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21st-Century Counselors New Approaches to Mental Health and Substance Abuse
 9781422295441, 1422295443

Table of contents :
Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1. Careers in Counseling
Chapter 2. Careers in Psychology
Chapter 3. Education and Training
Chapter 4. Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology
Chapter 5. Job Outlook
Further Reading
Find Out More on the Internet
Bibliography
Index
Picture Credits
About the Author
About the Consultant

Citation preview

New Careers for the 21st Century: Finding Your Role in the Global Renewal

21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

New Careers for the 21st Century: Finding Your Role in the Global Renewal Careers in Green Energy: Fueling the World with Renewable Resources Environmental Science & Protection: Keeping Our Planet Green Freelance and Technical Writers: Words for Sale Green Construction: Creating Energy-Efficient, Low-Impact Buildings Media in the 21st Century: Artists, Animators, and Graphic Designers Medical Technicians: Health-Care Support for the 21st Century Modern Mechanics: Maintaining Tomorrow’s Green Vehicles The Pharmaceutical Industry: Better Medicine for the 21st Century Physicians’ Assistants & Nurses: New Opportunities in the 21st-Century Health System Social Workers: Finding Solutions for Tomorrow’s Society Tomorrow’s Enterprising Scientists: Computer Software Designers and Specialists Tomorrow’s Teachers: Urban Leadership, Empowering Students & Improving Lives Tomorrow’s Transportation: Green Solutions for Air, Land, & Sea 21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse Therapy Jobs in Educational Settings: Speech, Physical, Occupational & Audiology

New Careers for the 21st Century: Finding Your Role in the Global Renewal

21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse by Camden Flath

Mason Crest Publishers

21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse Copyright © 2011 by Mason Crest Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the publisher. MASON CREST PUBLISHERS INC. 370 Reed Road Broomall, Pennsylvania 19008 (866)MCP-BOOK (toll free) www.masoncrest.com First Printing 987654321 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Flath, Camden, 1987­– 21st-century counselors : new approaches to mental health & substance abuse / Camden Flath. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4222-1825-9 ISBN 978-1-4222-1811-2 (series) ISBN 978-1-4222-2046-7 (ppb) ISBN 978-1-4222-2032-0 (pbb series) 1. Counseling I. Title. BF636.64.F563 2010 362.2’04256—dc22 2010021812 Produced by Harding House Publishing Service, Inc. www.hardinghousepages.com Interior design by MK Bassett-Harvey. Cover design by Torque Advertising + Design. Printed in USA by Bang Printing.

Contents Introduction…6 Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling…9 Chapter 2: Careers in Psychology…21 Chapter 3: Education and Training…29 Chapter 4: Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology…39 Chapter 5: Job Outlook…49 Further Reading…59 Find Out More on the Internet…59 Bibliography…60 Index…62 Picture Credits…63 About the Author/About the Consultant…64

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Introduction Be careful as you begin to plan your career. To get yourself in the best position to begin the career of your dreams, you need to know what the “green world” will look like and what jobs will be created and what jobs will become obsolete. Just think, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the following jobs are expected to severely decline by 2012: • word processors and data-entry keyers • stock clerks and order fillers • secretaries • electrical and electronic equipment assemblers • computer operators • telephone operators • postal service mail sorters and processing-machine operators • travel agents These are just a few of the positions that will decrease or become obsolete as we move forward into the century. You need to know what the future jobs will be. How do you find them? One way is to look where money is being invested. Many firms and corporations are now making investments in startup and research enterprises. These companies may become the “Microsoft” and “Apple” of the twenty-first century. Look at what is being researched and what technology is needed to obtain the results.

Introduction

Green world, green economy, green technology—they all say the same things: the way we do business today is changing. Every industry will be shaped by the world’s new focus on creating a sustainable lifestyle, one that won’t deplete our natural and economic resources. The possibilities are unlimited. Almost any area that will conserve energy and reduce the dependency on fossil fuels is open to new and exciting career paths. Many of these positions have not even been identified yet and will only come to light as the technology progresses and new discoveries are made in the way we use that technology. And the best part about this is that our government is behind us. The U.S. government wants to help you get the education and training you’ll need to succeed and grow in this new and changing economy. The U.S. Department of Labor has launched a series of initiatives to support and promote green job creation. To view the report, visit: www.dol.gov/dol/green/ earthday_reportA.pdf. The time to decide on your future is now. This series, New Careers for the 21st Century: Finding Your Role in the Global Renewal, can act as the first step toward your continued education, training, and career path decisions. Take the first steps that will lead you—and the planet—to a productive and sustainable future. Mike Puglisi Department of Labor, District I Director (New York/New Jersey) IAWP (International Association of Workforce Professionals)

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An entirely new system of thought is needed, a system based on attention to people, and not primarily attention to goods. —E. F. Schumacher

ABOUT THE QUOTE Our world is changing—and people are starting to understand that many of the important answers to the world’s problems lie in finding solutions for individuals’ emotional lives. Counselors don’t create a product. They don’t sell anything. They don’t make or build anything. Instead, they pay attention to people, empowering them to find ways to rise above their circumstances.

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Chapter Careers in Counseling Words to Know

private practices: Are professional services businesses where the service provider is usually self-employed. therapeutic: Something that contributes to mental and physical health. advocacy: Is the support of a particular position or outcome. conflict resolution: Is the process by which people with disagreements come to an understanding, often with the help of a professional. vocational: Refers to jobs and careers.

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hough the twenty-first century has brought with it dramatic advances in technology, as well as changes in the ways people get information and communicate, many problems that individuals face on a daily basis are not new. People around the country must still deal with the problems of mental illness and substance abuse, as well as trouble with finding work, communicating with family members, or being bullied at school. The demand for workers who can give support to individuals dealing with these issues and their families is on

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the rise. As attitudes change about mental health, addiction, and emotional well-being, particularly in the level of open discussion surrounding these topics, more people are turning to counselors and psychologists for assistance. Today’s young adults are going to grow up to be the workers of tomorrow. It’s important for these young people to find careers that they find fulfilling, but also that the careers they find fit with the changing needs of the modern world. Certain jobs are projected to grow faster than others in the next decade. Employment in occupations related to helping individuals with mental health and substance abuse problems is expected to grow more than the 11 percent average employment growth across all industries. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment in counseling is expected to grow by 18 percent, while employment of psychologists is projected to grow by around 12 percent.

