˃˕˟ ˒˃˔˔˃ˉˋ˓˃ǡ ˒ˑˇ˅ˑˊˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ pick sth up or pick up sth ͳȌ ː˃˘˅˃˕˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ː˃˖˚ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑȌ ˄˞˔˕˓ˑ. . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ  ʹȌ ˔ˑ˄ˋ˓˃˕˟ ȋˋː˗ˑ˓ˏ˃˙ˋˡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ  ͵Ȍ ˊ˃˄ˋ˓˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ pick up ȋspeed) ː˃˄ˋ˓˃˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊˆˑːˢ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ pick up ȋthe phone) ˔ːˢ˕˟ ȋ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ pick up ˖˔ˋˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ ˇˑˉˇˈǡ ˅ˈ˕˓ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ plug in sth or plug sth in ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ˅ ˔ˈ˕˟ǡ ˅˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ ˅ˋˎˍ˖ ˅ ˓ˑˊˈ˕ˍ˖. . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ

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PHRASAL VERBS pop up ˅˞˔˅ˈ˚ˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ː˃ ˠˍ˓˃ːˈ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ pour sth into sth ˅ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˑˎ˟˛ˋˈ ˔˖ˏˏ˞ ˇˈːˈˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ press on ˔˒ˈ˛ˋ˕˟Ǣ ˃ˍ˕ˋ˅ːˑ ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ pull all the stops out ːˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˇ ˚ˈˏ ːˈ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˒˖˔˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ˑ ˅˔ˈ ˕ˢˉˍˋˈ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ pull in ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˖˕ˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ pull oneself together ˅ˊˢ˕˟ ˔ˈ˄ˢ ˅ ˓˖ˍˋǡ ˔ˑ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ ˇ˖˘ˑˏ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ pull out ˑ˕˝ˈˊˉ˃˕˟Ǣ ˖ˈˊˉ˃˕˟Ǣ ˅˞ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ ȋˋˊ ˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˏˈ˔˕˃). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ pull over ˔˝ˈˊˉ˃˕˟ ː˃ ˑ˄ˑ˚ˋː˖ ˋ ˑ˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ pull together ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ ˇ˓˖ˉːˑ ȋ˔ˑˑ˄˜˃). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ pull up ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͸ put aside sth or put sth aside ˑ˕ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃˕˟ ˇˈː˟ˆˋ ȋ˓ˈˆ˖ˎˢ˓ːˑ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ put down ȋthe phone) ˒ˑ˅ˈ˔ˋ˕˟ ȋ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ put on sth or put sth on ː˃ˇˈ˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ put out sth or put sth out ˅˞˒˖˔ˍ˃˕˟ǡ ˋˊˇ˃˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ put sb down ˍ˓ˋ˕ˋˍˑ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˔˖ˉˇ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ put sb through ȋto sb) ˔ˑˈˇˋːˢ˕˟ ȋ˒ˑ ˕ˈˎˈ˗ˑː˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ put-on ˒˓ˋˎǤ ː˃˒˖˔ˍːˑˌ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹

Q queue up ˔˕ˑˢ˕˟ ˅ ˑ˚ˈ˓ˈˇˋ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸

R ring off ˅ˈ˛˃˕˟Ȁ˄˓ˑ˔˃˕˟ ˕˓˖˄ˍ˖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͹ rip sb off or rip off sb ˊ˃˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ ˔ˎˋ˛ˍˑˏ ˅˞˔ˑˍ˖ˡ ˙ˈː˖ǡ ˑ˄ˇˋ˓˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ

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VOCABULARY rip-off ˔˖˜Ǥ ˏˑ˛ˈːːˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˆ˓˃˄ˈˉ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ root out sth or root sth out ˑ˕˞˔ˍˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍ˃˒˞˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ run into sth ˋ˔˚ˋ˔ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ˑ˒˓ˈˇˈˎˈːːˑˌ ˔˖ˏˏˑˌ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ run off sth or run sth off ˒ˈ˚˃˕˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ ˠˍˊˈˏ˒ˎˢ˓ˑ˅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ run on ˒˓ˑˇˑˎˉ˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˇˎˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˇˑˎ˟˛ˈǡ ˚ˈˏ ˊ˃˒ˎ˒ːˋ˓ˑ˅˃ːːˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ run through sth ͳȌ ˄˞˔˕˓ˑ ˒˓ˑ˔ˏˑ˕˓ˈ˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑ˅ˈ˓ˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ  ʹȌ ˒˓ˑˏˑ˕˃˕˟ ȋˇˈː˟ˆˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ rustle up sth or rustle sth up ˓˃ˊˇˑ˄˞˕˟ǡ ː˃˔ˍ˓ˈ˔˕ˋ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ

S sail through or sail through sth ˖˔˒ˈ˛ːˑ ˔˒˓˃˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ 11 scrape through or scrape through sth ˔ ˕˓˖ˇˑˏ ˔ˇ˃˕˟ ˠˍˊ˃ˏˈː. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ seize up ˊ˃ˈˇ˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˕˓˖˜ˋ˘˔ˢ ˇˈ˕˃ˎˢ˘Ȍ ǡ ˊ˃˔˕˓ˈ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ sell out ˓˃˔˒˓ˑˇ˃˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ sell sth up or sell up sth or sell up ˒˓ˑˇ˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˋˊːˈ˔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ serve up sth or serve sth up ˒ˑˇ˃˅˃˕˟ ȋˈˇ˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ set in ˖˔˕˃ː˃˅ˎˋ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ˄˞˚ːˑ ˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ set out ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˒˖˕ˈ˛ˈ˔˕˅ˋˈ ȋˇˎˋ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ set sb ȋsth) apart or set apart sb ȋsth) ȋ˅˞ˆˑˇːˑȌ ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃˕˟ ˑ˕ ˇ˓˖ˆˋ˘. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ set sb back ˔˕ˑˋ˕˟ǡ ˑ˄˘ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ set sb up ˒ˑˏˑ˚˟ ȋˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑȌ ˖˔˕˓ˑˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˅˔˕˃˕˟ ː˃ ːˑˆˋ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ set sth off ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟ǡ ˅˞ˆˑˇːˑ ˒ˑˇ˚˩˓ˍˋ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ set sth up or set up sth ˑ˔ːˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍ˓˞˅˃˕˟ ȋˇˈˎˑǡ ˍˑˏ˒˃ːˋˡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵

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PHRASAL VERBS sex up sth or sex sth up ˒˓ˋ˖ˍ˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ shake off sth or shake sth off ˋˊ˄˃˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ˕ ˄ˑˎˈˊːˋȌǢ ˄ˑ˓ˑ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˄ˑˎˈˊː˟ˡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ shop around ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˒ˑ ˏ˃ˆ˃ˊˋː˃ˏ ȋ˅ ˒ˑˋ˔ˍ˃˘ ː˃ˋˎ˖˚˛ˈˌ ˙ˈː˞) . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ show off ˍ˓˃˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓ˋ˔ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ show-off ˔˖˜Ǥ ˘˅˃˔˕˖ːǡ ˒ˑˊˈ˓ǡ ˊ˃ˇ˃˅˃ˍ˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ shut sth ȋsb) down or shut down sth ȋsb) ˒˓ˈˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˈ˔ˈˍ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ shut sth down or shut down sth or shut down ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ǡ ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚ˋ˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˋǦ ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ 19 shy away from sth ˔˕ˑ˓ˑːˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˋˊ˄ˈˆ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ skill up sb or skill sb up ˒ˑ˅˞˔ˋ˕˟ ˍ˅˃ˎˋ˗ˋˍ˃˙ˋˡȀ ˒˓ˑ˗ˈ˔˔ˋˑː˃ˎ˟ː˞ˌ ˖˓ˑ˅ˈː˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ sleep in ˔˒˃˕˟ ˇˑˎ˟˛ˈ ˑ˄˞˚ːˑˆˑ˕ˈˏ˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ slim down or slim down sth or slim sth down ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟ǡ ˔ˑˍ˓˃˜˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˎˋ˚ˈ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˑ˄˝˩ˏȌ . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ slip sth on or slip on ː˃˙ˈ˒ˋ˕˟ ȋˑˇˈˉˇ˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ slow down ͳȌ ˕ˑ˓ˏˑˊˋ˕˟ ȋˑ ˍˑˏ˒˟ˡ˕ˈ˓ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ  ʹȌ ˔ːˋˊˋ˕˟ ˔ˍˑ˓ˑ˔˕˟ ȋˑ ˕˓˃ː˔˒ˑ˓˕ːˑˏ ˔˓ˈˇ˔˕˅ˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ soak up sth or soak sth up ˅˒ˋ˕˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ sound out sb or sound sb out ˅˞ˢ˔ːˢ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˅˞˔˒˓˃˛ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˑ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ spell out sth or spell sth out ˓˃ˊ˝ˢ˔ːˢ˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˕ˑˎˍˑ˅˞˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ spit it out! «ʓ˃˅˃ˌ ˅˞ˍˎ˃ˇ˞˅˃ˌǨ»; «ʙˑˎˋ˔˟Ǩ»; «ʑ˃ˎˢˌǨ» ȋ˒ˑˑ˜˓ˈːˋˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ split up ˓˃˔˘ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͺ square up ˓˃˔˒ˎ˃˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃˔˔˚ˋ˕˃˕˟˔ˢǢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͶ stake out sth ȋsb) or stake sth ȋsb) out ˅ˈ˔˕ˋ ː˃˄ˎˡˇˈːˋˈǡ ˔ˎˈˇˋ˕˟ ȋˊ˃ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˋˎˋ  ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ

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VOCABULARY stand down ˖˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˅ ˑ˕˔˕˃˅ˍ˖ ȋ˔ ˍ˃ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒ˑ˔˕˃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ stand out ˄˞˕˟ ˊ˃ˏˈ˕ː˞ˏǡ ˅˞ˇˈˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ start off ˑ˕˒˓˃˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˖˕˟). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ start sth up or start up sth or start up ː˃˚˃˕˟ǡ ˑ˓ˆ˃ːˋˊˑ˅˃˕˟ ȋ˄ˋˊːˈ˔). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ start up or start up sth or start sth up ː˃˚ˋː˃˕˟ ˓˃˄ˑ˕˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ stay in ˑ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ˇˑˏ˃ǡ ːˈ ˅˞˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ stay up ːˈ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ steady on! «ʢ˔˒ˑˍˑˌ˔ˢǨ» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͷ stick with sb ːˈ ˑ˔˕˃˅ˎˢ˕˟ǡ ːˈ ˒ˑˍˋˇ˃˕˟Ǣ ˑ˔˕˃˅˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˔ ˍˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ stir sth up ˅ˑ˓ˑ˛ˋ˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟ ˅ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ stop off ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˅ ˒˖˕ˋǡ ˔ˇˈˎ˃˕˟ ˑ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˍ˖ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ store up sth or store sth up ː˃ˍ˃˒ˎˋ˅˃˕˟ǡ ˊ˃˒ˑˏˋː˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ stressed-out ˒˓ˋˎǤ ː˃˘ˑˇˢ˜ˋˌ˔ˢ ˅ ˔ˑ˔˕ˑˢːˋˋ ˔˕˓ˈ˔˔˃. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͹ stretch out ˋˏˈ˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˕ˢˉˈːˋˈǡ ˒˓ˑ˔˕ˋ˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˒˓ˑ˔˕˓˃ː˔˕˅ˈ). . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͵ summon up sth ˅˞ˊ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅ˑ˔ˍ˓ˈ˛˃˕˟ ˅ ˒˃ˏˢ˕ˋ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ swan around or swan around sth ˔ˎˑːˢ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˄˓ˑˇˋ˕˟ ˄ˈˊ ˇˈˎ˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵Ͳ swell up ˑ˒˖˘˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ switch off sth or switch sth off or switch off ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑǦ ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ switch on sth or switch sth on or switch on ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑǦ ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ swot up or swot up sth or swot sth up ˖˔ˈ˓ˇːˑ ˋˊ˖˚˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͳ

T tail off ˖ˏˈː˟˛˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˖˘˖ˇ˛˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͶ

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PHRASAL VERBS take after sb ˒ˑ˘ˑˇˋ˕˟ ȋː˃ ˍˑˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ take away ˖ːˑ˔ˋ˕˟ǡ ˄˓˃˕˟ ˔ ˔ˑ˄ˑˌ ȋː˃˒ˋ˕ˍˋǡ ˈˇ˖). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ take off ˅ˊˎˈ˕ˈ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ take on sb or take sb on ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ː˃ ˔ˎ˖ˉ˄˖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ take on sth or take sth on ˄˓˃˕˟ ȋ˓˃˄ˑ˕˖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ take over or take over sth or take sth over ͳȌ ˒˓ˋːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋˇˑˎˉːˑ˔˕˟ǡ ˑ˄ˢˊ˃ːːˑ˔˕ˋ) ˑ˕ ˇ˓˖ˆˑˆˑ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳʹ  ʹȌ ˒ˑˆˎˑ˜˃˕˟ ȋ˗ˋ˓ˏ˖ ˒˖˕ˈˏ ˒ˑˍ˖˒ˍˋ ˍˑː˕˓ˑˎ˟ːˑˆˑ ˒˃ˍˈ˕˃ ˈˈ ˃ˍ˙ˋˌ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ take the sting out of sth ˔˕˃˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔ˏˢˆ˚ˋ˕˟ ȋ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ take to sth ˒˓ˋ˔˕˓˃˔˕ˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˖˅ˎˈ˚˟˔ˢ ȋ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ take up sth or take sth up ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟ ȋ˅˓ˈˏˢ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ tech up sth or tech sth up ˕ˈ˘ːˋ˚ˈ˔ˍˋ ˒ˈ˓ˈˑ˔ː˃˔˕ˋ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ tell sb ȋsth) from sb ȋsth) ˑ˕ˎˋ˚˃˕˟ǡ ˓˃ˊˎˋ˚˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͸ throw up or throw sth up or throw up sth ˔˕˓˃ˇ˃˕˟ ˓˅ˑ˕ˑˌǡ ˄ˎˈ˅˃˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͵ tick off sth or tick sth off or tick sth off sth ˑ˕ˏˈ˚˃˕˟ ȋˆ˃ˎˑ˚ˍˑˌȌǡ ˔˕˃˅ˋ˕˟ ˑ˕ˏˈ˕ˍ˖. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͷ tone up sth or tone sth up or tone up ˒ˑ˅˞˛˃˕˟ ˕ˑː˖˔ǡ ˖ˍ˓ˈ˒ˎˢ˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ touch down ˒˓ˋˊˈˏˎˋ˕˟˔ˢǡ ˍˑ˔ː˖˕˟˔ˢ ˊˈˏˎˋ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ try sth on or try on sth ˒˓ˋˏˈ˓ˢ˕˟ ȋ˒ˎ˃˕˟ˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹ͸ tuck in ˉ˃ˇːˑ ˈ˔˕˟ǡ ˖˒ˎˈ˕˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ tug at sb’s heart ˕˓ˑː˖˕˟ ȋ˚˟ˈǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˔ˈ˓ˇ˙ˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹʹ turn in ˎˈ˚˟ ˔˒˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ turn off sth or turn sth off ˅˞ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑǦ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˈ) . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ turn on sth or turn sth on ˅ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟ ȋ˒˓ˋ˄ˑ˓ǡ ˖˔˕˓ˑˌ˔˕˅ˑǡ ˠˎˈˍ˕˓ˑǦ˒ˋ˕˃ːˋˈ) . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ turn on the heat

