1939: the making of the Second World War (World War II) 9780671216894, 0671216899

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1939: the making of the Second World War (World War II)
 9780671216894, 0671216899

Table of contents :
Acknowledgements 5
List of Illustrations 11
Introduction 13
1. A Bloodless Triumph 19
2. War in the West? 38
3. Viorel Virgil Tilea 61
4. Making a Stand 79
5. “A Long, Solid and Durable Front?’ 115
6. Enter the Russians 152
7. Danzig or Poland? 188
8. The “Menacing Silence” 216
9. Appeasement Cremated 243
10. Moscow Morass 260
11. Exit the Russians 281
12. Crisis 320
13. The Coming of the German-Polish War 339
14. The Hours to World War 368
Notes to Chapters 391
Sources 427
Index 439

Citation preview

Sidney Aster

fhe Making of the Second World War

"In the 172 days between March 15 th and Sep¬ tember 3rd, 1939, Czechoslovakia and Albania lost their independence and the Lithuanian port of Memel was seized. Throughout the European continent troops were daily on the move, and armoured columns perfected tech¬ niques. Air forces practised tactics, navies dem¬ onstrated their strength, and armament fac¬ tories turned out the weapons of war. German and Polish, French and Italian, Hungarian and Rumanian troops eyed each other menacingly across their fortified frontiers. War scares, crisis and invasion were the order of the day. Plans of diplomatic pacification, drafts of warnings and counter-threats, intelligence reports, and diplo¬ matic assessments were hourly prepared and scrutinised. The documents poignantly exhibit the thoughts and actions of statesmen, politi¬ cians and civil servants daily faced with the ultimate decision: peace or war.”

Based on the release of the most critical state papers of the British Government, 1939 tells for the first time the exact course of events that led to the out¬ break of World War II—using revelations from pri¬ vate letters, Cabinet memoranda, handwritten min¬ utes, and formerly sealed archives to illuminate the actions, decisions, concerns, and fears of the Euro¬ pean leaders and cabinets as they found themselves sliding helplessly toward war. For the first time, it is possible to understand the failure of Allied strategy, to learn the truth about the various flamboyant "peace missions” that resulted in so much misunderstanding, to realize the impor¬ tance of the Cabinet revolt at 10 Downing Street on the night of September 2, which brought the British and French governments into the war. As a work of history, 1939 is a book of capital im¬ portance, one that must henceforth be taken into ac¬ count in explaining and understanding the causes of

(Continued on back flap)




Ivan Maisky and Parliamentary Anti-Appeasement, 1938-1939 (in Lloyd George, Twelve Essays, A. J. P. Taylor, ed.), 1971 English Poetry in Quebec,

John Glassco, ed.,





v, /Vvrv




7 CA.>


/ /«.; /\« i


Minute by Wilson, n.d., PREM1/330; Minute by Vansittart, 26 July, FO371/22990, C10521/16/18.


Letters, Chamberlain to Ida and Hilda Chamberlain, 23, 30 July, Chamberlain Papers; Feiling, Neville Chamberlain, 409; H. C. Deb., 350, 24 July, col. 1027. Cf. letters and minutes in FO371/22990, C10698/ 16/18.


Ribbentrop to Dirksen, 31 July, DGFP, VI, no. 743; Dirksen to Foreign Ministry, 31 July, 11 Aug., ibid., nos. 746, 752.


See Minutes of the ACIQ for 1938-9 and its memoranda nos. 484A, 489, Labour Party Papers.


Minutes, ACIQ, 19 July; and memoranda nos. 493A, 489A.


Dirksen to Weizsacker, 1 Aug., Documents and Materials, II, no. 22.


Letter, Mackenzie King to Chamberlain, 24 July; Chamberlain to Mackenzie King, 7 Aug., William Lyon Mackenzie King Papers, 264, 224772-9, 224782.


Ernest W. D. Tennant, Account Settled (1957), 215-26; Letter, Tennant to Chamberlain, 4 July; Record of conversation by Wilson, 10 July; Minute by Wilson, 24 July; Report by Tennant, 31 July, PREM1/335.


Note of conversation between Kemsley and Hitler, 27 July; Minute by Wilson, 1 Aug., PREM1/332; Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1943, 193.


Minute by Wilson, 1 Aug.; Letter, Kemsley to Otto Dietrich, 1 Aug.; Note of conversation with Dietrich, 3 Aug.; Letter, Dietrich to Kemsley, 17 Aug., PREM1/332.


Letter, Butler to Wilson, 2 Aug., PREM1/330; Record of conversa¬ tion, 3 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 533.


Notes to Chapters 24.

Dirksen to Ribbentrop, 3 Aug., Documents and Materials, II, no. 24; Minutes by Wilson, 3, 4 Aug., PREM1/330.


Minute by Dirksen, 9 Aug., Documents and Materials, II, no. 25; Memo¬ randum by Dirksen, Sept., ibid., no. 29; Minute by Wilson, 20 Aug., PREM1/331.




H. C. Deb., 347, 24 May, col. 2267.


Halifax to Seeds, 24 May, DBFP, V, no. 609; Seeds to Halifax, 25 May, ibid., no. 623; SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, no. 309.


Seeds to Halifax, 27, 28, 30 May, DBFP, V, nos. 648, 657, 665, 670.


Seeds to Halifax, 1, 2 June, ibid., nos. 681, 697; Minute by Makins, 2 June, FO371/23067, C7895/3356/18.


Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1941, 184; Minutes by Cadogan,



10 June,

F037i/23°67, C7936-7/3356/18; Kennedy to Hull, 9 June, FRUS, I9J9, I, 272. 6.

Minute by Chamberlain, n.d.; see note by E. L. Woodward, 14 Mar. J944, FO371/23069, C9295/3356/18.


Minutes, FPC, 49^ tneeting, 5 June, CAB27/625; Cadogan Diaries, J938-1949, 185; Halifax to Seeds, 6, 7 June, DBFP, V, nos. 720, 734; Seeds to Halifax, 7 June, ibid., no. 729.


Davies to Hull, 18 Apr., FRUS, Soviet Union, 756—7; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 128; The Earl of Avon, The Eden Memoirs, The Reckoning (1965), 55. Cf. Minute by Cadogan, 12 June, FO371/23069, C8861/3356/18.


Halifax to Seeds, 8, 12 June, DBFP, VI, nos. 5, 38; SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, nos. 322-3; Memorandum by Ewer, 9 June, FO371/23068, C8701/3356/18.


Lord Strang, Home and Abroad (195 6), 15 8; Maisky, Who Helped Hitler? 141.


Minutes, FPC, 50th meeting, 9 June, CAB27/62 5.


Phipps to Halifax, 6 June, DBFP, V, no. 719; Minutes, Cab3i(39), 7 June, CAB23/99.


Foreign Office memoranda, 12 June, DBFP, VI, no. 35; Seeds to Halifax, 15, 16, 20 June, ibid., nos. 60, 69, 73> 103 •> SSSR v Borbe f^a Mir, no. 331; Letter, Sir William Seeds to the author, 17 Sept. 1972.


Minutes, Cab3 3(39), 21 June, CAB2 3/100; Entry of 12 July, Dalton Diaries; Halifax to Seeds, 19 June, DBFP, VI, no. 89; Minute by H. W. Malkin, 15 June, FO371/23068, C8618/3356/18. 414

Notes to Chapters 15.

Minutes, FPC, 53rd meeting, 20 June, CAB27/625; Seeds to Halifax, 21, 22, 24 June, DBFP, VI, nos. 119, 123, 126, 139.


Minutes, FPC, 54th meeting, 26 June, CAB27/625; Halifax to Seeds, 27> 29> 3° June, 1 July, DBFP, VI, nos. 151, 171, 185, 199; Seeds to Halifax, 28, 30 June, ibid., nos. 156, 181; Minute by Cadogan, 30 June, F037i/23°69, C9154/3356/18.


Entry of 28 June, Dalton Diaries. Cf. Record of conversation, 28 June, PREM1/325.


Seeds to Halifax, 1, 4 July, ibid., nos. 221, 225, 226-7; SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, no. 361; Minutes, FPC, 56th meeting, 4 July, CAB27/625.


Letters, Halifax to Henderson, 14, 30 June, DBFP, VI, nos. 55, 194; Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission, Berlin 19 37-19 39 (1940), 236.


Letter, Chamberlain to Hilda Chamberlain, Papers; Aster, “Ivan Maisky”, 352.

2 July, Chamberlain


Livre Jaune Francis, no. 182; Phipps to Halifax, 8 June, DBFP, VI, no. 2; Minute by Roberts, 10 June, FO371/23067, C8212/3356/18. Cf. Letter, Henderson to Kirkpatrick, 22 June, FO371/23069, C8915/ 3356/18; Letter, Sargent to Henderson, 23 June, DBFP, VI, appendix 1, 708; Minute by Peake, 9 June, FO371/23068, C8641/3356/18.


Letter, Godfrey to Jebb, 2 June, FO371/23008, C8006/53/18; Memo¬ randum by Stafford Cripps, 9 June, FO371/22973, C8347/15/18; Letter, Henderson to Cadogan, 13 June, DBFP, VI, appendix 1, 702.


Letter, Berlin Chancery to Central Department, 23 June, FO371/ 23687, N3099/411/38; Seeds to Halifax, 10, 15 June, DBFP, VI, nos.


57Minute by Vansittart, 16 June, FO371/23009, C8923/53/18; Memo¬ randum by Ridsdale, 16 June, DBFP, VI, appendix 1, 705-6; Minute by Cadogan, 7 Apr., FO371/22969, C5062/15/18. Cf. Erich Kordt, Nicht aus den A.kten (Stuttgart 1950), 313-19.


See e.g., Snow to Halifax, 21 June, no. 136, FO371/22973, C9101/15/ 18; Minute by Lascelles, 26 June, FO371/23686, N3110/243/38; Letter, Holman to Halifax, 30 June, FO371/23069, C9365/3356/18; Campbell to Halifax, 27 June, no. 133, ibid., C9075/3356/18; Minute by Halifax, 29 June, FO371/23021, C9205/54/18.


War Office memorandum, 4 July, FO371/23686, N3335/243/38.


Weizsacker to Schulenburg, 30 May, 12 June, DGFP, VI, nos. 453, 514; Schulenburg to Foreign Ministry, 2 June, ibid., nos. 465, 499; Tippelskirch to Foreign Ministry, 18, 25 June, ibid., nos. 543, 568.


Schulenburg to Foreign Ministry, 29 June, ibid., no. 579; Memo¬ randum by Hewel, 29 June, ibid., no. 583 ; Weizsacker to Schulenburg, 30 June, ibid., no. 588.


Notes to Chapters 29.

Minutes, FPC, 56th meeting, 4 July, CAB27/625; Minutes, Cab35(39), 5 July, CAB23/100.


Halifax to Seeds, 6 July, DBFP, VI, nos. 251-3; Seeds to Halifax, 9, 10 July, ibid., nos. 279, 281-2.

pp. 281-319




Minutes, Cab38(39), 19 July, CAB23/100; Kennedy to Hull, 17 Feb.,


FRUS, 1939,1, 17; Minutes, CID, 348th meeting, 24 Feb., CAB2/8. Minutes, FPC, 57th meeting, 10 July, CAB27/625.


Letter, Chamberlain to Hilda Chamberlain, 15 July, Chamberlain Papers; Feiling, Neville Chamberlain, 412.


Halifax to Seeds, 12 July, DBFP, VI, no. 298; Seeds to Halifax, 18 July, ibid., no. 338; Minutes in FO371/23070, C9709, 9889/3356/18; SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, no. 376.


Weizsacker to Schulenburg, 7 July, DGFP, VI, no. 628; Schulenburg to Foreign Ministry, 10, 16 July, ibid., nos. 642, 677; Memorandum by Schnurre, 18 July, ibid., no. 685.


Minutes, Cab38(39), 19 July, CAB23/100; Kennedy to Hull, 20 July, FRUS, 1939,1, 288.


Minutes, FPC, 58th meeting, 19 July, CAB27/625.


Notes from French Embassy, 18, 19 July, DBFP, VI, nos. 346, 357; Letter, Campbell to Halifax, 19 July, ibid., no. 358; Bonnett, Fin d'une Europe, 198-201.


Halifax to Seeds, 22 July, DBFP, VI, no. 378.


SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, nos. 372, 377, 381.


Seeds to Halifax, 24, 28 July, DBFP, VI, nos. 414-15, 473; Halifax to Seeds, 25 July, ibid., no. 435.


Dirksen to Foreign Ministry, 21 July, DGFP, VI, no. 695; Weizsacker to Schulenburg, 22 July, ibid., no. 700.


Minutes, Cab39(39), 26 July, CAB23/ 100.


Hugh Dalton, Hitler's War, Before and After (1939), 119. Cf. Letter, Ismay to Churchill, 30 Sept., 1947, Ismay Papers, Ismay II/3/35/1; General Lord Ismay, Memoirs (i960), 97.


Letter, Strang to Sargent, 20 July, DBFP, VI, no. 376; Maisky, Who Helped Hitler? 164-5; Entry of 2 Aug., Pownall Diaries; Memo¬ randum by Boothby, 17 Sept., Dalton Papers.


Minutes by Kirkpatrick and Oliphant, 25 July, FO371/23071, C10525/ 3356/18. See also. Minutes, DCOS, 43rd meeting, 27 July, CAB54/2; JPC Paper 483, 26 July, CAB55/18.


“A Fragment of Autobiography”, Drax Papers, DRAX6/7; further 416

Notes to Chapters details, ibid., DRAX2/9-13, 19; information from the Major-General Thomas G. G. Heywood Papers. 18.

SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, no. 411, fn. 142.


JPC Paper 483, 26 July, CAB55/18; DCOS Paper i44(JP), 27 July, CAB54/10.


Minutes, JPC, 266th meeting, 29 July, CAB55/3; Minutes, DCOS, 45 th, 46th meetings, 31 July, CAB 54/2.


The final version of the instructions, CID Paper DP(P)yi, CAB 16/ 183B, is in DBFP, VI, appendix 5, 762-89. For earlier drafts see JPC Paper 488, 28 July, CAB5 5/18; DCOS Paper, 154 (revise), 31 July, CAB54/10.


Entry of 14 June, Dalton Diaries.


Draft, “Mission to Moscow, August 1939”, 4-7, Drax Papers, DRAX 6/5; Minutes, CID, 372nd meeting, 2 Aug., CAB2/9.


Minute by






Minutes, DCOS, 45th meeting, 31 July, CAB54/2; Minutes, FPC, 60th meeting, 1 Aug., CAB27/625. 25.

Campbell to Halifax, 29 July, DBFP, VI, nos. 489-90; Minute by Ismay, 29 July, FO371/23072, C10811/3356/18; Minute by Roberts, 2 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 5 20; Henderson to Halifax, 31 July, ibid., no. 49 5.


Draft, “Mission to Moscow, August 1939”, 4, Drax Papers, DRAX 6/5; Minutes, FPC, 60th meeting, 1 Aug., CAB27/625; “Diary of the Military Mission to Moscow’’, Papers.


Major-General Francis


General Andre Beaufre, 1940, The Fall of France (1967), 96. The in¬ structions to the French delegation are ibid., 92-5.


Memorandum by Schnurre, 27 July, DGFP, VI, no. 729; Welczeck to Foreign Ministry, 28, 30 July, ibid., nos. 731, 741.