What Do Counselors Do? Counselors work in many different environments providing support and assistance to individuals or groups. These workers usually specialize in working on a certain issue (mental health or substance abuse, for example) or with a specific population (school children or unemployed adults, for instance). Counselors help people deal with the problems of drug addiction and treatment, joblessness, mental illness, as well as many others. In schools, hospitals, private practices, and a wide variety of clinics and health centers, counselors speak with their clients about

Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling

Mental health counselors work with individuals who are suffering from mental or emotional problems like depression or anxiety.

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personal problems, coordinate social services, assist in job hunting, and help arrange medical care or treatment.

Careers in Counseling Mental Health Counselors Mental health counselors work with individuals or groups to educate people about mental health issues and help treat those with mental illness. These workers are trained in many different therapeutic techniques used to treat depression, anxiety, stress, trauma, grief, and a wide range of other emotional and mental health issues. In addition, these workers are also trained to deal with issues related to substance abuse and addiction. They may also assist clients in finding a job, making career or educational decisions, addressing relationship problems, or seeking treatment for mental health problems. Some mental health counselors are involved in community services or advocacy for the mentally ill. Mental health counselors may also choose to specialize in working with the elderly. Most mental health counselors also interact and work with other mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, or school counselors. These counselors may also coordinate services through social workers.

Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors work with individuals who have issues involving alcohol, drugs, gambling, and eating disorders. These workers help their clients better

Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling

Counselors usually work one-on-one with patients, but at other times may lead group meetings. These teens are sharing experiences with each other and Dave Leon, an adolescent substance abuse counselor.

understand the emotional issues or personal problems that are related to their addictions. Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counseling is often done in groups (though individual sessions are held as well). Counseling sessions can be held every day, once a week, or by appointment. These counselors are experts in understanding the issues of substance abuse and how to solve these problems. They provide their clients with recovery programs that are based on healthy living practices and tailored to the needs of the individual. These counselors may also work with the families of those struggling with substance abuse and addiction, giving support to people affected by the drug or alcohol use of their loved ones. Some counselors may also educate the public about substance abuse issues throughout their community.

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School Counselors School counselors work with students as individuals or in groups to advise them on career decisions, personal problems, and issues in the classroom (including learning disabilities). School counselors work with students at every stage of education, from elementary school through college. These workers also work with individuals and organizations outside schools in order to advocate for children and young adults. School counselors may work with students to come up with academic and career goals, based around their talents, personalities, and ambitions. These workers may also coordinate services for students with social issues or disabilities. All school counselors, no matter the school level at which they are working, help students understand and cope with social, behavioral, and personal issues. School counselors aim to prevent problems with students’ behavior and academic performance by building relationships with students. These counselors may provide alcohol and drug abuse education or provide classes on conflict resolution. Counselors may also work to identify problems in students’ homes that may be causing them difficulty at school, including domestic abuse or other family issues. School counselors are in contact with parents, teachers, medical professionals, and social workers (as well as other human service-oriented professionals) in order to provide students support in a variety of ways. Elementary school counselors offer guidance to students in the classroom, in small groups, or in individual meetings. Coun-

Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling

selors may need to observe kids while they are learning in class or socializing on the playground. They work with teachers and school administrators to ensure that the curriculum students are learning meets the needs of each student. Due to the young age of the students in elementary schools, counselors working in these schools do much less career and college counseling than their high school counterparts. High school counselors give advice to students about their education, finding work after high school, and personal problems. Often, these workers help students apply to colleges, seek financial aid, or meet admission requirements. They may speak with students about their future career plans, assisting young people in finding careers that suit their personalities, goals, and skills. In addition, these workers, like all school counselors, speak with students about social and personal problems.

Vocational Counselors Vocational counselors (also known as employment counselors or career counselors) help people with the challenges of finding a job and making career decisions outside of an educational setting. When working with clients, a vocational counselor will examine their educational background, level of special training, the previous jobs they’ve held, skills, goals, and personality. They may arrange some type of testing to get a better sense of a client’s knowledge or preparation for certain types of work. Vocational counselors also help clients learn job-seeking skills, including locating open positions, pursuing interviews, how to best apply for jobs, and how to succeed in job interviews. These workers

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are also able to provide support and assistance to individuals who have lost their jobs, experience work-related stress, or other problems related to clients’ careers.

Rehabilitation Counselors Rehabilitation counselors work with individuals who are dealing with the many personal, social, and occupational effects of disabilities. These workers help people with all types of disabilities, whether caused by illnesses, accidents, or birth defects. Rehabilitation counselors must understand the limits and strengths of their clients in order to best assist them in reaching their full

Melissa Masino, a school counselor, speaks to a student at her school during his lunch break.

Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling

potential. They may help clients with personal problems or issues related to employment. In some cases, a rehabilitation counselor might arrange a client’s medical care or coordinate social services. In order to understand the capabilities of their clients, rehabilitation counselors will speak not only with the clients themselves, but also with their families, doctors, employers, and therapists. Rehabilitation counselors will also examine medical histories and doctor’s reports to understand everything they can about their clients. With input from their clients, rehabilitation counselors create individualized rehabilitation programs. Counselors will plan how clients can best go back into the community, seek employment, and live the life they want. Rehabilitation counselors may need to work with clients to overcome difficulties that keep them from achieving their goals, including a lack of education.

Marriage and Family Therapists Marriage and family therapists use their knowledge of human relationships (as well as counseling, psychology, and behavior) to help couples, husbands and wives, and families communicate, treat each other with respect, and understand the perspectives of their loved ones. These therapists may work with couples or families who are going through crises, or they may meet with clients who simply want to communicate with each other more clearly or in a safe environment. Marriage and family counselors may meet with clients as individuals or in groups. Much of marriage

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and family therapy focuses on understanding clients’ interactions and helping to improve them. In some cases, marriage and family therapists will refer a client to a psychiatrist or other mental health professional. Marriage and family therapists may also be employed as teachers or researchers. These workers teach courses in human development and relationships.