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VOCABULARY ˑˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟ ˔ˋˎ˟ːˑˈ ˇ˃˅ˎˈːˋˈǡ ː˃ˉ˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ turn the clock back ˅ˈ˓ː˖˕˟ ˒˓ˑ˛ˎˑˈ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ turn to sth ˄˓˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋˊ˃ ˚˕ˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌǡ ˒˓ˋˑ˄˜ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˍ ˚ˈˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ

V veg out ˄ˈˊˇˈˎ˟ːˋ˚˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ

W wait up ːˈ ˎˑˉˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒˃˕˟ ȋˇˑ ˚˟ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒˓ˋ˘ˑˇ˃) . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ wake up and smell the coffee ˓˃˔ˍ˓ˑˌ ˆˎ˃ˊ˃ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͺ wake up ˒˓ˑ˔˞˒˃˕˟˔ˢǢ ˄˖ˇˋ˕˟. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͲ warm to sb ȋsth) ˅ˑˑˇ˖˛ˈ˅ˎˢ˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͹ warm up or warm up sth or warm sth up ͳȌ ˓˃ˊˏˋː˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˓˃ˊˑˆ˓ˈ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ  ʹȌ ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈ˕˟ǡ ˒˓ˑˆ˓ˈ˕˟˔ˢ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͺ warm up ˕ˈ˒ˎˈ˕˟ǡ ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ˕ˈ˒ˎˈˈ ȋˑ ˒ˑˆˑˇˈ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͳ while away sth or while sth away ˒˓ˑ˅ˑˇˋ˕˟ǡ ˍˑ˓ˑ˕˃˕˟ ȋ˅˓ˈˏˢ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͷ wind sth down or wind down sth or wind down ˔˅ˑ˓˃˚ˋ˅˃˕˟ ȋˍ˃ˍ˖ˡǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˇˈˢ˕ˈˎ˟ːˑ˔˕˟) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳ͵ wind up ˑˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟˔ˢ ȋ˅ ˍ˃ˍˑˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ ˒ˑˎˑˉˈːˋˋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ͻ wipe out sth or wipe sth out ˔˕ˋ˓˃˕˟ ȋˇ˃ːː˞ˈ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ͳͻ wise sb up to sth ˔ˑˑ˄˜ˋ˕˟ǡ ˓˃˔˔ˍ˃ˊ˃˕˟ ȋˍˑˏ˖Ǧˎˋ˄ˑ ˑ ˚ˈˏǦˎˋ˄ˑ); ˋː˗ˑ˓ˏˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ work off sth or work sth off ˑ˔˅ˑ˄ˑˇˋ˕˟˔ˢ ȋˑ˕ ˚ˈˆˑǦˎˋ˄ˑȌ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ work out ˊ˃ːˋˏ˃˕˟˔ˢ ˔˒ˑ˓˕ˑˏǡ ˕˓ˈːˋ˓ˑ˅˃˕˟˔ˢ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ Ͷ worm sth out of sb ˅˞˅ˈˇ˞˅˃˕˟ǡ ˅˞˒˞˕˞˅˃˕˟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͲ

Z zone out ˑ˕ˍˎˡ˚˃˕˟˔ˢǡ ˔˕˃ːˑ˅ˋ˕˟˔ˢ ːˈ˅ːˋˏ˃˕ˈˎ˟ː˞ˏ. . . . . . . . . . . ˕ˈˏ˃ ʹͻ

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Учебное издание ЯЗЫК БЕЗ РЕПЕТИТОРА

Ильченко Валерия Витальевна ФРАЗОВЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ (орыс тілінде) Ответственный редактор Н. Уварова Редакторы А. Жемерова, Я. Загорулько, А. Максаева Художественный редактор Г. Федотов Макет и верстка Н. Долгов Корректор Н. Станибула

Сведения о подтверждении соответствия издания согласно законодательству РФ о техническом регулировании можно получить по адресу: http://eksmo.ru/certification/ 2ндірген мемлекет: Ресей Сертификация 5арастырылма6ан Подписано в печать 09.12.2014. Формат 60x901/16. Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 18,0. Тираж экз. Заказ