Weizsacker to Schulenburg, 29 July, ibid., no. 736.


Schnurre to Schulenburg, 2 Aug., ibid., no. 757; Memorandum by Otto von Erdmannsdorff, 8 Aug., ibid., no. 784; Ribbentrop to Schulenburg, 3 Aug., ibid., nos. 758, 760.


Ministry of Defence and Foreign Policy archives of the



in Istoriya Velikoi Otechestevennoi Voiny, I, 174-5. 32.

Memorandum by Schnurre, 3 Aug., DGFP, VI, no. 761; Schulenburg to Foreign Ministry, 4 Aug., ibid., no. 766.


SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, nos. 395, 397-8; Seeds to Halifax, 3 Aug., DBFP, VI, nos. 525, 527; Halifax to Seeds, 4 Aug., ibid., no. 540; Minutes by Roberts, 4 Aug., FO371/23072, C10815, 10821/3356/18; Minutes by Strang and Cadogan, 10, 11 Aug., ibid., Ci 1524/3356/18.


Memorandum by Schnurre, 5 Aug., DGFP, VI, no. 772; Memo¬ randum by Schnurre, 10 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 18.


Notes to Chapters 35.

Schnurre to Schulenburg, 14 Aug., ibid., no. 50; Record of conversa¬ tion between Hitler and Ciano, 12 Aug., ibid., no. 43; Haider Diary, ibid., appendix 1, 552-6.


Draft, “Mission to Moscow, August 1939”, 11, Drax Papers, DRAX 6/5; Seeds to Halifax, 13 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 647; Author’s inter¬ view with Brigadier R. C. Firebrace, 6 Aug. 1968. All references to the military talks are taken from both the British and Soviet published records: DBFP, VII, appendix 2, 561-614; “Negotia¬ tions between the Military Missions of the U.S.S.R., Britain and France in August 1939”, International Affairs (Moscow), nos. 2-3, Feb., Mar. 1959, 110-23, 106-22; and from French documents, captured by the Germans in 1940 and then by the Russians in 1945, in SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, nos. 416, 418-19, 424, 430-1, 433-5, 440. Seeds to Halifax, 3, 12 Aug., DBFP, VI, nos. 525, 638; Minutes by Roberts and Sargent, 4 Aug., FO371/23072, C10821/3356/18; Minute by Roberts, 14 Aug., ibid., Ci 1276/3 3 5 6/18. Beaufre, 1940, no. Seeds to Halifax, 13 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 647. Minutes by Strang, 14, 15 Aug., FO371/23072, C11275/3356/18; DCOS Paper 167, 14 Aug., CAB54/11; Minutes, DCOS, 49th, 50th meetings, 14, 15 Aug., CAB5 4/2; Halifax to Seeds, 15 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 6, 8. Seeds to Halifax, 15 Aug., ibid., nos. 1-2. Halifax to Seeds, 25 July, 1 Aug., DBFP, VI, nos. 432, 504; Seeds to Halifax, 26 July, ibid., no. 456; Instructions to the British Military Mission, ibid., appendix 5, 764, 772, 783. Leon Noel, L’Agression Allemande Contre la Pologne (Paris 1946), 422-3; Paul Reynaud, In the Thick of the Fight (1955), 212. Minute by Strang, 16 Aug., FO371/23072, Ci 1323/3356/18; Waclaw Jedrzejewicz, ed.. Diplomat in Paris 1996-1999, Memoirs of Julius% Lukasiewicz (1970), 249-50; SSSR v Borbe za Mir, no. 416. Minutes, DCOS, 51st meeting, 16 Aug., CAB54/2; DCOS Paper 179, 16 Aug., CAB54/11; Halifax to Kennard, 17 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 38-9; Kennard to Halifax, 18 Aug., ibid., no. 52. Ribbentrop to Schulenburg, 14 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 56; Schulen¬ burg to Foreign Ministry, 16 Aug., ibid., nos. 70, 79; Schulenburg to Weizsacker, 16 Aug., ibid., no. 88; Foreign Policy archives of the ussr, quoted in Istoriya Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voiny, I, 175. Ribbentrop to Schulenburg, 16 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 75; Schulen¬ burg to Foreign Ministry, 18 Aug., ibid., no. 105. Letter,Burnett toNewall, 16 Aug., DBFP, VII, appendix 2, 597; Draft, “Mission to Moscow, August 1939”, 38-9, Drax Papers, DRAX6/5.



39. 40. 41.

42. 43.

44. 45.



48. 49-


Notes to Chapters 50.

Ribbentrop to Schulenburg, 18, 20 Aug., DGFP, VII, nos. 113, 142; Schulenburg to Foreign Ministry, 19, 20, 21 Aug., ibid., nos. 125,132-3, 158-9.


Halifax to Kennard, 20 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 91; Kennard to Halifax, 19, 20, 21 Aug., ibid., nos. 70, 87-8, 90, 94, 108; Letter, Kennard to Cadogan, 21 Aug., ibid., no. 119; Bonnet, Fin d’une Europe, 282. Record of conversation, 22 Aug., DBFP, VII, appendix 2, 609-13; General Doumenc, “The Inside Story of the Moscow Talks, 1939”, Tribune, 11 July 1947.






57. 58.


Minutes by Ridsdale, 22, 23 Aug., FO371/22976-7, €11744,11898/ 15/18; Minute by Vansittart, 23 Aug., ibid., C12027/15/18; Steinhardt to Hull, 23 Aug., FRUS, 1939, I, 343; Seeds to Halifax, 22 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 128, 164, 187. Halifax to Kennard, 22 Aug., ibid., no. 150; Kennard to Halifax, 23 Aug., ibid., no. 176; Halifax to Seeds, 23 Aug., ibid., no. 198; Bonnet, Fin d’une Europe, 289-90. Memorandum by Hencke, 24 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 213; Treaty of non-aggression and secret additional protocol, ibid., nos. 228-9; Seeds to Halifax, 11 Sept., no. 258, FO371/22983, C13871/15/18. Record of conversation, 25 Aug., DBFP, VII, appendix 2, 613-14; Ministry of Defence archives of the ussr, quoted in Istoriya Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voiny, I, 172; Halifax to Seeds, 22 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 136; Seeds to Halifax, 23, 25, 29 Aug., ibid., nos. 165, 291, 499. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 124-5; Cordell Hull, Memoirs, I (1948), 656-7. Lindsay to Halifax, 29 Apr., no. 197, FO371/22971, C6217/15/18; W. G. Krivitsky, I was Stalin’s Agent (1940), 17-42; Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1953), 321-7. Minutes by Lascelles, 24, 25 May; Letter, Collier to Jebb, 24 May, FO371/23697, N2594/1459/38; Letters, Moscow Chancery to Nor¬ thern Department, 21 June; Collier to Moscow Chancery, 27 June, ibid., N3082/1459/38; Letter, Washington Embassy to Northern Department, 14 July; Minute by Collier, 3 Aug., ibid., N3496/1459/ 38.




Davies, Mission to Moscow, 287; Letter, Welles to Steinhardt, 4 Aug., FRUS, 1939, I, 293-4; Steinhardt to Welles, 16 Aug., ibid., 296-9; SSSR v Borbe %a Mir, nos. 359, 427. Lindsay to Halifax, 17 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 41; Lindsay to Halifax, 17 Aug., no. 6, FO371/22976, C11733/15/18; Letter, Seeds to Sargent, 5 Oct., FO371/23074, C16704/3356/18. Minute by Roberts, 22 Aug., FO371/22976, Ci 1723/15/18; Letter, Seeds to Sargent, 5 Oct., FO371/23074, C16704/3356/18; Letter, 419

Notes to Chapters Sargent to Seeds, 19 Sept., Pownall Diaries. 63.

ibid., Ci 3 842/3 3 5 6/18; Entry of 23 Aug.,

Minute by Butler, 25 Aug.; Memorandum by Collier, 25 Aug.; Minute by Sargent, 3 Sept., FO371/23686, N4146/243/38. See also. Minutes by Lascelles and Sargeant, 22, 24 C12741/15/18.


Aug., FO371/22980,

Letter, Sir William Seeds to the author, 23 Mar. 1970.

pp. 320-338



Shepherd to Halifax, 4 Aug., DBFP, VI, nos. 542-3; Polish White Book, no. 82; Livre Jaune Franfais, no. 178.


Halifax to Norton, 4 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 549; Kennard to Halifax, 5 Aug., ibid., no. 565; Polish White Book, nos. 83-4; Kennard to Halifax, 6 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 576; Minute by Makins, 9 Aug., FO371/23024 C11062/54/18.


Memorandum by Erdmanns do rff, 8 Aug., DGFP, VI, no. 784; Memorandum by Weizsacker, 9 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 5; Lipski Papers and Memoirs, 554; Polish White Book, no. 86.


Kennard to Halifax, 10 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 606; Halifax to Kennard, 10, 12 Aug., ibid., nos. 610, 645; Minutes by Makins, 7 Aug., FO371/ 23024,010979/54/18; 17 Aug., FO371/22976, Ci 1491/15/18; 21 Aug., FO371/22977, C11901 /15/18.


Minute by Halifax, 10 Aug., FO371/23025, C11185/54/18; Minute by Syers, n Aug., PREM1/331.


Feiling, Neville Cha?nberlain, 4IQj Letter, Chamberlain to Syers, 13 Aug., PREM1/331.


Minute by Makins, 14 Aug., DBFP, VI, no. 659; Letters, Makins to Frank Walters,

14 Aug.; Strang to Beaumont-Nesbitt,

17 Aug.,

F037i/23°25, Ci 1266/54/18; Shepherd to Halifax, 14, 17 Aug., nos. I29, 204> FO371/23025-6, C11325, 11761/54/18. 8.

Letter, Strang to Kennard, 16 Aug., FO371/23025, C11338/54/18; Halifax to Kennard, 15 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 4.


Ciano s Diplomatic Papers, 297-304; Ciano’s Diary, 1939-1943, 123-5; Memoranda by Schmidt, 12, 13 Aug., DGFP, VII, nos. 43, 47.

10. Letter, Syers to Chamberlain, 12 Aug.; Letter, Halifax to Chamberlain, 14 Aug., PREM1/331; Minute by Strang, 17 Aug., F037I/22976,’ ClI375/i5/i8. n.

Minutes by Syers, 11, 12, 15 Aug.; Letter, Halifax to Chamberlain, 14 Aug., PREM1/331; Entry of 7 Aug., Pownall Diaries. 420

Notes to Chapters 12.

War Office memoranda, 4 Aug., FO371/22960, Ci 1122/13/18; 8 Aug., F037i/23°25, C11330/54/18.


Henderson to Halifax, 16 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 32; Cadogan Diaries, 1938- 194], 196; Halifax, “A Record of Events before the War, 1939”, FO800/317, H/XV/312. This was based on extracts from Cadogan’s diaries in FO371/22978, C12122/15/18.


Henderson to Halifax, 18 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 56; Shepherd to Halifax, 15 Aug., ibid., no. 10; Minute by Cadogan, 16 Aug., FO371/ 22976, C11573/15/18; Letter, Halifax to Chamberlain, PREM1/331.


14 Aug.,

Minute by Halifax, 17 Aug., FO371/23025, Ci 1382/54/18; Minutes by Cadogan and Chamberlain, 17, 18 Aug., FO371/22976, Ci 1573/15/18.


Letter, Halifax to Chamberlain, 19 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 83; Halifax to Loraine, 19 Aug., ibid., no. 79. Cf. Minute by Halifax, 18 Aug., FO371/22976, Ci 1452/15/18.


Minutes, DCOS, 52nd meeting, 18 Aug., CAB54/2.


Minutes of meeting at Air Ministry, 20 Aug., COS Paper 960, CAB5 3/


53Minutes, Cab4i(39), 22 Aug., CAB23/100; Halifax to Henderson, 22 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 142, 145.


Record of Interview, 23 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 200; Henderson to Halifax, 23, 24 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 178, 200, 248; Hitler to Chamberlain, 23 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 201; Weizsacker, Memoirs, 203.


Memorandum of Speech by Hitler, 22 Aug., DGFP, VII, nos. 192-3; Haider Diaries, ibid., appendix 1, 557-60.


Kennedy to Hull, 23 Aug., FRUS, 1939, I, 355; Halifax to Lindsay, 23 Aug., no. 948; Minutes by John Balfour and Roberts, 30, 31 Aug., FO371/22977, C11836/15/18. Cf. Kennedy to Huh, 23 Aug., FRUS, 1939- >

339—42; Minutes in FO371/22827, A6561/1090/45.


Minutes, Cab42(39), 24 Aug., CAB23/100; Entry of 24 Aug., Captain Euan Wallace Diaries.


H. C. Deb., 351, 24 Aug., cols. 3-10; Entry of 24 Aug., Nicolson Diaries.

2 5.

Weizsacker, Memoirs, 204-5 •


Statement by Hitler to Henderson, 25 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 265; Henderson to Halifax, 25 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 283-4, 288.


Haider Diaries, DGFP, VII, appendix 1, 560-1.


Hitler to Mussolini, 25 Aug., ibid., no. 266; Mussolini to Hitler, 25 Aug., ibid., no. 271; Haider Diaries, ibid., appendix 1, 561.


Paul Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter (1951), 146; Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Memoirs (1965), 89-90; Weizsacker, Memoirs, 207.


Notes to Chapters pp.



Birger, Dahlerus, The Last Attempt (1948), 49-5 5; Minute by Roberts,



24 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 237; Memoranda by Dahlerus, 24, 25 Aug., ibid., no. 285; Reply by Halifax, 26 Aug., ibid., no. 349; Entry of 26 Aug., Pownall Diaries. 2.

Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1943, 201-2; Harvey Diaries, 1937-1940, 3056; “Record of Events before the War, 1939”, FO800/317, H/XV/ 312.


Minutes, Cab43(39), 2 6 Aug., CAB23/100; Minutes and notes in PREM1/330. See COS Minutes, 313th meeting, 25 Aug., CAB53/11; and COS Paper 966, 25 Aug., CAB53/54.


Dahlerus, The Last Attempt, 55—74; Memorandum by Dahlerus, 27 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 349.


Minutes, Cab44(39), 27 Aug., CAB23/100; Phipps to Halifax, 27 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 359; Livre Jaune Franfais, nos. 253, 261.


Minute by Kirkpatrick, 27 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 397; Harvey Diaries, I937~I94°-> 3°7; Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1949, 203; Minute by Kirk¬ patrick, 29 Aug., FO371/22978, C12825/15/18.

7. 8.

Minutes by Jebb and SIS, 27 Aug., ibid., C12211/15/18; Minute by SIS, n.d., FO371/22981, C12875/15/18. Minute by Strang, 26 Aug., PREMi/331.


Harvey Diaries, 1937-1940, 307-8.


Letter, Henderson to Halifax, 22 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 158; Loraine to Halifax, 23 Aug., ibid., no. 166.


Minute, unsigned, 18 Aug., FO371/23026, C11576/54/18; Halifax to Kennard, 18, 22, 23 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 58, 140, 170; Kennard to Halifax, 19 Aug., ibid., no. 89.


Jean Szembek, Journal, 1933~J939 (Paris 1952), 491; Lipski Papers and Memoirs, 556, 563-4, 587, 590-2; Kennard to Halifax, 23, 24, 25 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 180, 196, 228, 263; Minute by Makins, 25 Aug., F037i/23°26, C11970/54/18.