The military has career counselors who help enlisted soldiers find educational opportunities and help them find a job when they transition back to civilian life.

Chapter 1: Careers in Counseling

What Kind of Person Are You?

Career-counseling experts know that certain kinds of people do best in certain kinds of jobs. John L. Holland developed the following list of personality types and the kinds of jobs that are the best match for each type. See which one (or two) is most like you. The more you understand yourself, the better you’ll be able to make a good career plan for yourself. • Realistic personality: This kind of person likes to do practical, handson work. He or she will most enjoy working with materials that can be touched and manipulated, such as wood, steel, tools, and machinery. This personality type enjoys jobs that require working outdoors, but he or she does NOT enjoy jobs that require a lot of paperwork or close teamwork with others. • Investigative personality: This personality type likes to work with ideas. He or she will enjoy jobs that require lots of thinking and researching. Jobs that require mental problem solving will be a good fit for this personality. • Artistic personality: This type of person enjoys working with forms, designs, and patterns. She or he likes jobs that require selfexpression—and that don’t require following a definite set of rules. • Social personality: Jobs that require lots of teamwork with others, as well as teaching others, are a good match for this personality type. These jobs often involve helping others in some way. • Enterprising personality: This person will enjoy planning and starting new projects, even if that involves a degree of risk-taking. He or she is good at making decisions and leading others. • Conventional personality: An individual with this type of personality likes to follow a clear set of procedures or routines. He or she doesn’t want to be the boss but prefers to work under someone else’s leadership. Jobs that require working with details and facts (more than ideas) are a good fit for this personality.

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All the world is full of suffering. It is also full of overcoming it. —Helen Keller

ABOUT THE QUOTE Counselors must be able to look directly at the suffering people experience—and then find positive, constructive ways to help people rise above their pain.

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Chapter Careers in Psychology Words to Know

psychotherapy: Is the process of working with a mental health professional in solving life challenges. neurological: Refers to the brain and its processes.

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sychologists are experts in understanding the human mind and human behavior. They observe, analyze, and record how people interact with each other and their environment. Psychologists use scientific methods in order to look for patterns that could add to our understanding of how the mind works and why people behave in the ways that they do. These workers may be employed in hospitals, clinics, or private practices, as well as many other settings. Psychology is a branch of social science. Like other scientists in this field, psychologists must formulate theories—called hypotheses—that explain the behaviors they observe in patients, and then test those theories. They must take into account an individual’s actions, but also the feelings and thoughts behind those actions.

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Research in psychology varies by the specialty in which a psychologist works. In general, however, psychologists use the techniques of observation, assessment, and experimentation in order to arrive at new hypotheses and test existing ones. They may speak with individuals or groups in the course of seeking information about thought, emotions, and mental illness, as well as the connections between the mind and human behavior. Psychologists are trained in understanding why people think the way that they do and how their thinking influences their actions. They can apply this knowledge in a variety of ways, including the promotion of healthy development, the treatment of substance abuse, and the education of young people.

This psychologist is working with a patient—using virtual reality software to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

Chapter 2: Careers in Psychology

Many psychologists work in health and human services, providing aid to patients in hospitals, clinics, or private practices. Others are finding employment opportunities in private companies, applying their knowledge of human thought and behavior to advertising, marketing, or the organizational structure of companies.

Careers in Psychology Clinical Psychologists Clinical psychologists work to diagnose, treat, and prevent mental disorders. Some clinical psychologists may focus their efforts on treating very serious mental conditions (schizophrenia or depression, for example). Others counsel individuals, helping them cope with personal problems such as the loss of a loved one or divorce. These workers offer their clients and patients someone who can give another perspective on private—and often painful and complicated—issues. Clinical psychologists work in a variety of settings. They may counsel patients in private offices or work with doctors and other medical professionals in hospitals. Others work in universities and medical schools, educating students about mental health issues and the study of human behavior. Clinical psychologists are also employed in physical rehabilitation, where they treat patients coping with spinal cord injuries, stroke, or neurological conditions (as well as other medical conditions). These workers may also be employed in community mental health centers or drug rehabilitation centers, offering therapy and counseling.

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Clinical psychologists may specialize in health psychology, neuropsychology, geropsychology, and child psychology. In each of these specializations, workers help individuals, either directly or indirectly, maintain mental wellness. • Health psychologists are experts in understanding how biology, psychology, and society affect the health and wellness of individuals. These workers counsel people about healthy living and illness, working to improve the health of clients. They may also focus on how patients can best get treatment that they need and better their quality of life. • Neuropsychologists are experts in the relationship between the brain and human behavior. In many cases, these psychologists are employed working with patients who have had strokes or head injures. • Geropsychologists work with the elderly, and are experts in the health issues facing aging populations (including mental health). These psychologists may work with clients individually to address the emotional stresses of growing older (including grief over lost loved ones), medical treatment plans, or assist clients with other issues. Clinical psychologists may specialize in a certain issue in their field, including mental health, learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, or substance abuse issues. Clinical psychologists often work with other medical professionals in order to get the

Chapter 2: Careers in Psychology

best treatment for their patients or clients. Special focus is given to patients taking medications. In forty-eight of fifty states, psychiatrists and doctors are the only people able to prescribe medication, but psychologists may work closely with these individuals when working with a client. In Louisiana and New Mexico, clinical psychologists are able to prescribe medication (though there are some limitations on their ability to do so).

Counseling Psychologists Counseling psychologists help people deal with the problems that people face all over the country, including mental health issues, problems in the workplace, or domestic conflicts. In general, counseling psychologists provide mental health support to individuals in a variety of settings. They may work in counseling centers in colleges, hospitals, rehabilitation facilities, or private practices.

School Psychologists School psychologists work with students of all ages in order to make sure these students are achieving their potential. In addition, these workers collaborate with teachers, parents, and school administrators in order to foster healthy and supportive environments for students. School psychologists may speak with students individually about learning issues or behavioral problems they are showing at school. They may work with teachers to alter the classroom or curriculum for certain students. They sometimes recommend changes in the way parents interact with their children. School psychologists may also help to place students who

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This school psychologist is working at a college night—helping students find colleges that might be a good fit academically and socially.

are high achievers in more challenging programs that will push them to excel further. Based on their understanding of the principles of psychology, school psychologists work to improve learning, teaching, and social interaction at schools around the country. School psychologists may be involved closely in assessing various academic programs, as well as the management structure or policies of the schools in which they work in order to ensure these practices work to improve the lives of students.