Henderson to Halifax, 24, 25 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 233, 241, 271, 293; Loraine to Halifax, 25 Aug., ibid., no. 262.


Ibid., Letter, Kennard to Cadogan, 26 Aug., ibid., no. 357; Letter, Henderson to Halifax, 24 Aug., ibid., no. 257; Minute by Makins, 25 Aug., FO371/23026, C11948/54/18.


Halifax to Kennard, 25, 26 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 309, 354; Halifax to Loraine, 26 Aug., ibid., no. 327.


Ogilvie-Forbes to Halifax, 28 Aug., ibid., no. 402; Minutes, Cab45(39), 28 Aug., CAB23/100; Halifax to Kennard, 28 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 422

Notes to Chapters 411; Kennard to Halifax, 28 Aug., ibid., no. 420; Cadogan Diaries, 1938194J, 203. 17.

Ogilvie-Forbes to Halifax, 28 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 418; Minutes by Kirkpatrick and Sargent, 28 Aug., FO371/22978, C12234/15/18.


Henderson, Failure of a Mission, 262-4; Henderson to Halifax, 29 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 450, 455, 472, 501; Memorandum by Schmidt, 29 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 384.


Minute by Vansittart, 29 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 45 5; Minute by Halifax, 29 Aug., FO371/22978, C12253/15/18; Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1943, 203; Halifax to Henderson, 30 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 545.


Henderson to Halifax, 29 Aug., ibid., nos. 455, 467; Fiarvey Diaries, 1937-1940, 3°9; Minute by Roberts, 29 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 459;

Dahlerus, The Fast Attempt, 82-5. 21.

Minutes by Makins, Kirkpatrick and Sargent, 29 Aug., FO371/22979, C12338/15/18; Dahlerus, The Fast Attempt, 84.


H. C. Deb., 351, 29 Aug., cols. m-16.

2 3.

Henderson, Failure of a Mission, 264; Henderson to Halifax, 29, 30 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 470, 490, 493, 502, 508, 565.


Cadogan Diaries, 1,939-1943, 204; Minute by Wilson, 30 Aug., PREMi/ 331; Halifax to Henderson, 30 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 504; Henderson to Halifax, 30 Aug., ibid., no. 520; David Irving, ed.. Breach of Security (1968), 101-2.


Minute by Makins, 30 Aug., FO371/22979, C12389/15/18; Dahlerus, The Fast Attempt, 88-99; Foreign Office minute, 30 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 514; Note of telephone conversation, 30 Aug., ibid., no. 519.


Minutes, Cab46(39), 30 Aug., CAB23/100; Halifax to Henderson, 30 Aug., FO371/22979, Ci2467/15/18; Entry of 30 Aug., Inskip Diaries, INKP1/2; Lyons to Chamberlain, 27 Aug., PREM1/300.


Halifax to Henderson, 30 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 5 34, 538, 543, 547-8; Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1943, 205; Henderson, Failure of a Mission, 269. See also, Minutes in FO371/22979, C12486-7/15/18.


Schmidt, Hitler's Interpreter, 150-3; Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP,

VII, nos.


574; Schmidt to

German Embassy in

London, 30 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 458; Memorandum by Schmidt, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 461; Joachim von Ribbentrop, Memoirs (1954), 122-4. 29.

Henderson, Failure of a Mission, 273; Letter, Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 628.


Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 575; Fipski Papers and Memoirs, 569-71,605-7.


Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 577, 579, 628; Hassell, D’Une Autre Allemagne, 74-6.

Notes to Chapters 32.

Dahlerus, The Last Attempt, 104-5; Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 597; Lip ski Papers and Memoirs, 608-9.


1 elegram from Goerdeler, 30 Aug., FO371/22981, C12789/15/18; Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., no. 521; Minutes by Sargent and Cadogan, 31 Aug., FO371/23010, C12519/53/18.


Minutes by Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, nos. 580, 627.


Henderson to Halifax, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 587; Minutes by Cadogan and Wilson, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 589; Halifax to Henderson, 31 Aug., ibid., nos. 591-2.


Minute by Halifax, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 590; Ciano>s Diary, 1939—1943, 140; Phipps to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 604.


Halifax to Kennard, 30, 31 Aug., ibid., nos. 539, 596; Kennard to Halifax, 31 Aug., ibid., no. 576.


Lipski Papers and Memoirs, 572, 601; Kennard to Halifax, 31 Aug DBFP, VII, no. 608.

39. 40.

Lipski Papers and Memoirs, 609-10; Memorandum by Schmidt, 1 Sept., DGFP, VII, no. 476; Schmidt, Hitler’s Interpreter, 154. Haider Diaries, DGFP, VII, appendix 1, 566-70.


Memorandum by Weizsacker, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 482.


Thomsen to Foreign Ministry, 1 Sept., DGFP, VII, no. 494; Ciano’s Diary, 1939-1943, 142; Livre Jaune Franfais, no. 319; Entry of 31 Aug., Inskip Diaries, INKP1/2; Cadogan Diaries, 1938-1943, 206.


Loraine to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 621; Ciano’s Diary, 19391943* Mi-


Kennard to Halifax, 31 Aug., DBFP, VII, no. 618; Henderson to Halifax, 1 Sept., ibid., no. 631.


Halifax to Kennard, 1 Sept., no. 356, FO371/22980, Ci 2543/15/18; DBFP, VII, no. 632; Kennard to Halifax, 1 Sept., ibid., no. 675.






Hore-Belisha Papers, 224-5. Cf. J- R- Colville, Man of Valour, The Life of Field-Marshal the Viscount Gort (1972), 141.


Reuter to Halifax, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 637; and to Chamberlain, PREM1/331, Kennard to Halifax, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 638.


Raczynski, In Allied London, 25; Halifax to Kennard, 1 Sept. DBFP VII, no. 689.


Halifax to Henderson, 1 Sept., ibid., no. 690; Memorandum by Kordt, 1 Sept., DGFP, VII, no. 501; Adolf Hitler, My New Order, 683-90.


Directive by Hitler, 31 Aug., DGFP, VII, no. 493; Circular by Weizsacker, 1 Sept., ibid., no. 512. 424

Notes to Chapters 6.

Record of conversation, i Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 639; Minute by Cadogan, n.d., FO371/22980, C12647/15/18.


Henderson to Halifax, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 645; Minute by Makins, 1 Sept., FO371/22980, C12622/15/18.


Henderson to Halifax, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 658.


Minutes, Cab47(39), 1 Sept., CAB23/100. See Minute by Butler, 1 Sept., F037i/23°92, C12928/12590/18.


Phipps to Halifax, 1 Sept., no. 289; Minutes by Barclay and Makins, 1 Sept., FO371/22913, C12616/90/17; Georges Bonnet, Quai d’Orsay (Isle of Man 1965), 263; his Fin d’une Europe, 349-50; Kennedy to Hull, 1 Sept., FRUS, 1939, I, 405-6; Halifax to Henderson, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, nos. 664, 669.


H. C. Deb., 351, 1 Sept., cols. 126-33; Nicolson Diaries and Fetters, I, 1930-39, 417.


Henderson to Halifax, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, nos. 682, 648; Memoranda by Schmidt, 2 Sept., DGFP, VII, nos. 513, 515; Irving, Breach of Security, 118.


Halifax to Phipps, 1 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 699; “A Record of Events Before the War, 1939”, FO800/317, H/XV/312; Phipps to Halifax, 2 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 708.


Minutes by Loraine and Harvey, 2 Sept., ibid., nos. 709-10; Halifax to Phipps, 2 Sept., ibid., no. 700; Entry of 2 Sept., Sir John Simon Diaries; “A Record of Events Before the War, 1939”, FO800/317, H/XV/312.


Minute by Cadogan, 2 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 716; (an earlier draft of this conversation was read to the first Cabinet on 2 Sept.); Georges Bonnet, Dans la Fourmente, 1938—1948 (Paris 1971), 187; Fivre Jaune Franfais, no. 343; Kennard to Halifax, 2 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 693.


Minutes, Cab48(39), 2 Sept., CAB23/100; Minute by Rucker, 2 Sept., PREM1/331; “A Record of Events Before the War, 1939”, FO800/317, H/XV/312.


Record of conversation, 2 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 718; Minutes by Cadogan and Mallet, 2 Sept., ibid., nos. 727, 730; Harney Diaries, 19371940, 314.


Minute by Jebb, 2 Sept., DBFP, VII, no. 728; Loraine to Halifax, 2 Sept., ibid., no. 739; Memorandum by Briicklmeier, 2 Sept., DGFP, VII, no. 554.


Major-General Sir Edward Spears, Assignment to Catastrophe, I, Prelude to Dunkirk (1954), 19-22; Entry of 2 Sept., Wallace Diaries; H. C. Deb., 351, 2 Sept., cols. 280-5; Notes by Hugh Dalton, 2 Sept., Lord Henderson Papers, HEN/16/1; Jasper Rootham, Demi-Paradise (i960), 174.

42 5

Notes to Chapters 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.


29. 30.

31. 32. 33.

34. 35.

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Abetz, Otto, Paris representative of Ribbentrop’s private bureau, 208 Adam, Lieutenant-General Sir Ronald, Deputy Chief of the Imperial General Staff, “we must do something to assist Poland”, 148; briefs British military dele¬ gation to Moscow, 292 Admiralty (British), Intelligence Depart¬ ment of, 130; Drax invited to serve with, 291 Air Ministry (British), and air demonstra¬ tion for whaling conference, 244 Alba, Duke of, Spanish Ambassador in London, learns of Hudson-Wohlthat conversation, 249 Alexander, A. V., Labour MP, 108 Anderson, Sir John, Lord Privy Seal, 1990, 38on; delegated by rebel Ministers to accompany Simon, 383 Anglo-French staff conversations, 49, 143146, 206 Anglo-French-Soviet military conversa¬ tions, inspired on British side by politics and not strategy, 282; instructions for British delegation to, 289-90, 292-4; choice of British personnel for, 290-1; members of French delegation to, 29m; legend of the slow boat to Moscow, 295296; members of Soviet delegation to, 30m; first session of, August 12th, 301-2; second session of, August 13th, 302-3; third session of, August 14th, 303; in¬ structions to British delegation altered, 304-5; postponed, 308-11; departure of Anglo-French delegation, 318 Anglo-French-Turkish Treaty of Mutual Assistance, October 19th, 141 Anglo-German declaration, September 30th, 1938, 31, 38 Anglo-German Fellowship, 57, 253 Anglo-German Naval Agreement, 1935, 224-5 Anglo-Italian Agreement, November 16th, 1938, and Italian invasion of Albania, 130,

131; and withdrawal of Italian troops from Spain, 135 Anglo-Polish conversations, April 4th-6th, 123-8, 193-4 Anglo-Polish staff conversations, 146-7 Anglo-Polish Treaty of Mutual Assistance, August 25 th, Beck requests conclusion of, 322; signature of, 338; considered a “slap in the face” by Hitler, 340; causes hesita¬ tion in Berlin, 345; Article I invoked, 369 Anglo-Rumanian Society, 66 Anglo-Russian Parliamentary Committee, 156

Anglo-Turkish declaration of mutual assis¬ tance, May 12th, 141, 180 Anglo-Turkish staff conversations, 147-8 Aras, Dr Tevfik Rustii, Turkish Ambas¬ sador in London, conversation with Tilea, March 17th, 65; “Turkey would fight on the side of England”, 118, 121; assured of British goodwill, 122 Ashton-Gwatkin, Frank, Economic Coun¬ sellor, Foreign Office, receives message from Goerdeler, 171; conversations with Goerdeler, May 25th-30th, 230-1; dis¬ illusioned with economic appeasement, 245 Astakhov, Georgi, Counsellor, Soviet Embassy in Berlin, confirms GermanSoviet commercial negotiations in pro¬ gress, 274; conversation with Schnurre, July 26th, 296-7; conversations with Ribbentrop and Schnurre, 298-9; and Soviet readiness to negotiate all outstand¬ ing issues, 300; his abrupt change of mind, 307-8 Astor, Lord, conversation with Trott, 238 Attlee, Clement, Labour Party leader, 23 Attolico, Dr Bernardo, Italian Ambassador in Berlin, 361 Ausnit, Max, Rumanian industrialist, 72n •

Babarin, Evgeny, Soviet deputy trade representative in Berlin, instructed to sign


Index Babarin—coni. German-Soviet economic agreement, 284; his negotiations with Schnurre publicised in the ussr, 287; conversation with Schnurre, July 26th, 296-7 Backhouse, Admiral Sir Roger, Chief of Naval Staff, 119n Baldwin, Stanley, British Prime Minister J935~37» proposal for his meeting with Hitler, 219-20 Balkan Entente, 12 in, 126, 128 Ball, Sir Joseph, Director, Conservative Party research department, 245 Barcza, George de, Hungarian Minister in London, 22 Beaumont-Nesbitt, Brigadier Frederick, Deputy Director of Military Intelligence, 53

Colonel Jozef, Polish Foreign 94> JI3> x37> T3^, 190; his policy or balance between Germany and the ussr,^ 88, 91; “all the trump cards in our hand’’, 90-1; arrives in London for talks, 123; intends to avoid controversy, 124; and Anglo-Polish conversations, 125-8, x93-4> and co-operating with Rumania’ T39> J67; on Anglo-Soviet relations, 157; meetings with Hitler and Ribbentrop, 189; alleged to be in German pay, 192; and policy in event of Danzig crisis, 195, 197, 198, 211; seeks information from London and Paris, 205—6; indifferent to rumours of week-end coup in Danzig, 208; and Ironside mission, 212-13; on PolishSoviet military co-operation, 307, 311, 312—13; and Danzig customs dispute, 321-2; advice to, resulting from HitlerBurckhardt conversation, 324; and British suggestions to establish contact with Berlin, 346-8, 349; and Ribbentrop’s sixteen points, 360, 362, 366, 367; instructs Lipski to see Ribbentrop, 364—5, and Italian conference proposal, 376, appeals for air raids on western front, 384 Beck, Madame, 192 Benes, Edouard, Czechoslovak President until October 1938, 26, 34 Bergerson, Professor, Norwegian delegate to the whaling conference, 244, 246 Bernays, Robert, Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Health, and German ulti¬ matum to Rumania, 63, 630 Bibesco, Princess Marthe, Rumanian writer, learns of German ultimatum to Rumania’ 63; on Channon diaries, 6$n Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, United States Ambassador in Warsaw, 99 Birmingham Unionist Association, 3 5 Board of Trade (British), and AngloRumanian trade, 67; gathers information on Wohlthat’s contacts, 249