Chapter 2: Careers in Psychology

Developmental Psychologists Developmental psychologists are experts in the various stages of human development. They understand how the mind and body are supposed to function at different ages. These workers may specialize in working with a specific age range (young children, teenagers, or the elderly, for instance). Developmental psychologists also understand the effects of developmental disabilities on a person’s growth. In addition, developmental psychologists are increasingly working on ways to ensure that the elderly are able to live independently for as long as possible.

If You Have a Social Personality. . .

Counseling and psychology are good career choices for you to consider. These careers will give you many opportunities to help people who need you. Since you’re genuinely and warmly interested in people and their problems, a counseling job will keep you constantly interested in your work life—and that’s a good thing! You probably don’t enjoy using machines and tools, and they’re not likely to be a part of a counselor’s or psychologist’s professional life.

If You Have a Conventional Personality. . .

You might like being an assistant in this field, where your ability to follow directions in an orderly way will be an asset to you.

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Your imagination is your preview of life’s coming attractions. —Albert Einstein

ABOUT THE QUOTE Your imagination is a good way to explore the future. When you were younger, you probably tried out many different roles—from an astronaut to a parent, from a doctor to a superhero. This kind of make-believe is still useful as you grow up. Find out as much as you can about various careers—and then try to picture yourself in those fields. Does it feel like a good fit? Allow your creativity room to play. This is the way you find new ideas and insights, both about yourself and about the road ahead.

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Chapter Education and Training Words to Know

master’s degree: Is a degree awarded by a university for additional course work after a four year undergraduate degree. ethical: Refers to practices that are morally appropriate. doctoral degree: Is a degree more advanced than a master’s degree obtained after additional education. dissertation: Is an extensive work of original research often required for the awarding of a doctoral degree. forensic: Refers to the application of science to the legal process. psychoanalysis: Is a method for the treatment of psychological or emotional illness developed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).

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areers in counseling and psychology often require advanced education beyond undergraduate study at a college or university. Both counselors and psychologists must be licensed by the state in order to work in their field, and as a result, much of the education and training these workers need is based around meeting the requirements of

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state licensing programs. Most counselors and psychologists will continue their education after becoming licensed as well.

Counselors Education and Training The educational requirements for working counselors varies widely depending on the state in which counselors wish to work, due to the fact that counselors must be licensed by the state to provide their services. Each state awards counselors licenses based on different criteria, meaning that workers will need to know the requirements of their state before pursuing a career in counseling. Most state counseling licensing programs require that counselors have at least a master’s degree. Master’s degree programs for counselors are usually offered in the education, psychology, or human services departments of colleges and universities. Within these programs, students will have the choice of specializing in one of many fields, including school counseling, marriage and family therapy, clinical mental health counseling, rehabilitation counseling, and others. Courses in these programs may cover studies in human development, relationships, cultural diversity, counseling ethics, and other topics. Accredited master’s degree programs in counseling usually require forty-eight to sixty hours of graduate study per semester, including supervised clinical experience in the field. In addition to educational experience, some employers provide newly hired counselors on-the-job training related to the specific tasks of their field within counseling.

Chapter 3: Education and Training

Licensure The requirements workers must meet to become licensed counselors vary from state to state, by specialty, and depending on where prospective counselors hope to work. The majority of states require that counselors of all types hold master’s degrees. Some states require that school counselors hold a school counseling certification awarded by the state and complete some graduatelevel courses. Other states require that school counselors get a counseling license, earned by completing advanced coursework. Some school counselors (particularly those working in public schools) may also be required to have teaching experience and certification.

Students interested in a career in counseling will need to go to college, and probably to graduate school.

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For counselors not working in schools, forty-nine states and Washington D.C. all have some form of licensing program that regulates counselors. All fifty states and the capital also have license requirements for marriage and family therapists. Counseling licensing programs (as well as marriage and family therapy licensing programs) require that counselors have a master’s degree in their field and two years worth of supervised work experience beyond their degree programs. In addition, counselors must pass a test that is recognized by the state, follow the ethical standards of counseling in their state, and complete more coursework each year to maintain their base of knowledge. License requirements are not the same across all counseling specialties, however. A career counselor who works in a private practice may need to be licensed by the state to do that work, while a career counselor working at a college or university may not be held to those standards. Substance abuse counselors are also usually licensed and governed by a separate state agency or certification board than other types of counselors. Some states may only require that these counselors hold a high school diploma and certification from one of many different counseling programs. Others may require higher education or state licensing coursework. Workers who seek employment in counseling will need to research the licensing requirements for counselors in their state.

Certification Some counselors choose to seek certification from the National Board for Certified Counselors, an organization that awards

Chapter 3: Education and Training

counselors who have met the Board’s requirements with the title of National Certified Counselor. This certification is entirely voluntary and also different from licenses or certification given out by the state. In some states, however, workers who complete the national exam with passing marks are not required to take a State certification exam. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification offers similar voluntary national certification for counselors working in rehabilitation. In many states, however, employers require rehabilitation counselors to have this certification. In order to become certified, rehabilitation counselors are often required to graduate from an accredited educational program, work in an internship for a certain amount of time, and take a written test. The requirements for certification usually depend on the educational background of the counselor seeking certification. If a counselor has a degree in a specialty other than rehabilitation, she may need to have work experience in addition to her completion of the certification program’s other requirements. Counselors will often need to continue to take courses in order to keep their certification. Though certification is usually voluntary, certification from a nationally recognized counseling organization often helps a counselor’s chances of finding employment.

Advancement The chances of advancement in counseling careers depend largely on the field in which a counselor works. School counselors may rise to become directors or supervisors of counseling. More often, however, they may become counselor educators, counseling

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psychologists, or school administrators, sometimes with further education. A counselor may also advance to working for his state’s department of education, as well. Other counselors may become supervisors or administrators of social services agencies, counseling centers, or mental health facilities. Some counselors move from counseling in these settings to working in research, college teaching, or in private practices.

Psychologists Education and Training Almost all psychologists will need to have a master’s or doctoral degree, as well as a license issued by the state in which they live. Psychologists who hold either a Ph.D. or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) will qualify for a variety of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in elementary and secondary schools, universities, and healthcare services. Psychologists with a doctoral degree usually work in clinical positions or in private practices. These workers may also be employed as teachers or researchers. In order to complete a doctoral degree program, students will usually need to complete five years of study at the graduate level. In addition, these students must write a dissertation based on their own research in their field. A Doctor of Psychology degree may not require a dissertation, instead focusing on test results and field experience. In many doctoral programs, students are expected to complete one year of supervised work in order to qualify for the degree.

Chapter 3: Education and Training

While some states will allow psychologists who only hold master’s degrees to work in schools, many school psychologists are required to have a specialist degree. A specialist degree in school psychology (Ed.S.) usually requires two years of study at minimum and an additional one-year of internship. The courses students take in these programs usually cover topics in both education and psychology. A master’s degree in psychology will qualify a graduate of the program to work as a psychologist’s assistant or conduct research under the supervision of a licensed psychologist. Master’s degree programs usually require at least two years of study. A bachelor’s degree in psychology will qualify a worker for employment as an administrative assistant in a mental health clinic or correctional program, as well as some positions assisting psychologists. The American Psychological Association (APA) awards accreditation to doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The organization also accredits institutions offering internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. An organization called the National Association of School Psychologists assists the APA in approving advanced degree programs in school psychology. In Louisiana and New Mexico, where clinical psychologists are able to prescribe medication, these workers are required to complete a master’s degree in clinical psychopharmacology and pass a national exam approved by the state, in addition to having a doctoral degree in psychology.

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Licensure All clinical, counseling, and school psychologists must be licensed by the state in order to provide care to Did You Know? Thirty-one states currently their patients. Just as is the case recognize the certification with counseling certification and given out by the National licensing, the requirements for Association of School becoming a licensed psychologist Psychologists (NASP) (which grants psychologists the vary from state to state, depending title of Nationally Certified on the specialty of the worker. In School Psychologist order to become licensed, clinical (NCSP)). This certification and counseling psychologists will allows these workers to transfer their professional need to have completed a doctoral psychology credentials from degree program in psychology, an one state to another without internship, and one to two years of having to take an entirely work experience. All states require new exam. that psychologists also complete a test given by the state licensing board. These tests may be written or conducted orally. In addition, many states require that psychologists who hold a license continually take courses in order to maintain their knowledge.

Other Qualifications Psychologists who deal directly with patients must be able to deal with difficult problems in an emotionally stable, responsible way. In addition, psychologists must be able to work well with clients who are dealing with a variety of issues. These workers must

Chapter 3: Education and Training

display compassion and understanding, as well as solid communication skills and leadership potential (especially when working with groups). Psychologists must also be very patient in their work, as treating mental disorders or gaining ground in psychological research can be a labor intensive, long-term process.

Certification and Advancement The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) awards certification in thirteen different psychology specialties, including rehabilitation, forensic psychology, psychoanalysis, school psychology, couples and family therapy. In order to be certified by the board, psychologists will need to have a doctoral degree and a license awarded by the state. In addition to these requirements, workers will need to have further education and certification for their specialty. Many psychologists continue their education after receiving their state certification or license, earning additional degrees or simply maintaining their base of knowledge. Psychologists who have sufficient work experience sometimes choose to open their own private practices.

If You Have a Creative Personality. . .

You might enjoy combining your artistic tendencies with a career in counseling or psychology. Music and art can be useful tools when working with people who need help—but keep in mind that you will also need a solid grounding in psychology and counseling. Your ability to think in original ways may be particularly useful, however, since it will allow you to think “outside the box,” finding fresh new approaches to problems in people’s lives.

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No one is useless in the world who lightens the burden of another. —Charles Dickens

ABOUT THE QUOTE Psychological or emotional pain, whatever its cause, is a very real burden that gets in the way of people being able to live up to their full potentials. As a counselor or psychologist, you will have opportunities to make a difference in others’ lives by helping them find ways to meet the emotional challenges their lives offer.

4

Chapter Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology Words to Know

postsecondary: Refers to any education obtained beyond high school. social worker: Is a professional committed to social welfare and social change.

Counselors Employment According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 665,500 workers held positions in counseling in 2008. Of these workers, around 129,500 worked as rehabilitation counselors, 113,500 worked as mental health counselors, and 86,100 worked as substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors. More counselors were employed in education than in any other sector, with 275,800

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

workers employed as educational, vocational, and school counselors in 2008. Employment was distributed among the counseling specialties as follows: Educational, vocational, and school counselors Rehabilitation counselors Mental health counselors Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors Marriage and family therapists Counselors, all other

275,800 129,500 113,300 86,100 27,300 33, 400

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

In addition to these specialties, more and more counselors are finding work in private practices. Laws now allow private counselors to be paid by insurance companies, rather than by individuals, driving further growth and opportunity in this emerging field.

Work Environment Counselors work in a wide variety of environments, depending particularly on the specialty they have chosen. Many counselors work in an office, seeing clients by appointment. In some cases, these workers may also spend time outside of the office providing services to clients in other settings. Other counselors work in private counseling practices, hospitals, or community health

Chapter 4: Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology

clinics. School counselors may work with students in the classroom or in their own office in the school.

Earnings School Counselors According to the BLS, the average yearly earnings of educational and school counselors in 2008 were approximately $51,000. The

Counselors work in many different locations depending on their specialty. This substance abuse counselor is working at an event to educate people about the consequences and negative effects of drug use.