Bodenschatz, General Karl, Goring’s aidede-camp, 171 Bonham-Carter, Lady Violet, 63 Bonnet, Georges, French Foreign Minister, advises non-intervention in Czecho¬ slovakia, 34; and German ultimatum to Rumania, 71; and Anglo-French conversa¬ tions, 87; prepared to conclude FrancoSoviet mutual assistance agreement, 162; his gaffe, 173, 174; requests Foreign Office warning to Dirksen, 209; “does not think we can afford to fail now”, 286-7; and Anglo-French ultimatum to Germany’ 372> 378, 384; favours Italian conference proposals, 374-6; British plans for his removal from office, 388 Boothby, Robert (Lord Boothby), Con¬ servative MP, 153 Boyd, Lord, 64a Brauchitsch, General Walter von, Commander-in-Chief of the German Army, 273 Bridges, Sir Edward, Secretary of the Cabinet, summons rebel Ministers to Cabinet meeting, 385-6 Brown, Ernest, Minister of Labour, 38on Buccleuch, Duke of. Lord Steward of the Kings Household, suggests retaining moderation in Herr Hitler’s outlook” 218-19 * Bujoiu, Ion, Rumanian industrialist, jzn Bullitt, William C., United States Ambas¬ sador . in Paris, and enlightenment of American public opinion on Danzig crisis, 209; advises against “running after” the Russians, 267 Burckhardt, Professor Carl, League of Nations High Commissioner in Danzig, informed by Forster of Hitler’s peaceful intentions, 214; his secret report to Makins, June 1 ith, 234; conversation with Hitler, August nth, 322-4; Schwerin’s mission to, 332; on Polish government’s fatal step, 3 90 Burgin, Leslie, Minister of Supply, favours postponing decision on an Anglo-Soviet alliance, 178; on importance of securing an agreement with the ussr, 271 Burnett, Air Marshal Sir Charles, member of British military delegation to Moscow, 291 Butler, R. A. (Lord Butler), Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 103, 186, 342, 387; discusses Anglo-Soviet relations with Maisky, 155, 156, and an Anglo-Soviet alliance, 178; proposes a dual system of offensive and healing diplomacy”, 218-19; urges Hali¬ fax to reopen dialogue with Germany, 233; conversation with Kordt, August 2nd, 256, his letter to Wilson, August 3rd, .257n; approached to explain failure of intelligence, 317, 318; Harvey’s suspicion of, 345-6


Index Buxton, Charles Roden, Labour MP, his work on a programme of Anglo-German appeasement, 251; conversation with Kordt, July 29th, 251-2; conversation with Halifax, July 13 th, 252n

Cabinet (British), meeting of, November 30th, 1938, 25; March 15th, 29-31; October 31st, 1938, 38; January 25th, 48; February 1st, 49; Novembet 7th, 1938, 50; March 18th, 77-8, 79-80; March 20th, 82-3, 190; March 22nd, 87-8; March 29th, 97-9, 120; March 30th, 103-7, 191; March 31st, 109-11, 191; April 5th, 126, 130; April 8th, 132-3; April 10th, 134; April nth, 140-1; April 19th, 141; September 3rd, 151; April 13th, 161; April 26th, 167; May 3rd, 172-3, 196; 224-5 i May 10th, 174-5; May 17th, 178-9, May 24th, 185-6, 205, 228-9; July 5th, 212; July 19th, 213, 281, 284-5 5 July 26th, 214, 289; June 7th, 267; August 22nd, 317, 330, 331-2; August 24th, 335; August 26th, 340-2; August 27th, 343-4; August 28th, 349; September 1st, 376—8; Septem¬ ber 2nd (first), 376-8; September 2nd (second), 386-7 Cable, Eric, British Consul-General in Cologne, 246n Cadogan, Sir Alexander, Permanent Under¬ secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 31, 35, 49, 65, 108, 132, 186, 192, 203, 233, 367, 374, 376, 389; receives advance intel¬ ligence of Prague coup, 22-3; his views on the guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 28; “Appeasement? Fatal!” 32; advises on post-Munich policy, 41; summarises pros¬ pects for 1939, 46; warns against relaxa¬ tion of vigilance, 51; the Scylla and the Charybdis, 5 2; defends Secret Intelligence Service, 53-4; suspicious of Hitler, 55; considers Henderson “bewitched”, 56; suspicious of secret sources, 57, 208; sceptical about Conwell Evans, 59; and Tilea’s information about the German ultimatum to Rumania, 64, 68, 70-1; “we have reached the cross-roads”, 75; and policy towards Italy, 81, 84-5; “Life is hell”, 86; “situation looks as murky as it can be”, 91; suggests guarantee to Poland, 100; conversation with Kennedy, March 31 st, 111; on Mason-MacFarlane, 116; and policy in south-east Europe, 121-3, 128; reaction to Italian invasion of Albania, 128; hesitates on British guarantee to Rumania, 139; supports plan to call Soviet bluff, 160; and Soviet alliance proposals of April 17th, 163, 164; on Sirovy mission, 181; and Schnurre visit to Moscow, 183; on Chamberlain, 184, 185; on necessity of preparing for war, 197; and Scandinavian

mediation scheme, 205, 206; on Buccleuch, 219; suspicious of appeasement at No. 10, 226; on Goerdeler’s peace pro¬ poses, 230; unable to imagine a viable peace plan, 232; doubts effectiveness of bringing Churchill into the Cabinet, 236237; and Hudson, 244; on Kemsley-Hitler conversation, 254; his sympathy for Seeds, 262; “We must dig our toes in”, 271; distrusts the Kordt brothers, 275; hires additional Foreign Office staff, 3i7n; and Danzig customs dispute, 322; and HitlerBurckhardt conversation, 322-3; on the beginning of the “War of nerves”, 328; and Hitler’s communication of August 25th, 340, 342; and Dahlerus, 343; drafts telegram to Beck, 349; his reaction to Hitler’s demand to see a Polish emissary, 355-6; “We have got to stand firm”, 366; on Ironside’s mediatory mission to Berlin, 370; summoned to 10 Downing Street, 383; approves Wilson’s handling of Hitler’s peace plan, 385; on Bonnet’s un¬ trustworthiness, 388; convinced “Nothing wd. have made any difference”, 390 Calinesco, Armand, President of Rumanian Council, and German ultimatum to Rumania, 63, 63n Campbell, Ronald, British Charge d’Affaires in Paris, 287 Camrose, Lord, Chief Editor of the Daily Telegraph, agrees to support Churchill’s return to the Cabinet, 237 Canaris, Admiral W. W., head of the XLbwehr, arranges Schlabrendorff’s visit to London, 235; and German-Soviet nego¬ tiations, 275 Carol II, King, of Rumania, pleads for in¬ creased Anglo-French interest in south¬ east Europe, 62; Bernays introduced to, 630; agrees with Tilea’s strategy for London mission, 66-7; Lloyd’s opinion of, 71-2 . Chamberlain, Neville, British Prime Minis¬ ter, and German occupation of Czecho¬ slovakia, 22, 23, 30-1, 32; and Munich conference, 24, 27, 60; visits Paris, 25; his meeting with Mussolini, 26; and AngloFrench guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 27, 29; talk of his resignation, 35; his Bir¬ mingham speech, March 17th, 35-7, 62, 77; “peace with honour”, 38; agrees to hasten rearmament, 41; decides to “more or less leave Germany alone”, 44-5; treats intelligence cautiously, 48; on defending Holland, 49; announces Anglo-French defence co-operation, 50; shared beliefs with Henderson, 54; his disagreement with the Foreign Office, 56-7; lobby cor¬ respondents briefed by, 59; opinion of Rumanian political situation, 67-8; dis¬ taste for “grand alliance” scheme, 74,


Index Chamberlain—cont. I26-7j> 15 4~5 i his “challenge to Germany”, 77-8; and guarantee to Poland, 79> 9L 100, 106-7, 109, 112-13; attitude towards the ussr, 79-80, 87, 89, 92-3, 1089, no,157, 184—5, 282-3; and fourpower declaration proposal, 80-1, 82-3, 86, plans to ask Mussolini to restrain Hitler, 81, 83-5, 211; and Anglo-French conversations, 88; on strategic importance of Poland, 95, 163; and conscription, 98-9; on policy towards a Danzig coup, 104, I9°~3> 196-7; hopes for a “more wholesome era”, 113-14; conversation with Lloyd George, 115; and Angloltalian relations, 118; and morale of the Balkan states, 120; and Anglo-Polish conVrfA u^0ri;S’ I93>' on Italian invasion of Albania, 130, 134—5; hedges on guaran¬ tee to Turkey, 137; hedges on guarantee to Rumania, 138-9; consents to guaran¬ tees to Rumania and Greece, 140-1; and Allied. grand strategy, 149, 150; Soviet suspicions of, 156, 169, 299; secret AngloSoviet agreement considered by, 157; struggles against Soviet alliance pro¬ posals of April 17th, 164-5, 172-3, 175, T7^-8, 179-80; conversation with Gafencu, 167; agrees to conclude a triple alliance, 185-7; his Scandinavian media¬ tion scheme, 204—6; and French request for a warning to Germany, 209-11; and Ironside’s mission to Poland, 212; and the death of appeasement, 216-17; on colonial appeasement, 220-1, 224; opinion of Americans, 223; denies having given Hitler a ^ “free hand” in eastern Europe, 2a4~5 > determined not to submit to dictation , 227; and a renewal of the search for appeasement, 228, 229; has “no intention of being bounced into taking back Winston”, 236-7; dilemma of his credibility, ^238; conversation with von Trott, 239; “confidence must be restored”, 2 39~4o; and Hudson’s revolt of junior Ministers, 243; initials record of WilsonWohlthat conversation, July 18th, 246; reveals truth of his attitude towards the Hudson and Wohlthat talks, 249-51; and Hitler’s invitation to Mackenzie King, 252-3; approves Tennant visit to Ribbentrop, 253; and Kemsley-Hitler conversation, July 27th, 254-5; and DirksenWilson conversation, August 3rd, 256-8; expects full agreement” with the ussr, 260; adopts stiff attitude towards the tri¬ partite negotiations, 263, 266-7, 269, 272273> 278-9; and question of guarantee to Baltic states, 264, 270-1; rejects Eden’s offer to visit Moscow, 265; meets National Council of Labour, June 28th, 271; con¬ siders a German-Soviet rapprochement


impossible”, 281, 316; attitude towards Anglo-French-Soviet military conversa¬ tions, 282; and Britain’s final conditions for a triple alliance, 285-6; Lloyd George on, 288; conversation with Drax, 295; approves new definition of “indirect” a8Sressi°n, 300; “I am sending you a salmon”, 323; and Ciano’s visit to Ger¬ many, 326-7; his personal letter to Hitler, August 22nd, 329, 331-2; conversation with Kennedy, August 23rd, 334-5; “God knows I have tried my best”, 335-6; and Hitler’s communication, August 25 th, 341-2; on Dahlerus, 343-4; satisfied with reply to Hitler, 349; addresses Commons, August 29th, 353; and Hitler’s demand to see a Polish emissary, 355-6; his interim message to Hitler, 357; Goerdeler’s last peacetime message shown to, 362; and Mussolini’s conference proposals, 363-4, 374; and Cabinet debate on draft com¬ munication to Hitler, September 1st, 370-2; addresses Commons, September Ist> 373; Simon’s speech to Commons on behalf of, 374-5; and question of ulti¬ matum to Germany, 376-8, 384, 386-7; addresses Commons, September 2nd, 3 79— 3 80; rebel Ministers’ case put to, 381-2; reaction to Cabinet revolt, 382-3; “this country is at war with Germany”, 389 Channon, Henry, Butler’s Parliamentary Private Secretary, Bibesco on diaries of, ^3nJ 5>cA11 the old Munich rage all over again”, 380; on Chamberlain, 387 Chatfield, Admiral of the Fleet Lord, Minister for Co-ordination of Defence, 24n> ii9n, 295; on policy in south-east Europe, 77; on Poland and the ussr as allies, 93-4; and Chiefs of Staff report on guarantees to Poland and Rumania, 96, 105—6; demands guarantee to Greece and Turkey, 135; urges protection for Ru¬ mania, 137; suspicious of Polish policy, 13 8—9; on dangerous prospects for a German-Soviet rapprochement, 174; on Spain as a more valuable ally than the ussr, 175; and Chiefs of Staff views on an Anglo-Soviet alliance, 177, 178; denies Anglo-German Naval Agreement ex¬ changed for “free hand”, 225; and AngloFrench-Soviet military conversations, 282, 286, 290, 292, 304; reports Chiefs of Staff views on ultimatum, 371 Chiefs of Staff, report on strategic impor¬ tance of Holland, 48-9; and German threat to Rumania, 76-7, 79; report on military implications of an Anglo-French guarantee to Poland and Rumania, 96-7, 105-6, 127, 159; and their “European Appreciation, 1939-1940”, 117-19; advise British guarantees to Greece and Turkey, 135-6; approve first stage of Anglo-

Index Chiefs of Staff—coni. French staff conversations, 144; and dilemma over a two-front war, 145-6; “the fate of Poland will depend on the ultimate outcome of the war”, 148-51; advocate alliance with the ussr, 158, 165; and Anglo-French-Soviet negotiations, 165-6, 175, 176-7; and Anglo-FrenchSoviet military conversations, 286; on Polish-Soviet military co-operation, 305; meetings of August 20th and 21st, 330; decide earliest date for British ultimatum to Germany, 341-2; and time limit for ultimatum, 371, 386, 387 Chilston, Lord, British Ambassador in Moscow until November 1938, 152, 153 Churchill, Randolph, journalist, 237 Churchill, Winston, Conservative MP, attacked by Hitler, 38, 51; his “grand alliance” scheme, 74, 154; urges occupa¬ tion of Corfu, 133; approached by Tilea to support guarantee to Rumania, 139; advocates an Anglo-Soviet alliance, 159; the “worst of all wars”, 180; Goerdeler’s visit to, 230; conversation with Schlabrendorff, 235; campaign to bring him into the Cabinet, 236-7 Ciano, Count Galeazzo, Italian Foreign Minister, conversation with Mussolini, 85; and invasion of Albania, 129, 130-1; Jebb on, 200; conversation with Ribbentrop, August nth, 324-5; conversations with Hitler, August 12th, 13th, 300, 325-6; and Mussolini’s conference pro¬ posals, 362-3, 374-5, 378; “Italy will not fight”, 366 City of Exeter, ship of the Ellerman Lines, 296, 300-1 Collier, Laurence, head of the Northern Department, Foreign Office, and Krivitsky revelations, 315; on British intelligence of German-Soviet negotiations, 318 Colville, John, Secretary of State for Scot¬ land, 3 8 on Colvin, Ian, News Chronicle journalist, and guarantee to Poland, 99-100, 103, 108; “activities most dangerous to himself”, 101; his stories about Beck dismissed, 192 Committee of Imperial Defence, and bomb¬ ing threat to London, 44; meeting of June 22nd, 148; July 24th, 149-50; February 24th, 281; August 2nd, 294 Conservative Party, 32, 154 Conwell Evans, Professor T. Philip, Joint Honorary Secretary, Anglo-German Fel¬ lowship, background and intelligence activities of, 5 7-8; and German occupation of Czechoslovakia, 58-9; and Buxton, 252; and Selzam, 345 Corbin, Charles, French Ambassador in London, requests British participation in protest against Czech coup, 34; gingers up

four-power declaration, 86; informed of Chamberlain’s precarious position, 383-4; and Cabinet decision on ultimatum to Germany, 387 Coulondre, Robert, French Ambassador in Berlin, and German-Soviet relations, 170; submits French communication to Ger¬ many, September 1st, 373; presents French ultimatum, September 3rd, 389 Council of Ministers (French), decides to unilaterally guarantee Rumania, 140; orders mobilisation, 372; summoned by Daladier, 378 Cretzianu, Alexandre, Secretary-General, Rumanian Foreign Ministry, his secret mission to London, 138 Cripps, Stafford, Labour MP, 273-4 Crolla, Guido, Italian Charge d’Affaires in London, 134 Csaky, Count Istvan, Hungarian Foreign Minister, 298, 321 Czech general staff, 21

Dahlerus, Birger, Swedish industrialist, his background, 240; plans Baltic sea rendez¬ vous, 240-1, 252; sent to London, August 25 th, 339-40; and Hitler’s six-point pro¬ gramme, 342-3; prepares the ground for Britain’s reply, 343-4; on German “good¬ will” and plans to attack Poland, 349-50; Foreign Office on, 3 5 2-3; reports Goring’s views, 355-6; conversation with Lipski, August 31st, 361-2; conversation with Wilson, August 31st, 363; and tele¬ phone message of September 1st, 371; originates scheme for Goring’s flight to London, 388-9 Daily Express, 248 Daladier, Edouard, French Prime Minister, at Munich conference, 60; on dealing “with gangsters”, 134; presses for British guarantee to Rumania, 140; urges Halifax to accept a triple alliance, 182; and report of week-end coup in Danzig, 209; and tripartite negotiations, 273, 296; his plea to Hitler for negotiations with Poland, 344; and Mussolini’s conference pro¬ posals, 364; and question of ultimatum to Germany, 378, 379, 384; becomes Foreign Minister, 388 Dalton, Hugh, Labour MP, 108, 172; his contacts with Maisky, 111; approached by Tilea to support guarantee to Rumania, 139; on overthrow of Chamberlain, 380; informed of ultimatum to Germany, 387 Davies, Joseph E., United States Ambas¬ sador in Brussels, 265 Dawson, Geoffrey, Editor of The Times, 1920, 208 De La Warr, Lord, President of the Board of Education, 38on


Index Deputy Chiefs of Staff, on dangers of losing Tu”cey> 147-8; and Anglo-French-Soviet staff conversations, 282, 292, 295, 304and passage rights for the Red Army’ 3°5_7; on Allied bombardment policy, 3 ao Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft, 58 Dietrich, Dr Otto, Reich Press Chief, and Kemsley visit to Germany, 254-5 Dirksen, Herbert von, German Ambassador in London, and German occupation of Czechoslovakia, 32; debate about a warning to, 210-11; on Hitler as a “very sensible man”, 227; conversation with Halifax, June 16th, 233; on AngloGerman relations, 239; and Wohlthat’s conversations, 249, 251; and Buxton, 252; conversation with Wilson, August 3rd, 256-8, conversation with Halifax, August 9th, 258 & Dominion High Commissioners, meeting with Halifax, February 17th, 52; reasons or rejection of Soviet conference pro¬ posal revealed to, 82; meeting with Inskip, May 23rd, 228; and the “menacing silence , 242; and Hitler’s demand to see a Polish emissary, 357-8 Dorman-Smith, Sir Reginald, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, 38on; and Cabinet “sit-down strike”, 380-1; records Chamberlain saying: “this means war”, 387 Doumenc, General Joseph, head of French military delegation to Moscow, 29m; prefers rah journey to Moscow, 296; and first session of tripartite military talks, ugust 12th, 301-2; and third session, August 14th, 303; presses Voroshilov for declaration of agreed principles, 309; Voroshilov hints at “certain political events to, 312; his final meeting with oroshilov, 313 ; returns to France, 319 ~5a*’ Reginald Aylmer Ranfurly Plunkett-Ernle-Erle-, head of British military delegation to Moscow, more to recommend him than his name, 290-1 • suffers from “mental indigestion”, 294-5 • horrified by slow speed of City of Exeter 296, on the Iron hand in a velvet glove”, 301; and first session of tripartite military talks, August 12th, 301-2; and third session, August 14th, 303; his faux-pas, 3°5 > presses Voroshilov for declaration of agreed principles, 309; his credentials, 3ioj reacts to news of the impending German-Soviet pact, 312; his final meet¬ ing with Voroshilov, 313; returns to London, 318 Duff Cooper, Alfred, Conservative MP x 8


* J


^5^n, Anthony (Lord Avon), Conservative a ^’,atlack.ed by Hitler, 38, 52; urges an nglo-Soviet alliance, 159; and campaign

to bring Churchill into the Cabinet, 237; proposes visiting Moscow, 265 Elliot, Walter, Minister of Health, 38on; supports alliances with Poland and the ussr, 79; his role in the “Tilea affair”, 63; advocates Soviet participation in a deter¬ rent front, 97 Ewer, W. N., diplomatic correspondent. Daily Herald, favours a “lunch at Windsor to Litvinov”, 159-60; briefed by Maisky, 176 Firebrace, Brigadier R. C, British Military Attache in Moscow, 291 First World War, 74, 162, 220 Florescu, Radu, Rumanian Charge d’affaires in London, 122 Foreign Office, 21, 3, 34, 43, 190, 199, 204, a34> 33°> 339> 3^8, 376; and guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 25, 26; convinced Lon¬ don could survive air attack, 44; intel¬ ligence on Hitler analysed by, 47; on Hitler, 50-1; Henderson’s optimism criticised^ by, 54-5; doubtful about Rumania’s survival, 67; on Tilea, 72-3; fears Mussolini might imitate Hitler, 81; rejects Soviet conference proposal, 82; and guarantee to Poland, 103, 105, 107; on British obligations in eastern Europe, I.I7> briefs for Anglo-Polish conversa^,^23-4, 193; and attack against Albania, 129, 132; on Perth, 131; angered by Quai d’Orsay, 140; favours conscrip¬ tion, 141; “Russia is no friend of ours”, H4, 158; on Ewer, 159; and Soviet alliance proposals of April 17th, 162, 163, 167; informant for German government in, i63n; on Molotov’s appointment, 170, 171; and Anglo-French-Soviet negotia¬ tions, 174, 176, 180, 266—7, 268, 279, 299, 305; on Danzig as a “bad casus belli”, 188; seeks intelligence on Beck-Hitler meeting’ 189; on Beck, 192; and “R” code, 2oin| on Gerald Shepherd’s reports, 207; pressed by French government to issue warning to Hitler, 208-9; pleased with results of firm front, 214; enthused with Roosevelt’s Pan American Day address, 221; and denunciation of Anglo-German Naval Agreement, 1935, 225; sensitive to wavering at 10 Downing Street, 226; and a peace initiative”, 231; on Dahlerus, 240-1; and Wohlthat visit to London, 244, a49y5o; its intelligence paper on “GermanSoviet intrigues ,317; and Danzig crisis 322, 326-7; on Kennedy, 335; “Hitler is in a/t °-i ’ 344 ~V> and the nightmare of Munich, 352; and ultimatum to Germany, 373; considers plans for Bonnet’s removal from office, 388 Foreign Office, Central Department, 197



Index Foreign Office, Communications Depart¬ ment, delays deciphering Lindsay’s tele¬ gram, 316-17; reorganisation of, 3170 Foreign Office, News Department, besieged by American correspondents, 34; con¬ siders American press as “largely run by Jews”, 210; on Roosevelt’s appeal to the Axis, 222-3 Foreign Office, Northern Department, and Hitler’s eastward expansionist plans, 42; reactions to Krivitsky’s revelations, 3143D Foreign Office, Southern Department, con¬ vinced Italian plans for Albania “put into cold storage”, 129; on “training an elephant to smash a flee”, 130 Foreign Policy Committee of the Cabinet, meeting of December 7th, 1938, 25; November 14th, 1938, 40; January 26th, 48-9; March 27th, 91-5; March 30th, 107; March 31st, 108-9; April 10th, 135-6, 138-9; May 5th, 173-4, 175; May 16th, 177-8; May 19th, 179-80; July 4th, 2lo¬ an, 272, 277-8; June 13th, 225; June 5th, 264; June 9th, 266-7; June 2°th> 269i June 26th, 270-1; July 10th, 281-2; July 19th, 285-6, 287 Forschungsamt, 35 5n Forster, Albert, Nazi Gauleiter of Danzig, reports Hitler will not provoke Danzig dispute, 214; conversation with Hitler, 321; and sending a German-speaking Englishman to see Hitler, 328 Francis Scott, Lieutenant-Colonel Lord, 221-2 Fremantle, Sir Francis, Conservative MP, 219-20 French general staff, 146, 374 Gafencu, Grigore, Rumanian Foreign Minister, his instructions to Tilea, March 16th, 61; suggests Tilea acted “in an excess of zeal”, 70; Lloyd on, 71; con¬ sidered by Tilea a defeatist, 72; presses for British guarantee to Rumania, 139, 140; his tour of European capitals, 166; advises Chamberlain on British policy towards the ussr, 167 George VI, King, of the United Kingdom, 291,374 Geraldine, Queen, of Albania, 128, 129 German Foreign Ministry, 201, 239, 252, 308, 365; and guarantee to Czecho¬ slovakia, 27; its “reliable source” in the Foreign Office, 163^ 289; and Schnurre’s visit to Moscow, 183; responds to Roose¬ velt’s appeal, 223; steps up pace of nego¬ tiations with the ussr, 297 German general staff, and war on two fronts, 115; information from, alleging secret Hitler-Stalin negotiations, 181; and

plans for a Polish campaign, 195; known in London to despise the Nazi Party, 199200; and Schwerin’s visit to London, 235 German-Polish Non-aggression Treaty, 1934, 199, 224> 365 German-Rumanian commercial agreement, March 23rd, 120 German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact, August 23rd, 262, 346; effect on Allied grand strategy, 150, 151; Molotov sug¬ gests terms for, 307-8; signature of, 310, 313 Gestapo, 19, 257 Gigurtu, Ion, Rumanian industrialist, 72n Gloucester, Duchess of, 220 Godfrey, Admiral J. H., Director of Naval Intelligence, responsible for Schwerin being “properly fed”, 235; receives anony¬ mous message, 237-8; and secret GermanSoviet contacts, 273 Goerdeler, Dr Karl Friedrich, former blirgermeister of Leipzig, forecasts Hit¬ ler’s plans, October-November 1938* 39-40; German attacks against Switzer¬ land, Holland and Belgium predicted by, 45, 46, 49; Sargent on, 57; reports offer from German generals to the ussr, 171; his “Plan for Peace Partnership in Europe”, 230-1; his intelligence on Ger¬ many’s internal difficulties, 345; his last peacetime message, 362 Gordon-Lennox, Victor, diplomatic corre¬ spondent, Daily Telegraph, 139 Goring, Field-Marshal Hermann, German Minister for Air, 207, 336, 338, 345; his relations with Hitler, 40, 201, 351; “People can make what mistakes they like”, 5 5; presses for improved economic relations with the ussr, 155; WennerGren’s conversations with, 239-40; and meeting with English industrialists, 240241; and Wohlthat, 245, 251; “Germany and Russia will not always be enemies”, 274; sends Dahlerus to London, August 25 th, 339-40; Halifax on, 343; meeting with Lipski, 346-7; reports Hitler pre¬ pared to open German-Polish ^ negotia¬ tions, 349, 352; his demands on tne Polish Corridor, 350; leaks sixteen points, 36011, 361; member of the Ministerial Council for the Defence of the Reich, 362; pro¬ posed Smigly-Rydz talks with, 37°» Peace mission to London suggested for, 389 Gort, General Lord, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, H9n> critical of Allied plans to assist Poland, 151 Greenwood, Arthur, deputy Labour Party leader, 108, 113, 379780 Greiser, Arthur, President, Danzig Senate, 320-1:

Gustav Adolf, Crown Prince, of Sweden,



Index Hacha, Dr Emil, Czech President, 32, 364; surrenders Czechoslovakia, 19; heads Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, 21 Haider, General Franz, Chief of the German general staff. Foreign Office warning to, 200—1; warns Hitler against a two-front war> 345 5 and Hitler’s military time-table, 365; informed of Hitler’s diplomatic strategy, 385 Halifax, Lady, 374 Halifax, Lord, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 27, 28, 30, 59, 121, 183, 201, 215, 219, 256, 261, 349, 368; and Czechoslovak ^sis’ i?2-’ 25, 3?~U 53 5 meeting with Mussolini, 26; tipped as Chamberlain’s successor, 35; recommends pause in Anglo-German dialogue, 40-1; on Hitler’s “insane adventures”, 47-8; meeting with Dominion High Commissioners, February I7th, 52; disagrees with Chamberlain’s optimism, 5 6; his doubts about the German moderates, 57; conversation with Tilea, March 17th, 64; on a new method of secu¬ rity, 75, 77, 795 and Soviet conference pro¬ posal, 81—2; “not a very heroic decision”, 83; and Anglo-French conversations, 87, 88; on choosing between Poland and the ussr, 94, 97; and guarantee to Poland, 99, io3~4» in-12, 120, 190, 192, 196, 197-8; and Anglo-Polish conversations, 125-8, 193; and Italian invasion of Albania, 130’ I32~3» 1345 proposes a guarantee to Turkey, 137; conversation with Cretzianu, April 10th, 138; emphasises danger of losing Rumania, 140; approves Allied bombardment policy, 150; on Seeds, 153, 286; favours improving Anglo-Soviet relations, 154, 156, 157; and Maisky, 15815 9> 160-1, 161-2; his reaction to Soviet alliance proposals of April 17th, 163, 166, 167; on prospects for a German-Soviet rapprochement, 172, 175, 267, 269, 270, 272> 275> 282, 285; his loyalty to Cham¬ berlain, 177-8; accepts principle of alliance with the ussr, 179, 182-3, i84> 185; and question of replacing Hen¬ derson, 201-2; meets with Service Ministers, May 25 th, 205; and French request for a warning to Germany on Danzig, 208-11; and Ironside’s mission to Poland, 212; believes Germany is “soft pedalling on Danzig, 213, 214; and the nature of appeasement, 220, 224, 227, 229, 232-3; his Chatham House speech, 233-4; conversation with von Trott, 238-9; Dahlerus first introduced to, 240; prefers the “menacing silence” to Henderson’s “constructive effort for peace”, 242; cautioned about the dangers of economic appeasement, 245; and Wohlthat’s con¬ versations in London, 249—50; Buxton’s conversation with, July 13th, 252^ and

the Kemsley visit to Germany, 254-5; conversation with Dirksen, August 9th, 258; and question of Seeds’ recall to London, 264-5 5 declines invitation to visit Moscow, 265; his views on a simple three power pact, 268-9, 278-9; prepared to risk alienating the Baltic states, 271; and concession to Molotov on Article Six, 281-2,286,288-9 5 conversation with Drax, 295; and tripartite military talks, 304, 311; and Danzig customs dispute, 320-2; “things do not look too good”, 326-7; favours a personal letter from Chamberlain to Hitler, 328-9; appeals to Mus¬ solini for moderation, 330, 348-9; on effects of German-Soviet pact, 331; and Hitler’s communication of August 25 th, 340-1:5 on Dahlerus, 343-4; suggests a Polish approach to Germany, 346, 348; critical of suggested Anglo-German alliance, 3 51; on changes since the Munich conference, 352, 367; and Hitler’s demand to see a Polish emissary, 355-6; refuses to be influenced by Dominion High Com¬ missioners, 357-8; and Mussolini’s con¬ ference proposals, 362-3, 374-5; conver¬ sations with Raczynski and Kordt, September 1st, 368-9; and Cabinet debates on ultimatum to Germany, 370-1, 376-8; informed of “unpleasant scene” in the Commons, 382-3; conversation with Raczynski, September 2nd, 384; his relief after ultimatum despatched, 387-8; re¬ jects Goring’s peace mission to London, 389 Harrison, H. D., News Chronicle journalist, under sentence of expulsion from Berlin, 99; his relations with Colvin, 100-1 Harvey, Oliver, Halifax’s Private Secretary, 250; informs Halifax of German ulti¬ matum to Rumania, 63; favours alliance with the ussr, 182; “ ‘Appeasement’ is rearing its ugly head again”, 225-6; on Hitler’s communication of August 25 th, 34° 5 terrified of another Munich con¬ ference, 345-6 Hassell, Ulrich von, German Ambassador in Rome, 1932-38, 361 Henderson, Sir Nevile, British Ambas¬ sador in Berlin, his recall to London, 30, 3 5; his illness and question of replacing him, 54, 201-2, 241; his mission of AngloGerman reconciliation, 54-5; “Hitler does not contemplate any adventures”, 5 5; on Sirovy mission, 181; German invasion of Poland reported by, 199; instructed to deliver warning to German generals, 200201; Foreign Office debates views of, 202-3 5 suggests mediation in PolishGerman dispute, 204; and militarisation of Danzig, 207; assured by Wilson of Britain s ‘balanced” policy, 226; urges