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

highest-paid 10 percent of these workers made average incomes of more than $82,000 per year, while the lowest-paid 10 percent made less than $29,500 per year, on average. The middle 50 percent of counselors working in schools made an average of between $38,740 and $65,360 each year. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of educational, vocational, and school counselors were as follows: Elementary and secondary schools Junior colleges Colleges, universities, and professional schools Vocational rehabilitation services Individual and family services

$57,800 50,440 43,980 35,220 33,780

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors The average yearly earnings of substance abuse and behavioral counselors were around $37,000 in 2008. The highest-paid 10 percent of these workers made more than $59,460 a year, while the lowest-paid 10 percent of substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors made yearly incomes of under $24,240. The middle 50 percent of these workers earned between $29,410 and $47,290 per year. The average yearly earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors were as follows:

Chapter 4: Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology

General medical and surgical hospitals Local government Outpatient care centers Individual and family services Residential mental retardation, mental health and substance abuse facilities

$44,130 41,660 36,650 35,210 31,300

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

Mental Health Counselors According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average incomes of mental health counselors were around $36,810 in 2008. The highest-paid 10 percent of mental health counselors earned average incomes of more than $63,100 per year. The lowest-paid 10 percent of these workers earned less than $23,580 each year. The middle 50 percent of mental health counselors made between $28,930 and $48,580. The average yearly incomes in the industries employing the largest numbers of mental health counselors were as follows: Local government Offices of other health practitioners Outpatient care centers Individual and family services Residential mental retardation, mental health and substance abuse facilities

$45,510 40,880 37,590 36,130 29,950

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

Rehabilitation Counselors On average, rehabilitation counselors made yearly wages of just under $31,000 in 2008. The highest-paid rehabilitation counselors made an average of more than $56,500 per year, while the lowest-paid 10 percent made less than $20,150 a year. The middle 50 percent of rehabilitation counselors made between $24,110 and $41,240. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of rehabilitation counselors were as follows: State government Local government Vocational rehabilitation services Individual and family services Residential mental retardation, mental health and substance facilities

$45,350 38,800 29,060 28,290 25,950

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

Marriage and Family Therapists In 2008, the average yearly incomes of marriage and family therapists were around $44,500. The highest-paid 10 percent of marriage and family therapists made more than $70,800 per year. The lowest-paid 10 percent of these workers made less than $27,800 per year, on average. The middle 50 percent made between $34,800 and $56,300 each year.

Chapter 4: Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology

Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of marriage and family therapists were as follows: State government Local government Outpatient care centers Offices of other health practitioners Individual and family services

$50,770 48,220 46,830 41,220 39,690

[From United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm]

Psychology Employment The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that 170,200 workers were employed as psychologists in 2008. More than one in four psychologists were employed in counseling, research, and administration in educational settings (elementary school, high school, and postsecondary schools). Many other psychologists also found work Did You Know? According to the Bureau of as teachers in high schools and on Labor Statistics, 31 percent the faculty of universities. Psycholoof working psychologists gists employed in the health-care were union members in industry worked in hospitals, doctor’s 2008. offices, substance abuse clinics, or mental health practices. Psychologists also worked for the state and local governments in corrections and law enforcement, in addition to other settings.

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

Thirty-four percent of all working psychologists were selfemployed in 2008. The majority of psychologists who are selfemployed work in private practices. Usually only psychologists with doctoral degrees and years of solid work experience move on to start their own private practices. Some of these highly qualified workers also go on to begin private research or consulting firms.

Work Environment Psychologists work in many different settings on many different schedules, depending on their specialty. Clinical, school, and counseling psychologists who work in private practices spend the majority of their time meeting with clients in offices. These workers may also choose their own hours, depending on their position within the practice, sometimes working weekends or evenings in order to suit the needs of clients. Workers employed in hospitals or other health-care facilities may work long shifts that include weekends or nights. Those employed in schools or colleges work regular hours during the day, for the most part. Psychologists employed by colleges and universities usually teach and research in equal measure. In addition, these workers may have administrative duties or private consulting practices. Many psychologists work as part of a team, or work with others in special cases where consultation is needed. They may work alongside doctors or other medical professionals, or coordinate services with a social worker or specialized counselor, for instance. As a result, communication skills and the ability to work with others are vital to psychologists.

Chapter 4: Job Opportunities in Counseling and Psychology

Earnings In 2008, the average yearly earnings of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists were $64,140, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. On average, the highest-paid 10 percent of these workers earned under $106,840, while the lowest-paid 10 percent earned less than $37,900. The middle 50 percent earned yearly incomes of between $48,700 and $82,800. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists were: Offices of other health practitioners Elementary and secondary schools State government Outpatient care centers Individual and family services

$68,400 65,710 63,710 59,130 57,440

[United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Psychologists,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm]

If You Have an Enterprising Personality. . .

You might enjoy a management position in counseling or psychology. In a job like this you would have plenty of chances to let your energetic, sociable, and ambitious nature shine, and your abilities to be a leader would make you effective both with clients and staff. Remember, though, that these professions, as with almost any career field, require that you begin at an entry level. Your dedication and good work at lower-level jobs are what allow you to be promoted to management-level positions. Who knows, one day you might want to even own your own private practice!

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One way or another, we all have to find what best fosters the flowering of our humanity in this contemporary life, and dedicate ourselves to that. —Joseph Campbell

ABOUT THE QUOTE As you choose a career path, it’s important to do your research. Read books like this one, talk to your guidance counselor, seek out information on the Internet. Have realistic expectations. But remember that while it’s important to know the practical details involved with various careers, you also need to be sure that you will find satisfaction doing the work you choose. You should be able to know that you are contributing through your work to the human community, that in some small way you are making the world a better place.

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Chapter Job Outlook Words to Know

stigma: Is a mark of shame and embarrassment. baby boomer: A member of the generation born between 1946 and 1964.

T

he Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment will rise in almost every career related to counseling over the next several years. In fact, employment in counseling and psychology—in careers helping people of all ages with mental health, substance abuse, emotional well-being, and personal problems—is expected to rise much faster than the average rate for all occupations.