Index Henderson—cont. Halifax to approach Germany, 232; his plans for a “constructive effort for peace”, 241-2; suspects the “Germans are getting at Stalin”, 274; on German-Soviet rela¬ tions, 281; conversation with Weizsacker, August 16th, 327; suggests secret letter from Chamberlain to Hitler, 328-9; con¬ versation with Hitler, August 23rd, 333; and Hitler’s proposal for a large offer to Britain, 336-7; attends Cabinet meeting, August 26th, 341-2; pleads for re-estab¬ lishment of Warsaw-Berlin contact, 346-8; delivers British reply, 350-1; his stormy interview with Hitler, August 29th, 3 5 3-5; and Ribbentrop’s sixteen points, 358-60, 363, 367; “Malhomme, I do not like war”, 361; and Ministerial Council for the Defence of the Reich, 362; admits failure of his mission, 370; and question of his demanding his passport, 372, 373; de¬ livers British ultimatum, 385, 386-7, 388 Hertzog, General James B. M., South African Prime Minister, 229 Hess, Rudolf, Hitler’s deputy, 362 Hesse, Dr Fritz, press adviser, German Embassy in London, on Hitler’s appease¬ ment policy, 52; conveys secret message from Hitler to Wilson, 258; Wilson re¬ ceives Hitler’s peace plan from, 3 84-5 Hesse, Prince Philip of, son-in-law of King of Italy, 84 Hewel, Walter, liaison officer between Hitler and Ribbentrop, 214 Heywood, Major-General Thomas G. G., member of the British military delegation to Moscow, 291 Hilger, Gustav, Economic Counsellor, German Embassy in Moscow, 276-7, 284 Himmler, Heinrich, head of the ss, 207 Hinsley, Cardinal, Archbishop of West¬ minster, 172 Hitler, Adolf, German Chancellor, 32, 36, 46, 51, 53, 55. 108, 120, 156, 188, 201, 202, 233, 238, 308, 357, 383, 390; and the occupation of Czechoslovakia, 19, 37; his successes and miscalculations, 20; boasts of his “bloodless conquest”, 38; reported as “more and more mad”, 39-40; east¬ ward expansionist plans, 41-2, 153; and aerial bombardment of London, 43; his New Year proclamation, 45; reported intentions of, to attack Holland and Switzerland, 45, 49, 102; his Reichstag speech, January 30th, 51-2, 189; military plans for 1939, 59-60; attempts to pacify Mussolini, 84; and proposals for a German-Polish settlement, March 21st, 90-1; meets with Gafencu, 166; on Molotov’s appointment, 170; his Reich¬ stag speech, April 28th, 171, 198-9, 223-4, 227, 233, 314; rumours of secret agree¬

ment with Stalin, 175, 181, 273-6; meets with Beck at Berchtesgaden, 189; and “Operation White”, 194; reported plans to unite Danzig with the Reich, 195-6, 207; reported changes in his attitude to peace, 213-15; creates a “crisis of con¬ fidence”, 216-17; proposed visit by Baldwin to, 219-20; and the return of Germany’s colonies to, 220-1; question of “free hand” for, 225-6; offers no easy solutions, 227; sends Reichenau to Lon¬ don, 234; addresses Wehrmacht officers. May 23 rd, 235; Schwerin on, 236; Chamberlain seeks proof of good inten¬ tions of, 239-40; deaf to economic con¬ siderations, 246, 247; his invitation to Mackenzie King, 252-3; his reaction to Wohlthat’s conversations in London, 254, 256, 258; and the Kemsley visit to Ger¬ many, 254-5; his secret message to Wilson, 258-9; conversation with Keitel and Brauchitsch, 273; and German-Soviet economic negotiations, 277, 284; con¬ fident the ussr will stand aloof, 298, 300, 326; “would see red”, 307; his telegram to Stalin, August 20th, 310; Krivitsky’s revelations of Stalin’s appeasement of, 314, 315; and Danzig customs dispute, 321; conversation with Burckhardt, August nth, 322-4; wants to see a German-speaking Englishman, 324; de¬ bate in London on approach to, 328-9; Chamberlain’s letter to August 22nd, 332; conversation with Henderson, August 23rd, 333; speaks to his Commanders-inChief, August 22nd, 334; “his last attempt” at a Polish settlement, 336-8, 339, 342; and his six point programme, 342-3; suggested visit by Beck to, 347; Halifax on, 348; agrees to direct GermanPolish conversations, 349; receives reply to his communication of August 25 th, 350-1; his demand to see a Polish emis¬ sary, 354-5, 356; Chamberlain’s interim message to, 357; and Ministerial Council for the Defence of the Reich, 362; his final military time-table, 365-6; proclamation to the German army, September 1st, 368; his Reichstag speech, September 1st, 369, 371; seeks to contain German-Polish con¬ flict, 369-70; and Italian conference pro¬ posals, 374, 378; his approach to Wilson with a peace plan, 384-5; approves Goring’s peace mission to London, 388-9 Hlinka Guard, 21 Hoare, Sir Reginald, British Ambassador in Bucharest, and message from King Carol, 62; impression of Tilea, 66; advises can¬ cellation of Foreign Office inquiries, 70; submits new evidence of German ulti¬ matum to Rumania, 72-3 Hoare, Sir Samuel, British Home Secretary,


Index Hoare—cont. his memoirs. Nine Troubled Years, 93; on Russia as the only effective deterrent to Germany, 93, 97; favours unilateral declaration of support for Greece and Turkey, 134; demands warning to Mus¬ solini, 135; suggests operations against Italy to relieve Poland, 148-9; emphasises Polish need for Soviet armaments, 164; and Soviet alliance proposals of April I7th, 173, 175, 177, 180; speaks in support of Chamberlain’s alliance proposals, 186; his advice on a Danzig emergency, 205; urges tripartite negotiations be kept alive, 285; critical of Seeds, 286 Hore-Belisha, Leslie, Secretary of State for War, promises to assist Rumania, 65; supports Chamberlain’s new policy, 78; favours alliances with Poland and Rumania, 79; and conscription, 98; allegedly refused permission to circulate Chiefs of Staff report, 106; gives Cabinet the latest military information, March 31st, no; “we should lose the war from the start”, 150; on dangerous prospects of a German-Soviet rapprochement, 172; warns military delegation about espionage, 294; and War Office intelligence, 356; Germans are through”, 368; and ques¬ tion of ultimatum to Germany, 377, 386; and Cabinet “sit-down strike”, 38on, 381; on Simon’s mission to 1 o Downing Street 383 Hudson, Robert Spear, Secretary, Depart¬ ment of Overseas Trade, 252, 288; chosen to head trade delegation to Moscow, 154; conversation with Maisky, 156; his search for publicity, 243-4; and an air demonstration for the whaling conference, 244; conversation with Wohlthat, July 20th, 246-7; leaks details of meeting with Wohlthat, 248—9; Chamberlain reveals his true feelings about, 250-1 Ickes, Harold, United States Secretary of State for the Interior, 5 2 Ingram, E. M. B., head of the Southern Department, Foreign Office, exhorted by Tilea to help Rumania, 68; and Roose¬ velt’s appeal to the Axis, 222 Inskip, Sir Thomas (Lord Caldecote), Minister for Co-ordination of Defence, and from January 29th, 1939, Secretary of State for the Dominions, defines British position on the guarantee to Czecho¬ slovakia, 24, 28; an emotional warning from, 120; supports Chamberlain’s soft line with Italy, 135; recommends a renewal of the search for appeasement”, 228-9; on Cabinet Ministers “who see the ghosts of Munich”, 356; takes Dominion High Commissioners’ protests to Halifax,

357-8; and broadcast of sixteen points, 366; describes Chamberlain’s reaction to the Cabinet revolt, 382; his own revolt against a Cabinet decision, 387 Ironside, General Sir W. Edmund, In¬ spector-General of Overseas Forces, his mission to Poland, 212-13; considered as head of British military mission to Mos¬ cow, 290; suggested as bearer of secret letter to Hitler, 328, 331; Dahlerus sug¬ gests mediation by, 370 Ismay, Major-General Hastings, Secretary of the Committee of Imperial Defence, 205-6 Jebb, Gladwyn (Lord Gladwyn), Cadogan’s Private Secretary, and Secret Intelligence Service “tales”, 23; summarises intel¬ ligence regarding Hitler’s intentions, 42; his warning on Hitler’s “incalculability”, 52; conversation with Tilea, March 17th, 64; and Secret Intelligence Service report on Germany’s post-Prague plans, 74; on a reciprocal Anglo-Polish guarantee, 124; receives message from Tilea, 139; reports industrial intelligence assessments of Germany’s oil needs, 140; his plan for a warning to the German general staff, 199200; secretly visits Poland, 203-4; “now wholly anti-appeasement”, 236; instructs MI 5 to follow Reichenau, 234-5 Johnson, Herschel, Counsellor, United States Embassy in London, 99, 222 Joint Planning Sub-committee, considers military implications of guarantees, 96; and British military help to Poland, 151; prepares instructions for military mission to Moscow, 292 Kalinin, Mikhail, Chairman, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, 152 Keitel, General Wilhelm, Chief of the High Command of the Wehrmacht, and direc¬ tives to liquidate Czechoslovakia, 60; issues orders for “Operation White”, 194; Foreign Office plans warning to, 200; and strategic importance of the ussr, 273; told of delay in attack against Poland, 378; member of the Ministerial Council for the Defence of the Reich, 362 Kell, Major-General Sir Vernon, director of MI5, 22 Kemsley, Lord, owner of Allied News¬ papers, negotiates with Hitler, 254-6 Kennard, Sir Howard, British Ambassador in Warsaw, and Poland’s policy of balance, 88; instructed to advise Beck of conditions of guarantee, 109; on Gafencu, i66n; questions Beck about German-Polish negotiations, 189; considers Danzig as Beck’s “Achilles heel”, 190; dismisses rumours about the Becks, 192; conversa¬ tion with Beck, May 10th, 197-8; counters


Index Kennard—coni. Henderson’s views on Poland, 203; con¬ versation with Beck, May 31st, 205-6; his advice on possible Polish-German nego¬ tiations, 209-10; his approaches to Beck on passage of Soviet troops, 307, 311, 312; and Danzig customs dispute, 321-2; and possible visit by Beck to Berlin, 348; on Ribbentrop’s sixteen points, 366; supports appeal for air raids on the western front, 384 Kennedy, A. L., journalist, The Times, i92n Kennedy, Joseph P., United States Ambas¬ sador in London, conversation with Chamberlain, February 17th, 56; briefed by Tilea on the ultimatum to Rumania, 63; favours revision of the neutrality act, 75; his urgent communication, 99; and the Polish guarantee, 111; his advice on British policy towards Albania, 130; reasons for keeping Churchill out of the Cabinet explained to, 237; conversation with Chamberlain, June 9th, 263; Cham¬ berlain confides views on a German-Soviet rapprochement to, 281; “badly jolted”, 334-5; reports bombing of Warsaw, 371 King, Captain John Herbert, cipher clerk in the Communications Department, Foreign Office, arrested on charges of spying, 3i7n King, William Lyon Mackenzie, Canadian Prime Minister, seeks advice on invitation from Hitler, 252-3; Cabinet told of mes¬ sage from, 372 Kirkpatrick, Ivone, Central Department, Foreign Office, his “sensational and rather lunatic little episode”, 43-4; and British defence preparations, 51,52; on Colvin, 99; doubts Hitler will attack Poland, 108; on “chinks in the German armour”, 116; on “inviting the Russians to join the Turf Club”, 172; warns against undue pressure on the Polish government, 196, 197; demands mobilisation, 199; convinced Hitler “will not willingly become a good European”, 215; on Dahlerus, 241, 353; and military mission to Moscow, 290; on Goring’s blackmail, 350; and Hitler’s “illusory promises”, 352 Knatchbull-Hugessen, Sir Hughe, British Ambassador in Ankara, 119, 120, 136 Konigsberg, German cruiser, 207 Kordt, Dr Erich, Senior Counsellor in Ribbentrop’s office, visits London, 274-5 Kordt, Dr Theo, Counsellor, German Embassy in London, and Buxton’s ap¬ peasement plans, 251-2; Butler ap¬ proached by, 256-8; brother of Erich, 275; and Ciano’s visit to Germany, 326; con¬ versation with Halifax, September 1st, 369, 371 Kxivitsky, W. G., former chief of Soviet

military intelligence. Western Europe, his revelations on German-Soviet negotia¬ tions, 314-15 Kurd, Lee, Albanian Minister in London, 132 Kuznetsov, N. G., Soviet Commissar for the Navy, 30m Labour Party, and conscription, 98; Cham¬ berlain sees leaders of, 113; Advisory Committee on International Questions of, 251; Maisky uses contacts in, 290 Layton, Sir Walter, Editor, News Chronicle, 99, 100 League of Nations, meeting of the Council of, 181-2; Article XVI of covenant of, 186, 187; Danzig guaranteed by, 188; Januaty meetings of, 189; Goerdeler sug¬ gests replacement for, 231; and AngloFrench alliance proposals, May 25 th, 260, 269 Lebrun, Albert, French President, 87 Leith-Ross, Sir Frederick, Chief Economic Adviser, Foreign Office, “I like M. Tilea”, 68; works on a secret “Peace Aims” plan, 231; his commercial mission to Rumania, 244 Lelong, General A., French Military Attache in London, and Anglo-French staff conversations, 145, 146 Liddell, Alvar, bbc announcer, 389 Lindsay, Sir Ronald, British Ambassador in Washington, reports American fears of an imminent crisis, 53; telegraphs American intelligence of German-Soviet negotia¬ tions, 316; his telegram delayed, 317 Lipski, Jozef, Polish Ambassador in Berlin, and German proposals of March 21st, 90-1; his warning against a final break with Germany, 124; conversation with Goring, August 24th, 346-7; avoids Henderson, 354; and Henderson-Ribbentrop conversation, August 3oth~3ist, 3 5 9-62; his final meeting with Ribbentrop, 364-5

Litvinov, Maxim, Soviet Foreign Minister until May 3rd, 1939, 162; receives Seeds, 152; “gestures and tactical manoeuvres”, 156; threatens Moscow will “stand apart”, 158; foreign reactions to his alliance proposals, April 17th, 166; his dismissal, 168-70; rejects Hudson’s re¬ quest to interview Stalin, 244 Loktionov, A. D., Chief of the Soviet Air Force, 30m Lloyd, Lord, President of the British Council, writes Halifax in support of Tilea, 71-2; presses for British guarantee to Rumania, 139; visited by Schlabrendorff, 235 Lloyd George, David, British Prime Minister, 1919-22, conversation with

Index Lloyd George—cont.. Chamberlain, March 31st, 112, 115; Chamberlain on, 154-5; and the AngloFrench-Soviet negotiations, 159, 288; on Butler, 218 Loraine, Sir Percy, British Ambassador in Ankara, and from May 1939, Ambassador in Rome, his suggestions for improving Anglo-Turkish relations, 118; and warn¬ ing to court circles in Rome, 200; and telegram encouraging Mussolini’s restrain¬ ing efforts, 329-30; and question of direct Polish-German negotiations, 346, 347; “Italy will not fight”, 366 Lothian, Lord, British Ambassador in Washington from August 1939, 238 Lubomirski, Prince, Polish Charge d’Affaires in Berlin, conversation with Weizsacker, August 9th, 321; his mission to Warsaw, 360 Lukasiewicz, Juliusz, Polish Ambassador in Paris, 305 Lyons, J. A., Australian Prime Minister, suggests a Munich-type conference, 357 MacDonald, Malcolm, Secretary of State for the Colonies, warns of the dangers of German-Soviet co-operation, 166, 173-4; on how the Germans make up their minds, 377; confirms accounts of Cabinet revolt, 38on Macnab, Geoffrey, British Military Attache in Bucharest, 73 Maisky, Ivan, Soviet Ambassador in Lon¬ don, and German ultimatum to Rumania, 65; assures Tilea of Soviet support, 68; and Soviet conference proposal, 81-2; his lobbying activities, 111; on Soviet atti¬ tude to Polish guarantee, 112; and the Lloyd George-Chamberlain conversation, March 31st, 115; briefs Boothby, 153; on Soviet foreign policy, 155-6; critical of British foreign policy, 15 8-9, 162, 287-8; proposes inviting Litvinov to London, 159-60; conversation with Halifax, April nth, 161-2; on Soviet policy towards Rumania, 161-2; on the “key” to Euro¬ pean security, 163; reassures Halifax about Litvinov’s dismissal, 168; at secret conference in the Kremlin, 169; conver¬ sation with Ew^er, May 10th, 176; con¬ versations with Vansittart, May 16th, 17th, 178-9; briefs Churchill. 180; meets Halifax in Geneva, 182-3; Chamberlain’s suspicions of, 237; invites Halifax to Moscow, 265-6; and Anglo-French-Soviet military talks, 290, 291-2; his reaction to the German-Soviet pact, 312 Makins, Roger (Lord Sherfield), Central Department, Foreign Office, his views on the breakup of Czechoslovakia, 23; and Germany’s reply to the guarantee pro¬


posals, 27; impressed by Polish firmness, 190, 196; on Danzig, 202-3; his meeting with Burckhardt, June nth, 234; on Poland’s precipitate action, 322; on Lipski-Goring meeting, 347; “Dahlerus should now be treated with caution”, 355; on Smigly-Rydz mission to Berlin, 370 Malaxa, Nicolae, Rumanian industrialist, jzn Malhomme, Henryk, First Secretary, Polish Embassy in Berlin, Henderson’s con¬ fidences to, 361 Malkin, Sir William, Legal Adviser, Foreign Office, and guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 28; suggested as “expert adviser” to assist Seeds, 264; and ultimatum to Germany, 387 Margesson, Captain David, Conservative Chief Whip, invites Lloyd George to confer with Chamberlain, 115; Churchill’s wish to enter Cabinet known to, 236 Mason-MacFarlane, Colonel F. N., British Military Attache in Berlin, 108, 200; analyses military possibilities for 1939, for 1939, 46; confirms report of prepara¬ tions for attack on Poland, 101; “War, and war now”, 116 Massey, Vincent, Canadian High Com¬ missioner in London, 228 Maugham, Lord, Lord Chancellor, and guarantee to Poland, 104; “The Greeks are a tricky people”, 135; on Danzig, 191 Medici, Marchese, Italian Under-Secretary of State, 84 Meissner, Dr, official of the German Propaganda Ministry, 214 Merekalov, Alexei, Soviet Ambassador in Berlin, 169, 171 Metaxas, General Ioannis, Greek Prime Minister, 133 MI 5, counter-intelligence service, reports views of Hesse, 52; reports Hitler has “cold feet”, 214; and Reichenau visit to London, 234-5 Mikoyan, Anastas, Soviet Trade Com¬ missar, and German-Soviet economic negotiations, 277, 284 Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (British), 244 Ministry of Supply (British), 141 Molotov, Vyacheslav, Soviet Foreign Minister from May 4th, 1939, replaces Litvinov, 168; his qualifications to nego¬ tiate with Berlin, 170; cross-examines Seeds, 174; reiterates Soviet alliance pro¬ posals, May 14th, 175; conversation with Schulenburg, May 20th, 183; rejects Anglo-French alliance proposals of May 25th, 261; submits Soviet alliance pro¬ posals, June 2nd, 262; on treating the Russians “as simpletons and fools”, 268; and question of “indirect” aggression.

Index Molotov—cont. 271-2, 278-9, 299; on Article Six, 280; accuses Western Allies of being “swind¬ lers and cheats”, 283; his ultimatum dis¬ cussed in London, 285-7; demands opening of military conversations, 288-9; conversation with Schulenburg, August 3rd, 298-9; outlines possible GermanSoviet agreement, 307-8; invites Ribbentrop to Moscow, 310; and signature of German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact, 313; and Roosevelt’s warning to Stalin, 316 Morrison, William Shepherd, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, H9n, 38on; sup¬ ports Chamberlain’s soft line with Italy, 135; on the prospects of a German-Soviet rapprochement, 174; and the tripartite negotiations, 178 Munich conference, September z^th-^oth, 1938, 38, 44, 60, 153, 155, 196, 219, 238, 291, 380 Mussolini, Benito, Italian Prime Minister, 51, 56, 60, 136, 219; meeting with Cham¬ berlain and Halifax, 26; Chamberlain’s communications to, 81, 83, 211; shaken by occupation of Chechoslovakia, 84, 129; replies to Chamberlain’s letter, 85; in¬ formed of guarantee to Poland, 111; and the invasion of Albania, 128, 134; “the British are readers of the Bible”, 131; and Italian neutrality, 150; and Roosevelt’s appeal, 223; and Ciano’s visit to Germany, 324-5; his proposals for a conference, 326, 362-4, 374, 385; his moderating inclina¬ tions encouraged, 329-30; Hitler’s con¬ fidence in, 334; deserts Hitler, 338; advises immediate contact between War¬ saw and Berlin, 346-7; and broadcast of sixteen points, 3 66; abandons his peace efforts, 378 Naggiar, Paul Emile, French Ambassador in Moscow, receives Soviet alliance pro¬ posals, June 2nd, 262; meetings with Molotov, June 15th, 16th, 268; conversa¬ tion with Molotov, July 1st, 271; meet¬ ings with Molotov, July 8th, 9th, 279; and Article Six, 283, 288; informed of termination of tripartite negotiations, 314 Narkomindel, 173, 297, 298, 308; instructs Babarin to return to Moscow, 284; and Wohlthat’s London visit, 287-8 National Council of Labour, 271 Newall, Air Chief Marshal Sir Cyril L. N., Chief of Air Staff, on engaging Germany in a two-front war, 119, 146, 148; anxious to implement the guarantee to Poland, 377 News Chronicle, 99, 101, 248 Nicholas II, Tsar, of Russia, 160 Nichols, Philip, Southern Department, Foreign Office, conversation with Tilea,


March 10th, 68; on Italian foreign policy, 84 Nicolson, Harold, National Labour MP, on Chamberlain as “an astonishing and per¬ plexing old boy”, 50; alleges influence of Wilson being revived, 236; and Cham¬ berlain’s “moral agony”, 373 Noble, Sir Andrew, Southern Department, Foreign Office, on Italian readiness to do a deal, 84; “Italy is not going to pounce on Albania”, 129 Noel, L6on, French Ambassador in War¬ saw, and passage of Soviet troops through Poland, 307, 312; his tactful indiscretion, 377 Norton, Clifford, Counsellor, British Embassy in Warsaw, 208, 320 Ogilvie-Forbes, Sir George, Counsellor, British Embassy in Berlin, on Colvin, 100101; intended Danzig coup reported by, 195; accompanies Dahlerus to see Lipski, 361-2 Oliphant, Sir Lancelot, head of the Eastern Department, Foreign Office, reports Secret Intelligence Service views on ussr, 97n; on an Anglo-Turkish alliance, 121; on Hitler, 215 Oumansky, Constantine, Soviet Ambas¬ sador in Washington, 315 Peake, Charles, News Department, Foreign Office, 34 Perth, Lord, British Ambassador in Rome until April 1939, anxious to improve Anglo-Italian relations, 84-5; and Italian invasion of Albania, 130-1; on the creation of a “democratic Bolshevik front”, 157 Phillips, Rear Admiral Tom, Deputy Chief of Naval Staff from May 1939, 148 Phipps, Sir Eric, British Ambassador in Paris, discovers source for reported week¬ end coup in Danzig, 208; conveys Roose¬ velt’s message to London, 209; and Bullitt’s views on the tripartite nego¬ tiations, 267; instructed to bolster up Bonnet, 374 Polish Foreign Ministry, 205, 305 Polish general staff, 305 Polish-Rumanian Treaty of Alliance, 1931, 167



Polish-Soviet Non-aggression Treaty, 1932, D3 Popescu, General, First Deputy Chief, Rumanian general staff, 73-4 Potemkin, Vladimir, Deputy Soviet Foreign Minister, mission to south-east Europe, 169-70; visit to League cancelled, 182; denies report of Schnurre visit to Moscow, 183-4; and Anglo-French alliance pro¬ posals, May 25 th, 260; acts as interpreter, 268

Index Pound, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley, Mediterranean Commander-in-Chief, and from July 1939, Chief of Naval Staff, 132, 290

piece of Judah”, 58; agrees to resume Anglo-American naval talks, 82; approves of British guarantee to Poland, 111; and the invasion of Albania, 133; and the Danzig dispute, 209-10; his Pan American Day address, April 14th, 221; his “Satur¬ day surprise”, 221-3, 231; rejects Davies’ request to visit Moscow, 265; intelligence on German-Soviet negotiations available to, 314; his warning to Stalin, 315-16 Royal Air Force, 214, 236, 295 Runciman, Lord, Lord President of the Council, 204 Rushcliffe, Lord, 226 Ryan, Sir Andrew, British Minister in Durazzo, 132

Quai d’Orsay, recommends protest against occupation of Czechoslovakia, 34; its fluctuating moods, 139-40; and AngloFrench-Soviet negotiations, 162, 167, 173; on Polish-Soviet military co-operation, 305 Raczynski, Count Edward, Polish Ambas¬ sador in London, proposes “confidential bilateral understanding”, 89-90; on Beck’s London visit, 1936, 123; his assurances regarding Beck, 190-1; suggests preven¬ tive demarche, 322; conversations with Halifax, August 25 th, 26th, 348; conversation with Halifax, September 1st, 368-9, 371; Cabinet hears message from, 377; inquires about British ultimatum to Germany, 384 Raeder, Admiral Erich, Commander-inChief of the German Navy, 345 Reichenau, General Walther von, Com¬ mander of the Army district at Leipzig, and from August 1939, Chief of the German general staff, his mission to London, 234-5 Ribbentrop, Joachim von, German Foreign Minister, 40, 251, 273, 321, 351; visits Paris, 26; convinced England could be blackmailed, 45; on anti-German attitude of America, 55; relations with Conwell Evans, 57-8; conversations with Lipski, March 21st, 26th, 90-1; Biddle’s report on, 99; meeting with Gafencu, 166; conversa¬ tion with Beck, January 6th, 189; on Chamberlain’s Polish policy, 199; and Tennant, 253; and negotiations with the ussr, 298-9, 308-9, 310, 313, 333, 336; suspicious of Dahlerus, 353; conversation with Henderson, August 29th, 355; and the sixteen points, 358-9; conversation with Lipski, August 31st, 364-5, 367; and Anglo-French communication, September Ist> 373 > instructs Hesse to see Wilson, 385; and British ultimatum, 386, 388 Roberts, Frank, Central Department, Foreign Office, “no smoke without fire”, 101; on Britain’s ability to call Germany’s bluff, 116; accompanies Strang to Moscow, 268; on the “bogy” of a German-Soviet rapprochement, 273; on Lindsay’s delayed telegram, 317; and Goring’s planned flight to London, 389 Roosevelt, Franklin D., United States President, 51, 60, 75, 173, 237, 267; will support the democracies, 48n; “might be obliged to cut short his vacation”, 53; described by Ribbentrop as “the mouth¬

Saracoglu, Siikrii, Turkish Foreign Minis¬ ter, 120 Sargent, Sir Orme, Assistant Under¬ secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, his views on the guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 28; opposes a “free hand”for Germany in eastern Europe, 42; Goerdeler criticised by, 57; conversation with Tilea, March 16th, 61-2; and Chamberlain’s Birming¬ ham speech, 62; and Tilea’s report of March 17th, 65; conversation with Tilea, March 14th, 69; receives Kennedy’s ur¬ gent communication, 99; on alliances with Greece and Turkey, 121; Cadogan critical of, 122-3; doubtful of Italian move against Albania, 129; “we cannot stand on the Albanian front”, 131; proposes calling the Soviet bluff, 160; refers Anglo-Soviet draft alliance to the Chiefs of Staff, 176; fearful of treating Beck to another Munich, 195; on built-in safeguards of the Polish guarantee, 198; his plan to “plant” warnings on Nazi agents, 200; and the Scandinavian mediation scheme, 206; sup¬ ports Kennard, 209; and the Ironside mission to Poland, 212; warns against signs of British weakness, 215; on dilemma of supporting the German moderates, 231-2; and “le silence mena$ant”, 241; and the Hudson-Wohlthat conversation, 249-50; “a bad oversight in the Communications Department”, 317; on Germany’s secret negotiations with the ussr, 318; on Goring’s blackmail, 350; critical of Hitler, 352; on Dahlerus, 353; believes a “Palace revolution” has occur¬ red in Berlin, 362; on Bonnet as the “villain of the piece”, 388; convinced “Hitler wanted his pretext”, 390 Schacht, Hjalmar, German Finance Minis¬ ter, until January 1939, 39 Schairer, Dr Reinhold, educationalist, meetings with Goerdeler, November 6th—7th, 1938, 39-40; threat to Holland and Switzerland reported by, 49; and