Counselors Employment Change Employment of counselors is projected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to grow faster than the average rate for all occupations. The overall employment of counselors is on track to grow by 18 percent through 2018, while the average for all industries is 11

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

percent growth in employment over the same amount of time. Each specialty within counseling is also expected to grow faster than the average rate than all other occupations, though some specialties will grow more than others. Employment of mental health counselors is projected to grow by 24 percent, much faster than the average rate for all occupations. Several different factors have led to dramatic growth in this field in recent years, as well as to the expectation of high rates of growth through the next decade. As the stigma surrounding mental health that once kept individuals from getting proper care fades over time, individuals have felt more accepting of mental health treatment, such as counseling. In addition, insurance companies are paying for mental health counselors as a cheaper alternative to more expensive psychological or psychiatric care, leading to some growth over the short term. Over the next several years, employment of substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors is projected to grow by 21 percent, much faster than the average rate of growth across all industries. Increased understanding of drug and alcohol addiction has led to more individuals seeking help for substance abuse problems. In addition, as the United States and other countries increasingly shift their drug policies from punishment to treatment, more workers will be needed to counsel the growing number of drug offenders being sent to treatment programs. Employment of educational, vocational, and school counselors, as a group, is expected to grow by 14 percent through 2018, faster than the average for all occupations. Increase in demand

Chapter 5: Job Outlook

Mental health counselors have an important career, because mental health can affect overall physical health. According to the CDC, people with depression or anxiety are significantly more likely to have cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. They are also more likely to be obese, to smoke, to be physically inactive, and to abuse alcohol or drugs.

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

for workers in these occupations is going to be driven by growing knowledge about counseling services and how they can help individuals succeed in pursuing their goals and dealing with personal problems. Many U.S. states mandate that elementary schools hire school counselors. As these workers take on more responsibilities within the schools at which they work, more counselors are likely to be hired in order to relieve overburdened workers. Counselors are fast becoming involved in every aspect of student life, from academic performance to behavioral problems, from substance abuse to suicide prevention, necessitating the hiring of additional counselors.

School counselors do more than just talk with troubled children. Dave Gillium, a guidance counselor at an elementary school in Virginia, worked with students to organize sending school supplies to a needy school in Iraq.

Chapter 5: Job Outlook

Though growth is expected to rise for counselors working in schools, budget cuts in education may restrain employment growth from reaching its fullest potential. Money from the federal government may help with financial problems caused by statelevel budget cuts. Employment of rehabilitation counselors is projected to grow by 19 percent, faster than the average growth rate of all occupations. As the population of the United States ages, and particularly as the baby boomer generation ages, rehabilitation counselors will find their skills in high demand. The elderly have a higher chance of being injured or becoming disabled than other age groups, and as a result will need the attention of highly trained workers. In addition, employers will increasingly seek rehabilitation counselors who understand mental illness to treat aging Americans. Employment of marriage and family therapists is on track to grow by 14 percent over the next several years, a rate slightly higher than the rate of growth across all occupations. As more and more people find the idea of attending marriage counseling or family therapy acceptable, growth in this occupation is expected to further increase.

Job Prospects The job prospects for those seeking work as counselors are expected to be favorable, meaning that the number of job openings are expected to be more than the number of workers applying for those jobs. Particularly in rural areas, qualified workers

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

Substance abuse counselors are expected to have excellent job prospects in part due to the numbers of people needing treatment for a drug or alcohol use problem. In 2007, 23.2 million persons (9.4 percent of the U.S. population) aged 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem.

who wish to enter counseling in the next few years should have a relatively easy time finding work in their chosen field. Substance abuse counselors should have the best prospects of all counseling specialties.

Psychologists Employment Change Through 2018, employment of psychologists is expected to grow by about 12 percent, about the same as the average rate across all other occupations. Increased demand for psychological assis-

Chapter 5: Job Outlook

tance in health care, education, social services, mental health care, substance abuse services, and private industry will drive the growth in employment. Growth in the employment of school psychologists will be driven by an increasing understanding of how students’ mental health and behavioral problems (bullying, for example) take a toll on their ability to learn in the classroom. School psychologists will also be needed to work with students who have disabilities or other special needs. Over the next few years, increasing demand for clinical psychologists will be due in part to the more central role psychology is Did You Know? In 2008, 27,300 workers taking in preventing and treating held jobs as marriage disease caused by smoking, alcohol and family counselors, abuse, and obesity. Psychologists according to the Bureau of will also find work in a growing Labor Statistics. number of programs provided by employers. They will be hired in private companies working to counsel employees on their careers, personal issues, and the stresses of their jobs. Psychologists will be needed to assist those who have mental illnesses and their families. America’s aging population will also drive employment growth for clinical psychologists, as more elderly people need help coping with the mental and physical changes that come with age. Psychologists will also be hired to work with military veterans returning from overseas wars.

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21st-Century Counselors: New Approaches to Mental Health & Substance Abuse

Real-Life Career: K. Alexandra Onno, MA, LMHC (Licensed Mental Health Counselor), Marriage & Family Counselor “I always had a curiosity about people as individuals and how they act in relationships,” marriage and family counselor, K. Alexandra Onno says of her entry into her field. “Family and marriage counseling seemed like the logical place to bring those together.” Alexandra’s desire to help others also drove her to become a counselor, a career choice she made fifteen years ago. Today, she works as a licensed, selfemployed marriage and family counselor. Alexandra advises young people who are considering a career in counseling to know what they are taking on in their future roles as counselors when they enter the field. “Contemporary family therapy focuses on wellness, so students come into counseling degree programs unprepared for the extent of actual illnesses,” she says. “They concentrate on the person’s strengths, which is good, but their dysfunctional aspects also have to be dealt with.” In order to prepare for a career in counseling, Alexandra tells students to get solid experience working in the field. She took an internship at a private practice while getting her master’s degree, for instance. This work led her to a full-time position after she graduated and gave her a good sense of what working as a counselor would be like. She also suggests that young people volunteer in environments in which counselors work, asking established counselors about their experiences in the field.

Chapter 5: Job Outlook

Alexandra warns new workers that there are drawbacks to working in counseling. She says she often finds it hard to remove herself from her often emotionally challenging work. “With children, it’s painful to see the consequences of parental power that has been violated or abused, when it should be used to enhance their children’s lives,” she says. That she can make a difference in the lives of children and families coping with these sorts of issues, however, gives Alexandra a sense of satisfaction and importance. Helping individuals create and maintain healthy relationships can be difficult and sometimes upsetting, but Alexandra continues to be committed to improving the lives of others through counseling. (From www.allpsychologyschools.com/faqs/marriage-and-family-counselorinterview.php)

Job Prospects Job prospects in psychology are likely to be best for workers who have a doctoral degree from a top university in counseling, health, or school psychology. Workers who hold only a bachelor’s degree will find that they are less competitive in the job market than those who hold advanced degrees. Psychologists who hold master’s degrees will face stiff competition for a small number of

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positions due to the demand for more highly educated workers. Very few positions in psychology require only a master’s degree. Workers with this level of education may find work as psychological assistants or in counseling, providing their services to clients and patients under the supervision of a licensed psychologist. Governments, private companies, and universities may hire these workers to collect and analyze data, as well. Workers who hold only a bachelor’s degree will find that job opportunities in psychology or related occupations are limited. Some workers who hold bachelor’s degrees may find work as assistants in rehabilitation facilities, but the majority of jobs for these workers will be in data collection, organization, and analysis.