Index Sehairer—cont. Goerdeler’s intelligence on Germany’s internal problems, 345 Schlabrendorff, Fabian, lawyer, 235 Schmidt, Dr Paul, Hitler’s interpreter, and his stormiest interview, 3 5 8-9; handed Britain’s ultimatum, 388 Schnurre, Julius, Economic Policy Depart¬ ment, German Foreign Ministry, his alleged visit to Moscow, 183, 184; con¬ versation with Babarin, July 18th, 284, 287; conversation with Astakhov and Babarin, July 26th, 296-7; encouraged by Astakhov, 298-9; on benefits to the USSR of a treaty with Germany, 300 Schulenburg, Count Friedrich von der, German Ambassador in Moscow, 183, 316; fails to conciliate Molotov, 277; instructed to resume discussions in Mos¬ cow, 289; conversation with Molotov, August 3rd, 297-9, 300; Molotov pro¬ poses treaty to, 307-8; and Ribbentrop’s visit to Moscow, 310 Schwerin, Lieutenant-Colonel Count Ger¬ hard von, Intelligence Department, Ger¬ man War Ministry, knowrn in London as “one of our sources of information”, 235; his mixed bag of suggestions, 236; delivers anonymous message, 237-8; his mission to Danzig, 332 Second World War, 117, 291, 368 Secret Intelligence Service (sis), 23, 41, 44, 52, 57, 59, 97n; produces disturbing information on Nazi leaders, 3 8; defended by Cadogan, 53-4; on Germany’s hostile intentions towards Rumania, 73, 74; con¬ firms date for German attack on Poland, 101; on Germany’s internal weaknesses, 116; and advance warning of the invasion of Albania, 129; and Goerdeler, 171; Danzig coup reported by, 199; “We would not be fighting only for Danzig”, 204; reports Hitler “faltering”, 214; believes Ribbentrop replaced by Goring, 339 Seeds, Sir William, British Ambassador in Moscow from January 1939, his back¬ ground, 152-3; conversation with Lit¬ vinov, January 26th, 155; excited at pros¬ pects for his appointment, 156-7; and Litvinov’s complaints about the Polish guarantee, 158, 159; urges a new approach to Moscow, 161; and Soviet alliance proposals, April 17th, 162-3; his retro¬ spective reflections, 164; and Litvinov’s dismissal, 171-2, 174; and further AngloSoviet exchanges, 174-5; invites Soviet representative to Geneva, 182; and Schurre’s alleged visit to Moscow, 183— 184; submits Anglo-French alliance pro¬ posals, May 25th, 260-1; his views on a German-Soviet rapprochement, 262, 274; his recall to London cancelled, 264-5 > on

Strang’s mission, 266n; conversation with Molotov, June 16th, 268; urges guarantee of Baltic states, 270; and question of “indirect” aggression, 272; meetings with Molotov, July 8th, 9th, 279; and Article Six, 280, 287, 288-9; conversation with Molotov, July 17th, 283; becomes the scapegoat of the negotiations, 286; “our negotiations have received severe set¬ back”, 299; succeeds in altering instruc¬ tions for military mission, 304; and the German-Soviet pact, 312, 313; informed of termination of tripartite negotiations, 314; and American intelligence on the German-Soviet negotiations, 316, 317; “left holding the beastly baby”, 319 Selzam, Dr Ewart von. Counsellor, German Embassy in London, 345 Shaposhnikov, B. M., Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, 30m Shepherd, Francis Michie, British ConsulGeneral in Danzig from July 10th, 1939, replaces Gerald Shepherd, 207; on Danzig disputes, 320; Cabinet receives message from, 332; on Warsaw’s fatal step, 390 Shepherd, Gerald, British Consul-General in Danzig, reports tension in Danzig, 199; “rumours of an impending coup”, 206; question of his leave, 207 Sidor, Dr Karel, Slovak Premier, 21 Siegfried Line, 145 Simon, Sir John, Chancellor of the Ex¬ chequer, 78, 80, 104, 133, 38on; and con¬ scription debate, 98; favours unilateral guarantees for Greece and Turkey, 134; hedges on guarantee to Rumania, 139; “we are all in the same boat”, 369; his statement to the Commons cancelled, 375; puts rebel Ministers’ case to Chamberlain, 381-2; reveals Chamberlain’s precarious position to Corbin, 383 Simopoulos, Charalambos, Greek Minister in London, 65, 122 Sinclair, Admiral Sir Hugh (“C”), head of the Secret Intelligence Service, on “alarmist rumours put forward by Jews and Bolshevists”, 5 3; assesses the ussr, 97n; conversation with Drax, 294-5; confirms Goerdeler’s intelligence, 345; on the Ministerial Council for the Defence of the Reich, 362 Sirovy, General Jan, Czech Minister of Defence, allegedly acting as intermediary between Hitler and Stalin, 181, 18in Situation Report Centre, meeting of July 25th, 295 . Slessor, Group-Captain John, Director of Plans, Air Ministry, 146 Smigly-Rydz, Marshal Edward, Polish Commander-in-Chief, and the Ironside mission, 212-13; mission to Berlin pro¬ posed for, 370

Index Smorodinov, I. V., Deputy Chief of the Soviet General Staff, 30m Society of Friends, 252 Soviet Commissariat of Foreign Trade, 287 Spanish Civil War, 44, 56, 131 Speaight, Richard, Central Department, Foreign Office, fails to find evidence for reported Danzig coup, 108 Spears, Brigadier-General Edward, Union¬ ist MP, 379 Stalin, Joseph, Communist Party Secretary, “chestnuts out of the fire”, 156; reasons for dismissing Litvinov, 168; rumours of secret agreement with Fiitler, 175, 181, 273-6; Hudson’s request for interview with, 244; Ribbentrop proposes visit to, 307; his telegram to Hitler, 310; and signature of German-Soviet pact, 313; Krivitsky’s revelations on, 314; Roose¬ velt’s warning to, 315-16 Stanley, Oliver, President of the Board of Trade, 80, 93, 173, 38on; his visit to Berlin, 30, 33, 244; demands warning to Mussolini, 135; urges protection for Rumania, 137; and Anglo-French-Soviet negotiations, 177, 278; on difficulties of further appeasement, 229 State Department (American), and Davies’ projected mission to Moscow, 265; warns British Embassy of German-Soviet rap¬ prochement, 314, 316; on Krivitsky revelations, 315 Steinhardt, Laurence, United States Ambas¬ sador in Moscow, on Seeds, 312; and Roosevelt’s warning to Stalin, 316 Stevenson, R. C. Skrine, Secretary, Situa¬ tion Report Centre, 295 Strang, William (Lord Strang), head of the Central Department, Foreign Office, his views on the guarantee to Czechoslovakia, 27; “not defiance or deference”, 51; on News Chronicle journalists, 100-1; on Soviet foriegn policy, 158; favours alliance with the ussr, 182; recalls precise implications of Polish guarantee, 194; “we really mean business”, 201; origins of his mission to Moscow, 264-5 5 his first Kremlin encounter, 267-8; and his return to London, 286, 299; advises on head of military delegation to Moscow, 290; Molotov on, 308; on Hitler-Burckhardt conversation, August nth, 324; conversa¬ tion with Selzam, August 26th, 345; prepares draft of telegram to Beck, August 31st, 367 Strategic Appreciation Sub-committee, meeting of March 17th, 119; members of, ii9n; meeting of April nth, 136 Suritz, Yakov, Soviet Ambassador in Paris, 161, 173, 268, 283; “We must expose this game”, 288; analyses French military delegation, 291-2

Syers, Cecil, Chamberlain’s Principal Private Secretary, 323 Sylvester, A. J., Lloyd George’s Private Secretary, 112

Tass, Soviet news agency, 174 Tatarescu, Georges, Rumanian Ambassador in Paris, 71, 72n Territorial Army, 98, 141 The Times, leader of April 1st, 192; “striking the defeatist note”, 226; notice in, re¬ garding Wohlthat, 249 Tennant, Ernest W. D., British business¬ man, visits Ribbentrop to settle AngloGerman differences, 253-4 Tilea, Viorel Virgil, Rumanian Minister in London, 80, 122, 137; his mysterious telephone call, 61; conversation with Sar¬ gent, March 16th, 61-2; briefs Kennedy, 63; conversations with Halifax and Cadogan, March 17th, 64; discusses Soviet assistance with Jebb, 64; disseminates news of German ultimatum, 64-5; his background, 66-7; conversations with Foreign Office officials, 68; conversation with Sargent, March 14th, 69; crossexamined by Cadogan, 70-1; enlists Lloyd’s assistance, 71-2; his informant, 72n; conversation with Cadogan, April 7th, 128; and Cretzianu’s visit to London, 138; secures British guarantee to Rumania,

^39 Tiso, Dr Josef, Slovak Premier from March 1939, 21 Trades Union Congress, 142 Treasury (British), 67, 249 Trott zu Solz, Adam von, conversations at Cliveden, 238; meets Chamberlain, 239 Turkish general staff, 147

Valin, General, member of French military delegation to Moscow, 29m Vansittart, Sir Robert, Chief Diplomatic Adviser to the Foreign Secretary, 46, 47, 60, 236, 244, 358; urges a more resolute condemnation of Czech coup, 33-4; recommends Roosevelt speak out, 48; reports Hitler will thrust westwards, 49; on Henderson’s “dangerous rubbish”, 5 5; keeps alive danger of German aggression, 57-9; supports Tilea, 64-5, 73; accused of inventing German ultimatum to Rumania, 70; arranges theatrical entertainments, 87; “the trouble about Maisky”, 111; on the effects of unco-ordinated Allied grand strategy, 150; plans to improve AngloSoviet relations, 154; conversations with Maisky, May 16th, 17th, 178-9; his intel¬ ligence on the Sirovy mission, 181; in secret contact with Wohlthat, 183, 24411;


Index Vansittart—cont. on Henderson, 203; “only deeds would henceforth count”, 211; sceptical of Hitler’s intentions, 214; on Buccleuch, 219; on Goerdeler, 230; pleads for reserve fleet excercises, 236; on Hudson-Wohlthat conversation, 250; receives intelligence from the German moderates, 274; reports “Hitler has chosen war”, 328; critical of suggested Anglo-German alliance, 351 Versailles Peace Treaty, 1919, 220, 228, 251, 363 Victor Emmanuel III, King, of Italy, 84 Victoria, Queen, of the United Kingdom, 62 Volkischer Beobacbter, 70 Voroshilov, Marshal Klement, Soviet Defence Commissar, and first session of tripartite military talks, August 12th, 301- 2; and second session, August 13th, 302- 3; and third session, August 14th, 303; demands passage rights for the Red Army, 304-7, 309; postpones talks, 310; hints at “certain political events”, 312; confirms termination of military talks, 313 Wallace, Captain Euan, Minister of Trans¬ port, 38on; on Cabinet mood, August 24th, 335; “Our own people were flab¬ bergasted”, 379; and Cabinet revolt, 385 War Office (British), convinced London could survive air attack, 44; on Hitler’s fighting machine, 53; on German troop concentrations in the west, 102-3; intel¬ ligence on German plans to attack Poland, 106, 107, non, 356; and Italian invasion of Albania, 129-30; favours conscription, 141; German-Soviet relations assessed by Intelligence Department of, 275-6; on Danzig, 327 Ware, Sir Fabian, deputy head of MI 5, 43 Warspite, 132 Water, Charles te. South African High Commissioner in London, and a renewal of appeasement, 228 Waterlow, Sir Sydney, British Minister in Athens, 133 Weizsacker, Ernst von, German Secretary of State, 171, 201, 239, 364; conversation with Merekalov, April 17th, 169; advises London to maintain “un silence menagant”, 234, 241; requests Kordt to return to Berlin, 256; and German-Soviet com¬ mercial negotiations, 277; his warning about Danzig, 321; conversation with Henderson, August 16th, 327; and Schwerin’s mission to Danzig, 332; wit¬ nesses Hitler’s bullying of Henderson, 334; conversation with Hitler, August 24th, 336; Lipski seeks meeting with, 347; circulates the sixteen points, 366 Welczeck, Count Johannes von, German Ambassador in Paris, 209

Welles, Sumner, United States Under¬ secretary of State, conversation with Lindsay, February 16th, 53; reveals American intelligence of German-Soviet negotiations, 316 Wenner-Gren, Axel L., Swedish business¬ man, attempts to mediate between Britain and Germany, 239-40 Wenninger, Lieutenant-General R.FA., German Air Attache in London, 296 Wernher, Sir Harold, Chairman, Electrolux Ltd., recommends Dahlerus to Halifax, 24on Wiedemann, Captain Fritz, Hitler’s con¬ fidant, 45 n Wildman, Thomas, British Consul in Bremen, warns of possible German attack against Poland, 101 Willaume, Captain, member of French military delegation to Moscow, 29m Wilson, Sir Horace, Chief Industrial Adviser to the British government, 31, 54, 76, 82, 86, 132, 252, 376, 383; and con¬ scription debate, 98; fears some “ ‘mad dog’ act” by Hitler, 103; summarises War Office intelligence, 107-8; Ministry of Supply favoured by, 141; and British alliance proposals to Moscow, May 25 th, 186-7; Buccleuch’s letter to, 219; “our policy is a balanced one”, 226; conversa¬ tion with Wohlthat in June, 245; con¬ versation with Wohlthat, July 18 th, 245-6, 256; denies any further meeting with Wohlthat, 247-8; reproached by Dirksen, 249; his conversation with Wohlthat concealed, 250-1; briefs Ten¬ nant, July 24th, 253; and Kemsley’s visit to Germany, 254-5; conversation with Dirksen, August 3rd, 256-8; Hitler’s secret message to, 258-9; prepares Britain for the worst, 330; Harvey’s suspicions of, 345-6; and Hitler’s demand to see a Polish emissary, 355, 356; tells Dahlerus “to shut up”, 363; and broadcast of six¬ teen points, 366; conversation with Hesse, September 3rd, 384-5 Wohlthat, Helmut, economic adviser, German four-year plan, 287, 288; re¬ vealed as Vansittart’s informant, 183, 244n; and economic appeasement, 245; conversation with Wilson, July 18th, 245-6; conversation with Hudson, July 20th, 246; submits records of conversa¬ tions to Goring, 246-7; his talks with Hudson leaked, 248-51; Berlin’s reaction to his talks, 254, 256 Wood, Sir Kingsley, Secretary of State for Air, 104, 38on Young, Arthur Primrose, industrial manager, meetings with Goerdeler at Schaffhausen, October 15th, 1938, 39; at

45 5

Index Young—cont. Zurich, December 4th, London, March 16th, 230




Zetland, Marquess of. Secretary of State for

India and Burma, and guarantee to Poland * 104, 107; summoned to midnight Cabinet meeting, 386 Zog, King, of Albania, flees to Greece, 128, Ciano on, 129

(Continued from front flap)

the war—but it is also a breathtaking and terrifying narrative, a kind of modern Greek tragedy, shot through with terrible ironies, personal confronta¬ tions, and desperate last-minute attempts to post¬ pone or avoid the inevitable.

In the words of the author: "The secrets, the unexplained events, and the missing details of a contentious period in his¬ tory can now be disclosed after almost thirtyfive years. . . .Here is revealed Britain’s speedy disillusionment with the euphoria of the Munich conference, the subsequent plans to hasten re¬ armament, and the intelligence sources and im¬ pact of the previously underestimated war scares of January 1939.... "With fresh perspectives from new evidence it is possible for example to understand the fail¬ ure of Allied grand strategy to offer direct mili¬ tary assistance to Poland, or to evaluate how intelligence about the attempts by the German and Soviet governments to negotiate secretly a treaty forced the British and French to continue their own alliance discussions with the Soviet Union. It is possible to destroy such myths as British culpability for the outbreak of appease¬ ment in July, or the long-held view that the British government would have reached a set¬ tlement with Germany

at the expense


Poland. And finally, the full story can be told of how a Cabinet revolt at No. 10 Downing Street on the night of September 2nd brought the British and French governments into the Second World War."

Author’s photograph by Jerry Bauer Jacket design by Wendell Minor

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