If You Have a Realistic Personality. . .

You may find that the problems a counselor or psychologist encounters are too “messy” for your taste. You probably prefer to work with situations where the solutions will be something you can see and touch, where you can use practical tools and mechanical know-how to build a better world.

If You Have an Investigative Personality. . .

You may enjoy putting your skills to work to find practical answers to people’s problems. Chances are, however, you’d prefer a career where you would have more opportunities to use math and science than you would in most counseling jobs. Your natural interests and skills might be a good match, however, for a psychological research job.

Find Out More on the Internet

Further Reading DeGalan, Julie, and Stephen Lambert. Great Jobs for Psychology Majors. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Kuther, Tara L., and Robert D. Morgan. Careers in Psychology: Opportunities in a Changing World. Boston, Mass.: Wadsworth Publishing, 2009. Landrum, R. Eric, and Stephen F. Davis. The Psychology Major: Career Options and Strategies for Success. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2009. Sternberg, Robert J (Ed.). Career Paths in Psychology: Where Your Degree Can Take You. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association (APA), 2006. Super, Donald. Opportunities in Psychology Careers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Find Out More on the Internet American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) www.aamft.org American Counseling Association www.counseling.org American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) www.amhca.org American Psychological Association, “Students” www.apa.org/about/students.aspx American School Counseling Association www.schoolcounselor.org

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Bibliography

National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) www.nasponline.org National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) www.nbcc.org

Disclaimer The websites listed on this page were active at the time of publication. The publisher is not responsible for websites that have changed their address or discontinued operation since the date of publication. The publisher will review and update the websites upon each reprint.

Bibliography AllPsychologySchools.com, “Interview With a Marriage and Family Counselor,” www.allpsychologyschools.com/faqs/marriage-and-family-counselor-interview.php (May 12 2010). Onetcenter.org, “Clinical Psychologists,” http://online.onetcenter.org/ link/summary/19-3031.02 (May 10 2010). Onetcenter.org, “Counseling Psychologists,” http://online.onetcenter. org/link/summary/19-3031.03 (May 10 2010). Onetcenter.org, “Mental Health Counselors,” http://online.onetcenter. org/link/summary/21-1014.00 (May 10 2010). Onetcenter.org, “Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors,” http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/21-1011.00 (May 10 2010).

Bibliography

United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Counselors, All Other,” http://www. bls.gov/oes/current/oes211019.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Educational, Vocational, and School Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211012.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Marriage and Family Therapists,” http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211013.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Mental Health Counselors,” http:// www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211014.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Rehabilitation Counselors,” http:// www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211015.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment Statistics: Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors,” http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211011.htm (May 10 2010). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Psychologists,” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm (May 10 2010).

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Index

Index American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) 37 American Psychological Association (APA) 35 baby boomer 49, 53 Bureau of Labor Statistics 10, 39–49 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification 33 counselors certification 32–33 education 30 licensure 31–32 vocational 15 depression 12, 23 dissertation 29, 34 eating disorders 13 Ed.S. 35 elementary school 14–15, 45, 52 forensic 29, 37 Freud, Sigmund 29 geropsychologist 24 high school 15, 32, 39, 45 internship 33, 35–36 marriage and family therapists 17–18 earnings 40, 44–45 mental disorders 23, 37

mental health counselors 12 earnings 40, 43 National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) 35–36 National Board for Certified Counselors 32 personality traits 19, 27, 37, 47, 59 psychoanalysis 29, 37 psychologists clinical 23–25, 35, 55 counseling 25, 36, 46 developmental 26–27 earnings 47 education 34–35 licensure 36 school 25–26, 35–36, 55 psychotherapy 21 Psy.D. 34 rehabilitation counselors 16–17, 33, 53 earnings 44 schizophrenia 23 school counselors 14–15, 31, 33 earnings 41–42 social worker 12, 14, 39, 46 stigma 49–50 substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors 12, 39–40, 50 earnings 42, 43 suicide 52 therapeutic 9, 12

Picture Credits

Picture Credits Department of Defense Lono Kollars: pg. 31 Fotolia.com Alexander Raths: pg. 8 bellemedia: pg. 11 Edyta Pawlowska: pg. 38 Gina Sanders: pg. 20 iQoncept: pg. 48 Lisa F. Young: pg. 38 palangsi: pg. 54 Phase4Photography: pg. 51 United States Marine Corps Jovane Holland: pg. 13 Regimental Combat Team 5: pg. 52 Vitaliy Rusavskiy: 40 United States Navy: Greg Mitchell: pg. 22 Rachel N. Hatch: pg. 18 To the best knowledge of the publisher, all images not specifically credited are in the public domain. If any image has been inadvertently uncredited, please notify Harding House Publishing Service, 220 Front Street, Vestal, New York 13850, so that credit can be given in future printings.

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About the Author and Consultant

About the Author Camden Flath is a writer living and working in Binghamton, New York. He has a degree in English and has written several books for young people. He is interested in current political, social, and economic issues and applies those interests to his writing.

About the Consultant Michael Puglisi is the director of the Department of Labor’s Workforce New York One Stop Center in Binghamton, New York. He has also held several leadership positions in  the International Association of Workforce Professionals (IAWP), a non-profit educational association exclusively dedicated to workforce professionals with a rich tradition and history of contributions to workforce excellence. IAWP members receive the tools and resources they need to effectively contribute to the workforce development system daily. By providing relevant education, timely and informative communication and valuable findings of pertinent research, IAWP equips its members with knowledge, information and practical tools for success. Through its network of local and regional chapters, IAWP is preparing its members for the challenges of tomorrow.